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Henry II and Thomas Becket
Death of Theobald of Bec
Theobald of Bec, archbishop of Canterbury, died after an illness. Henry II was informed and he expressed the wish to have his friend Thomas Becket elected as archbishop.
Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Thomas Becket was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury on June 3rd. He accepted the pallium sent by the Pope on August 10th. A pallium is a piece of clothe sent by the Pope and is woven from white lamb's wool. It is draped around the neck.
Henry II returns to England
Henry returned from Normandy to England coming ashore at Southampton where he was met by Thomas Becket.
Henry II puts plans of reform to Council of Westminster
Henry II put his plans before the Council of Westminster to reform the judicial system allowing the courts power over members of the Church which had the luxury of their own courts. Thomas Becket stood against the plans starting a rift between him and Henry that would led to Becket's death.
Constitutions of Clarendon
The Constitutions of Clarendon were series of statements laid down by Henry II regarding the relationship between the church and the state. One statement was the cause for the rift between Henry and Thomas Becket, that said that a member of the church who committed a crime should be available to be tried in a state court and not just a church one. Clarendon is near Salisbury.
Council of Northampton
At the Council of Northampton the Welsh rebellion and the Constitution of Clarendon were discussed. The Council tried Thomas Becket and found him guilty of perjury for failure to appear at Council and heresy. Becket was sentenced to forfeiture of his possessions. The sentence was quashed by King Alexander III and Becket fled to Lincoln on the 14th and then France in early November.
Becket flees to France
Becket fled to France and sought the protection of Pope Alexander III, who himself was in exile.
Becket excommunicates his enemies
Richard de Lucy, joint Chief Justiciar in England, excommunicated by Thomas Becket.
Becket submits to Henry
Henry II of England, Louis VII of France and Thomas Becket met at Montmirail to hold peace talks. Becket submitted to Henry excepting only on one point, and the negotiations failed. A second meeting took place at St. Leger-en-Yvelines, and a papal ultimatum was served on Henry.
Henry II coronation of Prince Henry
King Henry II used the Archbishop of York in the coronation of his son Henry, to insult Thomas Becket. This was an act that infringed the rights of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The coronation took place at Westminster Abbey.
Becket and Henry at Freteval
Henry II and Thomas Becket met near Freteval in France where they came to an agreement to end their differences. This resulted in Becket's partial restoration.
Thomas Becket returns to England
King Henry II sent word to England saying that the conflict with Thomas Becket was at an end and his lands should be restored. Hearing this Becket returned to England landing on the south coast at Sandwich.
Thomas Becket is murdered
When Henry II heard that Thomas Becket had returned to England and was threatening to excommunicate his opponents, his outrage was such that four knights overhearing the King travelled to England and killed Becket inside Canterbury Cathedral.
Henry II told of the murder of Becket
King Henry II was told of the murder of Thomas Becket.
Becket was canonized by Pope Alexander III. His shrine at Canterbury Cathedral became extremely wealthy due to the number of pilgrims visiting it and donating money.
Whipping of Henry II
Henry II accepted his part, even though indirect, in the killing of Thomas Becket. He was whipped by the monks of Canterbury as punishment.