Glendowers Revolt

Owen Glendower

Owen Glendower was a wealthy land owner in north Wales. A dispute over land between Glendower and his rival Lord Grey escalated and involved Henry IV, the King of England, who took the side of Grey. Glendower and his followers rose up in revolt against the English.

Edmund Mortimer originally was on the side of the English king, but was defeated and captured by Glendower at the Battle of Pilleth. Glendower held Mortimer for ransom but Henry IV refused to pay anything for his release. Mortimer's loyalties changed and he supported Glendower's rebellion and even married Glendower's daughter. Mortimer was killed when the rebellion failed.

Henry (Hotspur) Percy was the son of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. The Percy family had helped Henry IV take the English throne. Hotspur was given the job of assisting Prince Henry defeat Owen Glendower. A dispute arose between Hotspur and Henry IV when Henry refused to pay the wages of Hotspur's army so Hotspur left Wales and returned to Northumbria. Later Hotspur came to an agreement with Glendower and together they attempted to remove Henry IV from power. Hotspur was killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403.

English

Henry IV, King of England got involved with the dispute over land between Glendower and Lord Grey. The dispute escalated and Henry sent an army into north Wales to deal with Glendower. The English army was unable to put down the revolt. The King gave his young son, Prince Henry, the task of dealing with the rebels.

Prince Henry was the future King of England Henry V. His father, Henry IV, gave the young prince the job of putting down the rebellion. Initially Prince Henry was supported by Henry 'Hotspur' Percy. Prince Henry took control of the English armies in North Wales and lead the fight against the Welsh and Glendower.

Timeline

1400 Aug Glyndwr's revolt starts
   What started as a land dispute between Owain Glyndwr, a wealthy land owner in Wales and his rival Lord Grey of Rutin quickly escalated to a revolt when the English King Henry IV sided with Rutin and awarded him the land.
Oct Henry fights back against Glyndwr
   Henry IV moved into North Wales to try and stop the rebellion but he was not able to deal with the Welsh rebels who were more skilled at fighting in the terrain.
1401 Hotspur takes control in North Wales
   Henry IV gave his son Prince Henry, the future Henry V, the task of defeating Glyndwr in North Wales. As the boy was only 13 years old, Hotspur a knight and jouster of importance was given the role of guardian over the Prince. Hotspur was the son of Henry Percy the Earl of Northumberland.
Jun Hotspur resigns
   After accusing the king of not paying his army, Hotspur resigned his guardianship of the king's son in North Wales and he left to resume fighting the Scots.
1402 Henry IV assembles an army
   The king assembled an army at Shrewsbury Castle in preparation to fight Owain Glyndwr.
Jun 22 Battle of Pilleth
   Edmund Mortimer's army met Owain Glyndwr at Pilleth near Whitton in central Wales. Mortimer's army was badly defeated and Mortimer was captured. Glyndwr offered to release Mortimer for a large ransom, but Henry IV refused to pay.
Sep 14 Battle of Homildon Hill
   The armies of the Percies and the Scots met at Homildon Hill near Wooler in Northumberland. The Scots were defeated and the Scots' leader the Earl of Douglas was captured. Henry IV wanted Douglas handed over but Hotspur refused. Hotspur was angry with the English king who had refused to pay a ransom for Edmund Mortimer who had been captured by Owain Glyndwr and who was a friend of Hotspur's.
1403 Revolt of the Percies
   The Percies, led by the Earl of Northumberland and Hotspur announced their intent to revolt against Henry IV. They even promised to free the Scots they had captured at the battle of Homildon if the Scots assisted in the revolt. The plan was to join forces with Owain Glyndwr and support the claim of the young Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March to the English throne.
Prince Henry in command
   Prince Henry, now sixteen, took control of this army in Wales. He took his troops looking for Owain Glyndwr but could not find him and so burnt villages and killed any prisoners that were taken. Henry's main problem, like Hotspur's before him was that the King was not providing enough money to pay the English troops.
Abergavenny attacked by Glyndwr
   The castle at Abergavenny was attacked and burnt by Owain Glyndwr.
Llansteffan Castle attacked by Glyndwr
   The Norman Llansteffan Castle was attacked by Owain Glyndwr. Glyndwr may have held the castle for a short time until it was retaken by Sir John Penress (Pennes).
Kidwelly Castle attacked
   Owain Glyndwr's forces attacked Kidwelly Castle managing to set fire to the unfinished gatehouse but did not capture the castle.
Weobley Castle attacked
   Owain Glyndwr attacked and badly damaged Weobley Castle.
Jul 21 Battle of Shrewsbury
   Henry IV managed to reach Shrewsbury just before Hotspur arrived and the rebel army had to camp outside the town to the north. The battle lasted all day but it ended when Hotspur was killed.
Aug Earl of Northumberland surrenders
   Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland (Hotspur's father) had not managed to reach Shrewsbury in time to save his son. The Earl surrendered to the King, who accepted and showed the Earl mercy.
1404 Harlech Castle siege
   The Welsh captured Harlech Castle and the fortress became the base for Owain Glyndwr's revolt.
Cardiff sacked by Glyndwr
   Owain Glyndwr attacked and captured the town of Cardiff and its castle.
Aberystwyth falls to the Welsh
   Owain Glyndwr captured the town of Aberystwyth and its castle after a lengthy blockade.
Bangor Cathedral burnt by rebels
   Bangor Cathedral was captured by Owain Glyndwr after a siege and destroyed by fire.
May Glyndwr's Parliament
   Owain Glyndwr called a Parliament where he declared himself to be the true 'Prince of Wales'. Embassies from France and Scotland attended the meeting and gave promises to support Glyndwr's plans to overthrow Henry IV.
1405 Feb Glyndwr's agreement
   Owain Glyndwr, Edmund Mortimer and the Earl of Northumberland combine forces and share the same goal of removing Henry IV. They agreed to divide England and Wales in three, Owain taking Wales and the west of England, the Earl to take the north of England and the north Midlands. Mortimer could have the rest.
Spring Battles of Grosmont and Usk
   English forces fought and defeated Welsh forces in two battles at Grosmont and Usk. Sir John Talbot defeated Glyndwr at Grosmont and Prince Henry forced the Welsh to flee at Usk. Glyndwr's eldest son was captured at Usk and sent to the Tower of London where he died.
1407 Prince Henry besieges Aberystwyth
   Prince Henry laid siege to the castle at Aberystwyth in an attempt to remove the Welsh who had captured it in 1404.
Harlech Castle siege
   The English besiege the Welsh in Harlech Castle.
1408 Autumn Aberystwyth falls to Henry
   The Welsh surrender the castle at Aberyswyth. They had held out for a year. Prince Henry had tried destroying the castle with canons but had no success.
1409 Mar Harlech falls to the English
   The Welsh in Harlech Castle surrender to the English and the revolt of Welsh comes to an end. Edmund Mortimer was killed.
 

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