Henry II and Thomas Becket


1161 Apr 18 Death of Theobald of Bec
   Theobald of Bec, archbishop of Canterbury, died after an illness. Henry II was informed and wanted his friend Thomas Becket elected as archbishop.
1162 Jun 3 Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
   Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
1163 Jan Henry II returns to England
   Henry returned from Normandy to England coming ashore at Southampton where he was met by Thomas Becket.
Oct Henry II puts plans of reform to Council of Westminster
   Henry II put his plans before the Council of Westminster to reform the judicial system allowing the courts power over members of the Church which had the luxury of their own courts. Thomas Becket stood against the plans starting a rift between him and Henry that would led to Becket's death.
1164 Jan 30 Constitutions of Clarendon
   A series of statements laid down by Henry II regarding the relationship between the church and the state. One statement was the cause for the rift between Henry and Thomas Becket, that said that a member of the church who committed a crime should be available to be tried in a state court and not just a church one. Clarendon is near Salisbury.
Oct 6 Council of Northampton
   Council of Northampton held to discuss the Welsh rebellion and the Constitution of Clarendon; the Council tried Thomas Becket (8.10) and found him guilty of perjury (failure to appear at Council) and heresy; he was sentenced to forfeiture of his possessions; the sentence was quashed by Alexander III and Becket fled to Lincoln (14.10) and then France (2.11).
Nov 2 Becket flees to France
   Becket fled to France and sought the protection of Pope Alexander III, who himself was in exile.
1166 Becket excommunicates his enemies
   Richard de Lucy, joint Chief Justiciar in England, excommunicated by Thomas Becket.
1169 Jan 6 Becket submits to Henry
   Henry II of England, Louis VII of France and Becket met at Montmirail; Becket submitted to Henry excepting only on point, and negotiations failed (7.1); a second meeting took place (7.2) at St. Leger-en-Yvelines, and a papal ultimatum served on Henry..
1170 Jun 14 Henry II coronation of Prince Henry
   To insult Thomas Becket, Henry II used the Archbishop of York in the coronation of his son Henry. This was an act that infringed the rights of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The coronation took place at Westminster Abbey.
Jul 22 Becket and Henry at Freteval
   Henry II and Thomas Becket met near Freteval in France where they came to an agreement to end their differences. This resulted in Becket's partial restoration.
Dec 1 Thomas Becket returns to England
   Henry II sent word to England saying that the conflict with Thomas Becket was at an end and his lands should be restored. Hearing this Becket returned to England landing on the south coast at Sandwich.
Dec 29 Thomas Becket is murdered
   When Henry II heard that Thomas Becket had returned to England and was threatening to excommunicate his opponents, his outrage was such that four knights overhearing the King travelled to England and killed Becket inside Canterbury Cathedral.
1171 Jan 1 Henry II told of the murder of Becket
   Henry II told of the murder of Becket.
1173 Feb 21 Becket canonised
   Becket was canonized by Pope Alexander III. His shrine at Canterbury Cathedral became extremely wealthy due to the number of pilgrims visiting it and donating money.
1174 Jul 7 Whipping of Henry II
   Henry II accepted his part, even though indirect, in the killing of Thomas Becket. He was whipped by the monks of Canterbury as punishment.

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