Henry VI and Joan of Arc


Reign of Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471)

1423 Battle of Cravant in France
   English defeat the French at Cravant
1424 Battle of Verneuil
   The English defeat the French at Verneuil
1428 Oct 12 Siege of Orléans
   The Duke of Bedford led an English army to surround the French town of Orléans and to begin the siege. Orléans was chosen because it was the most important city still under the control of Charles VII. The city was well prepared for the siege and even though the there were a small number of French soldiers in the city the defences held. Thomas Montacute, earl of Salisbury, was killed when he was hit by debris of an exploding cannonball. The siege continued into the harsh winter. The death of the Thomas Montacute meant that the Earl's title was transferred to Richard Neville who had married his daughter Anne.
1429 Feb 12 Battle of the Herrings
   To supply the English who were besieging Orléans the Duke of Bedford arranged for a convoy of food be sent. The convoy was attacked by the French but the English managed to fight them off. After the battle the battlefield was covered with the food which was mostly salted fish.
Feb 23 Joan begins her mission
   Joan left Vaucouleurs dressed as a man and with an escort of attendants. They headed for Chinon where Charles VII was staying. They reached Chinon in early March.
Mar Joan visits Charles VII
   Joan was granted an audience with the dauphin at Vaucouleurs. At the meeting Charles had disguised himself as a servant and had a servant dress as himself. Joan was not fooled and picked the king out. Charles was impressed when Joan told him that God had told her that he was the true heir.
Apr Joan is given an army
   Charles gave Joan a small army and she sets of to free Orleans from the English.
Apr 29 Joan reaches Orleans
   Joan reached Orleans and managed to get past the English to enter the town. There she raised the moral of the citizens trapped by the English siege.
May 8 Siege of Orleans is lifted
   Joan of Arc had tried to negotiate with the English without success. More French troops had arrived to assist break the blockade. On May 7th, Joan was wounded by an arrow in the neck but survived and managed to lead the French to defeat the English at Les Tourelles (part of the town). On May 8th the English moved out of Orleans.
Jun 18 The Battle of Patay
   The French defeat the English.
Jul 17 Charles VII crowned at Rheims
   Joan of Arc and the dauphin entered Rheims. Charles was crowned in the Cathedral and became King of France.
Sep 8 Joan fails to take Paris
   The French fail to retake Paris that had been captured by the English. Joan was slightly injured during the fighting.
Nov 6 Henry VI crowned King of England
   Although Henry was still too young to reign he was crowned as Henry VI, King of England in response to the Duke of Bedford's concerns over the events in France. Henry was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1430 May 23 Joan of Arc is captured
   Joan's main objective was to liberate Paris from the Burgundians, but first she needed to free Compiegne. It was during the fighting here that she was wounded again and this time captured. Joan was then sold to the English who handed her over to the Church. As Compiegne was under the bishopric of Beauvais Joan was delivered to Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais, who led the trial.
1431 Jan The trial of Joan of Arc
   Joan's trial began.
May 30 Joan of Arc burnt at the stake
   Joan was burnt at the stake in Rouen in the Old Market Square.
Dec Henry VI crowned as King of France
   Henry was crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris by Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester.
1435 Sep 14 Duke of Bedford dies
   John, Duke of Bedford, died in Rouen. Henry was still too young to rule and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, took over as regent until Henry was old enough to rule England unaided. Gloucester was not popular and was the cause of unrest with Parliament.
Sep 21 Treaty of Arras
   The English lost the support of the Duke of Burgundy against Charles VII with the signing of the Treaty of Arras where the Duke recognised Charles as the true King of France.
1436 Apr 13 The French retake Paris
   The long occupation of Paris by the English was ended when the French rescued the city.
1440 Harfleur captured by the English
   The English under the command of Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, captured the port town of Harfleur on the northern coast of France.
1441 Summer Duke of York in Normandy
   Although Richard, Duke of York, had been appointed governor of France and Normandy he did not go until reports from Rouen in Normandy of French attacks persuaded him to do so.
1442 Calais relieved by Edmund Beaufort
   The English who were under siege inside Calais were resupplied by Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. For his actions Beaufort received the title Earl of Dorset.
1444 Apr Treaty of Tours
   A peace treaty signed between Henry VI of England and Charles VII of France. The treaty resulted in five years of peace between the two countries and included the arrangement of marriage between Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou.
1445 Jul French Embassy in London
   A French Embassy arrived in London to meet the English King and confirm terms of a peace treaty after the marriage of Henry to Margaret of Anjou.
1449 Mar Fougeres captured by the English
   Several years after the Treaty of Arras, after which the conflict between England and France had subdued, an English force attacked and took over the town of Fougeres in Brittany. This sparked the resumption of the war between the two countries.
Jul French Armies in Normandy
   Several French armies moved into Normandy to retake it from the English. The English garrisons began to surrender under the pressure.
Nov Siege of Rouen
   A large army of French soldiers were able to retake the cities in Normandy that had been captured by the English. Rouen, the last to fall, was retaken in November after a siege of almost three weeks. This was a major victory for Charles, the French king and a disaster for Henry VI.
1450 Mar 15 Siege of Valognes
   An English army landed at Cherbourg under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriel. Joined by forces led by Matthew Gough the combined army laid siege to Valognes. The town fell to the English in April.
Apr 15 Battle of Formigny
   An English army under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriel and Matthew Gough were attacked at Formigny in Normandy. The English were defeated and many of them were captured including Kyriel. Matthew Gough managed to escape.
May 16 Bayeux surrendered to the French
   English forces led by Matthew Gough held out at Bayeux against a French siege. The French used powerful cannons and finally Gough agreed to surrender the town to the French.
1451 Jun 30 Bordeaux falls to the French
   The port city of Bordeaux fell to the French and English control was lost.
1453 Jul English defeated at Castillion
   Sir John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury and his army were totally destroyed by the French as they attempted to regain control of the region around Bordeaux. This is regarded as the last event in the Hundred Years War.

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