Events occurring at some time during this year 
Robert of Jumieges becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
Edward appointed the French abbot Robert of Jumieges to the post of Archbishop of Canterbury.

See of Devon and Cornwall moved to Exeter 
The See of Devon and Cornwall had been located at Crediton in Devon but in 1050 Edward the Confessor moved the See to Exeter. This moved the cathedral from an obscure location to a more important one. Edward gave the new Bishopric to Leofric.

Sweyn pardoned 
Episode: Edward the Confessor and Earl Godwine
Sweyn Godwineson was pardoned and allowed to return to England.

Macbeth visits Rome 
Macbeth took time to travel to Rome on a pilgrimage. Reports of his visit tell of him distributing large amounts of money.

Events occurring at some time during this year 



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Edward expels the Godwine family 
Episode: Edward the Confessor and Earl Godwine
An incident occurred when Eustace II Count of Boulogne visited Edward the Confessor, his brother-in-law. The incident occurred in Dover where a fight broke out between the Norman visitors and the locals. Several people were killed. The area of Dover was under the control of the Godwine family and Edward the Confessor, who blamed the people of Dover for the fight, told Godwine to deal with them. Godwine refused to obey Edward's order and in response Edward raised an army and forced the Godwine family into exile.

Edward abolishes military tax 
The unpopular military tax was abolished by Edward the Confessor. It had been collected for many years to provide funds for defending the country from raiders.


Mar  -  Death of Queen Emma 
Queen Emma died at Winchester.

May  -  Godwines invade England 
Episode: Edward the Confessor and Earl Godwine
Godwine, Earl of Wessex, his son Harold and a large fleet sailed up the Thames to London forcing Edward to reinstate them into their previous positions of power.

Summer  -  Stigand becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
Stigand, Bishop of Winchester, mediated between the Godwines and Edward the Confessor. The Norman Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert of Jumieges, fled the country with other bishops who had been appointed by Edward. Stigand assumed the title of Archbishop of Canterbury. Robert appealed to Leo IX and Stigand was excommunicated (repeated by Victor II & Stephen IX, repealed by Benedict X, reintroduced by Nicholas II and Alexander II).


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Edward the Exile invited to England 
Episode: Reasons for the Norman Invasion
Harold Godwinson invited the exiled Edward the Exile back to England in the hope that he could claim the English throne from Edward the Confessor.

William marries Matilda 
In spite of objections from Pope Leo, William married Matilda, the daughter of Baldwin V, Earl of Flanders.

Apr  -  Harold becomes Earl of Wessex 
Episode: Edward the Confessor and Earl Godwine
Godwine, Earl of Wessex, died and Harold inherited his title.

Dec 21  -  Strong winds 
Extremely strong winds destroyed churches and buildings.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Battle of Mortemer 
Battle fought between Henry, the King of France, and William, the Duke of Normandy. Henry wanted to take control of the Normandy area which was preventing the French access to the English Channel. The Normans defeated the French.

The Great East-West schism 
Although the split between the East and West Churches can not easily be put down to one event, the conflict caused in 1054 between Pope Loe IX and the patriarch of Constantinople is often thought, rightly or wrongly, as the key moment. Pope Leo IX sent a delegation to Constantinople to discuss differences which resulted in the excommunication of the patriarch by the delegation and in return the excommunication of the delegation by the patriarch.

Jul  -  The Crab Nebula seen 
The supernova that occurred in this year formed the Crab Nebula and the event was recorded by astronomers in China. The explosion was so great that the supernova would have been visible during the daytime. Due to the huge distances involved, the explosion would have happened thousands of years earlier but the light from the event only reached Earth in 1054.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad 
The tribe of Tatars known also as the Seljuk Turks invaded parts of Persia and captured the city of Baghdad starting a Suljuk empire.

Victor II becomes Pope  (More...)

Tostig becomes Earl of Northumbria 
King Edward gave Tostig the important position of Earl of Northumbria and the difficult job of bringing the northern state under control.

Oct  -  Hereford cathedral attacked 
A force of Welsh and Irish men led by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, a Welsh prince attacked and burnt the building.

Oct 24  -  Rebellion of Aelfgar of Mercia 
Aelfgar, earl of Mercia was outlawed by the witan. In revenge he built a force and allied himself with Welsh Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. After defeating the King's nephew, Radulf, they attacked Hereford and raided the church killing several canons and taking everything of value leaving the building on fire. The rebels also attacked Leominster.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Bishop of Hereford 
Death of Athelstan, bishop of Hereford; succeeded by Leofgar, who tried to take reprisals against Gruffydd, the Welsh Prince.

Jun  -  Death of Leofgar, bishop of Hereford 
In reponse to the attack on Hereford Catherdal, Leofgar the bishop of Hereford took an army into Wales to deal with the Welsh prince. In battle Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed the bishop and others near Glasbury on Wye. Earl Godwin raised an army in response but the two side eventually came to peaceful terms and Aelfgar was later restored to his position.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Edward (the Exile) dies 
Episode: Reasons for the Norman Invasion
Edward the Exile died in mysterious circumstances. Edward was the rightful heir the throne of England and Harold, Earl of Wessex benefited from Edward's death.

The Battle of Varaville 
Another battle fought between Henry, the King of France, and William, the Duke of Normandy. Again the Normans defeated the French King's army.

Sweyn II Estridsen becomes King of Denmark  (More...)

Stephen IX (or X) becomes Pope  (More...)

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Aug  -  Macbeth is killed and Lulach becomes king 
Macbeth was killed by Malcolm III (Malcolm Canmore) who later became the King of Scotland. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach who was crowned at Scone.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Gloucester Cathedral rebuilding starts 
Under the direction of Wulfstan, the future Bishop of Worcester, construction work began at Gloucester Cathedral. The new building was burnt down and rebuilt later by Abbot Serlo.

Nicholas II becomes Pope  (More...)

Benedict X is elected the Antipope  (More...)

Mar  -  Malcolm III becomes King of the Scots 
Malcolm had killed Macbeth at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth's stepson Lulach was crowned king and reigned for four months until he too was killed at Strathbogie. Malcolm became King of the Scots and was crowned at Scone.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry, King of France, dies to be followed by Philippe 
Henry I King of France died. His son, Philippe, became King although he was only eight years old. France was administered by Baldwin one of Philippe's uncles.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Honorius II becomes the Antipope  (More...)

Alexander II becomes Pope  (More...)

Invasion of Sicily 
The Normans under the the leadership of Robert Guiscard and his brother Robert were fighting in southern Italy to claim lands from the Byzantines. At the treaty of Melfi in 1059 Robert had been granted the lands of Sicily, Apulia and Calabria by the Pope in return for their support. In 1060 they were in control of southern Italy and in 1061 had captured parts of Sicily including Messina. But they could not capture the whole of the island.


Sep 8  -  Wulfstan becomes bishop of Worcester 
A monk at Worcester from 1040, Wulfstan was recommended for the position of bishop by visiting papal legates.

Dec  -  Harold, earl Wessex, attacked Rhuddlan 
Harold led an attack on the stronghold of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn at Rhuddlan in north Wales. The attack was a success but the Welsh Prince managed to escape.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Earl Harold invades Wales 
Harold invaded south Wales while Tostig of Northumbria attacked the north.

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed 
The Welsh Prince, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, was killed by his own men. (Need to find out why)

William invades and captures Maine 
Some years earlier William had supported the exiled Count Herbert of Maine when Geoffrey Martel invaded the province and captured its main town Le Mans. As part of the pact William and Herbert agreed that if Herbert died without an heir the province could be claimed by William. William's eldest son Robert Curthose was betrothed to Herbert's daughter (Margaret?) but she died before they could be married. When Herbert died William claimed Maine in the name of his son and invaded. Robert was made Count of Maine when the province was captured.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Mysterious meeting in Normandy 
Episode: Reasons for the Norman Invasion
A mysterious meeting is reported to have taken place in Normandy between William the Conqueror and Harold in 1064 or 1065. In the meeting it was claimed that Harold agreed that William should become King of England when Edward the Confessor died. From what is known of Harold it seems unlikely that he would agree to something like this. We know that he went against this agreement when assumed the role as King after Edward's death. The Bayeaux Tapestry shows Harold travelling to, or being shipwreked on the land of Guy, count of Ponthieu. Harold was captured by Guy and held at his castle at Beaurain until William the Conqueror arranged for his release. The tapestry possibly shows Harold swearing an oath while his hands rest on what appear to be sacred relics. After this his returns to England.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Lands from Pershore allocated to Westminster 
Edward the Confessor took lands from Pershore Abbey and allocated them to his new Abbey church at Westminster.

Oct  -  Morcar becomes Earl of Northumbria 
Episode: Reasons for the Norman Invasion
A rebellion against Tostig, Earl of Northumbria leads to Tostig fleeing to Flanders and Morcar becoming the new Earl.

Dec  -  Dedication of Westminster Abbey  
Work on the Abbey at Westminster was either complete or very nearly so at its dedication. Edward the Confessor who had devoted himself to creation was to die less than two weeks later.


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Events occurring at some time during this year 
Fulk Rechin defeats Geoffrey the Bearded 
Fulk Rechin was at war with his brother Geoffrey. They were fighting over the lands of Anjou and Touraine which had been left to them by their uncle Geoffrey Martel, the count of Anjou. Fulk captured Geoffrey the Bearded and captured Anjou later taking the title of count.

Montacute Castle construction 
A motte and bailey castle was built by Robert Count of Mortain in Somerset.

Jan 4  -  Edward the Confessor dies 
Episode: Norman Invasion
Edward the Confessor died at Westminster. The death of Edward was an important event in the chain of events that led up to the invasion by William the Conqueror from Normandy.

Jan 6  -  Harold II Godwinson is crowned King of England 
Episode: Norman Invasion
Harold was chosen as king but his reign was not to last very long.

Apr  -  Halley's Comet 
Episode: Norman Invasion
The comet named after Edmund Halley who accurately predicted the return of the comet in 1758 (unfortunately after his death). It is difficult to determine when the comet would have appeared in the past as the orbit of the comet varies by several years. The Bayeux Tapestry shows what looks like a comet and this could well have been Halley's comet.

May  -  Tostig invades the south of England 
Episode: Norman Invasion
After being expelled from Northumbria Tostig spent time in Flanders. Here he raised an army and fleet and attempted to invade the south of England. The English armies around the Isle of Wight area were too strong and Tostig was forced to look for another place to attack. His fleet sailed up the east coast of England to Lincolnshire.

Jun  -  Dedication of Holy Trinity at Caen 
Episode: Norman Invasion
William and Matilda were at the dedication of Matilda's church, the Holy Trinity at Caen. To show their devotion they gave their daughter Cecilia to the church to be raised as a nun.

Jul  -  William's Invasion fleet gather in the estuary of the River Dives 
Episode: Norman Invasion
William the Conqueror prepared to invade England. His invasion fleet gathered in the estuary of the River Dives and other ports in Normandy.

Jul  -  Harold prepares for William's invasion 
Episode: Norman Invasion
Harold, King of England, gathered an army and waited on the south coast of England to defend the country against an William's invasion.

Sep 12  -  St-Valery-Sur-Somme 
Episode: Norman Invasion
William the Conqueror's invasion fleet arrived at St-Valery-Sur-Somme further up the Normandy coast. William either decided to move the fleet to the inlet or the fleet was forced to take shelter there when it attempted to cross the Channel and was hit by a storm. William's fleet remained there waiting for winds blowing in the right direction to take them to England.

Sep 20  -  Battle of Gate Fulford 
Episode: Norman Invasion
Harold Hardrada's forces invaded and started ravaging the countryside as they made their way to York. English forces led by Earl Edwin and Earl Morcar battled with Harold Hardrada at Gate Fulford, but the English were severely beaten. Following this defeat Harold, King of England, was forced to march his army away from the south coast where they were preparing to defend against William the Conqueror's invasion to deal with the invasion in the north.

Sep 25  -  Stamford Bridge Battle 
Episode: Norman Invasion
King Harold II defeated the invasion threat from Harold Hardrada, King of Norway and his own brother Tostig, both of whom were killed. This stretched his forces to the limit as they quickly had to march south to defend against William of Normandy's invasion at Hastings.

Sep 27  -  William lands at Pevensey 
Episode: Norman Invasion
After dawn the main part of William's fleet landed on the English coast at Pevensey while some split from the main group and landed at Romney.

Oct  -  William moves to Hastings 
Episode: Norman Invasion
The village of Hastings in 1066 was on a peninsula of land with marsh and water on two sides. The area was a natural defensive site with a hill to the north that could be used as a lookout point. William possibly built extra defences at Hastings while he prepared to move towards London.

Oct 1  -  Harold learns of William's arrival 
Episode: Norman Invasion
Harold was resting his army in York when he learnt that William had landed on the south coast.

Oct 6  -  Harold and his forces reach London 
Episode: Norman Invasion
Harold II had to march south from Stamford Bridge to counter the threat of invasion from William of Normandy.

Oct 11  -  Harold leaves London 
Episode: Norman Invasion
Harold left London with an army and headed for the south coast.

Oct 13  -  Harold reaches Caldbec Hill 
Episode: Norman Invasion
Harold and his army reached Caldbec Hill near the road from London to Hastings. Here they prepared for the battle to come.

Oct 14  -  Battle of Hastings 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror and Harold II met in battle at Hastings. Although Harold had the superior position on the battlefield his tactics failed and he was killed. This left England open for William to continue with his invasion plans.

Nov (to Dec)  -  William advances to London 
Episode: Norman Invasion
After his victory at the battle of Hastings William moved along the south coast to Dover where extra fortifications were built in the existing castle at the top of the cliffs. From there he moved on to Canterbury. After the death of Harold the archbishops of York and Canterbury, Ealdred and Stigand supported the plan to put Edgar the Aetheling on the English throne but William moved too quickly for this to be done. Canterbury submitted to William and he moved on to London. Instead of entering London from the south he moved around the west of the city crossing the Thames at Wallingford. Finally archbishop Stigand and the other Anglo-Saxon leaders submitted to William and after turning south at Little Berkhamsted William entered London.

Dec 25  -  William the Conqueror becomes King of England 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror was coronated as King of England in Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day of 1066.


William the Conqueror

In 1051 Edward the Confessor, the King of England was having problems restraining the Godwine family. In the hope that the Normans would assist him, Edward offered William, Duke of Normandy the right to claim the English throne after his death. Edward had no children and no direct heir. In 1066 just before his death, Edward changed his mind and offered the English throne to his wife's brother, Harold, Earl of Godwine. William had been visited by Harold earlier in 1064 and at a meeting it is suspected that Harold agreed to William's succession. When William learnt that Harold was to become king he was outraged and began invasion plans.


By August of 1066 the invasion fleet was ready, but the winds in the English Channel were not right and he had to delay sailing. This delay was fortunate for William because in July another invasion led by Harold Hardrada had begun in the north of England. This drew king Harold away from the south coast. King Harold fought and defeated Hardrada on 25th September at Stamford Bridge. At the same time, the winds on the Channel became favourable and William crossed to land without opposition at Pevensey. King Harold then marched his exhausted army back south to fight William.


The Battle of Hastings

The Norman and English armies met at Senlac Hill near Hastings on October 14th. After the battle King Harold was dead and William the Conqueror and his army had won. William refused to allow Harold's body to have a proper burial and the body was moved to the beach where it was put under rocks. The Normans waited expecting representatives of the Saxons to approach and submit to William's rule but none came. William marched his army along the south coat of England to capture the key ports which he needed to control if more men and supplies were to be sent from Normandy. The ports and castles at Dover and Romney fell easily to William. After a stay at Dover resupplying his men William moved north to Canterbury which again submitted to him.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Odo becomes William's deputy 
Odo,the Bishop or Bayeux, became William the Conqueror's deputy in England and was assisted by William Fitz Osbern until Osbern's death in 1071. Odo also became the Earl of Kent and his wealth and land became considerable.

Chepstow Castle begun 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Construction of Chepstow Castle is begun.

A castle at Norwich is begun 
Episode: Norman Conquest
A motte and bailey castle is built at Norwich.

Construction of Wallingford Castle 
Episode: Norman Conquest
A castle at Wallingford was built in this year. It would have been a motte and bailey type castle.

Construction of Winchester Castle 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Construction of a wooden castle was begun at Winchester.

Arundel Castle granted to Roger de Montgomery 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror granted Arundel Castle to Roger de Montgomery.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Mar  -  William returns to Normandy 
William returned to Normandy taking as guests Edgar the Aetheling (the grandson of Edmund Ironside), Stigand (Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earls of Mercia and Northumbria and the brothers Edwin and Morcar.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Warwick Castle built on William's orders 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror ordered the building of Warwick Castle.

Northern English move to Scotland 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Many of the northern English lords escaped to Scotland and the court of Malcolm III when it was clear that William had control of the country.

Malcolm III marries Edgar's sister 
Edgar the Aetheling took refuge with Malcolm III in Scotland along with his sister Margaret. Malcolm and Margaret were married in the same year.

Construction of Nottingham Castle 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William and the Normans started construction of the castle at Nottingham. This would have been a wooden building. It was built on the high ground above the town using the step slope down to the river Leen as a defence.

The Curfew Bell 
William the Conqueror ordered that all church bells should be sounded at eight o'clock each night as a signal for everyone to put out fires and candles and retire to bed. The term appears to come from the French couvre feu meaning cover the fire.

Construction of Lincoln Castle 
William the Conqueror ordered that building work on a castle at Lincoln was to be started.

Construction of Cambridge Castle 
The Normans built a motte and bailey castle on the north side of the River Cam.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Feb  -  Exeter falls to William 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Although William had defeated Harold at Hastings, Harold's mother Gytha and her forces still had not submitted to William's rule. They refused to pay the taxes that William demanded and held out at Exeter until their defences were broken. William had to take heavy casualties in the confrontation. William was still collecting the land tax known as Danegeld. After the city fell, William had a castle constructed to keep control of the population there.

Spring  -  Construction begins on Exeter Castle 
Following the rebellion in the West William orders the construction of a castle at Exeter.

May 11  -  Matilda is crowned Queen 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William brought his wife Matilda of Flander to England to crown her Queen of England. Matilda's coronation took place at Westminster Abbey and the ceremony was performed by the archbishop of York.

Sep  -  Birth of Henry I 
Henry, the future king of England, was born at Selby in Yorkshire.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Danish fought off at Sandwich 
Episode: Norman Conquest
An attack by a Danish invasion fleet led by Sweyn Estrithson of Denmark was fought off by a garrison stationed at a castle at Sandwich. Sandwich was an important port on the south coast. The location has now been found and the site is being investigated.

York captured by the Danes 
An army sent by Sweyn of Denmark landed in the north and captured York. Local rebels joined the Danes and attacked the two castles within the city.

Construction of Worcester Castle 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Land from the nearby Cathedral was used to build a new Norman motte and bailey castle on the bank of the River Severn.

Apr 28  -  Death of Magnus II 
Magnus II, King of Norway died. He had become King of Norway in 1066.

Dec  -  The North is devastated by the Normans 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William's forces defeat rebels in the North and Midlands.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Lanfranc becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
William the Conqueror placed Lanfranc in the position of Archbishop of Canterbury a move designed to strengthen his hold on the English throne. Thomas of Bayeux, a pupil of Odo (William's brother), was put in the position of Archbishop of York after the death of Ealred who died on September 11, 1069. Archbishop Stigand was imprisoned in Winchester.

Castles at Chester and Stafford begun 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William continues his castle building spree at both Chester and Stafford.

Castle at Old Sarum 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Using the prehistoric hill fort's defensive position to good use, the Normans built a new castle on the Old Sarum site. William the Conqueror paid off his soldiers here in this year.

Malcolm raids Northern England 
Episode: Norman Conquest
The Scottish king attacked towns in the north of England.

Building work at Chepstow 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William Fitz Osbern built the hall at Chepstow Castle.

Dunfermline Abbey founded 
The Abbey of Dunfermline was founded by Malcolm III, King of the Scots and his wife Margaret.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Jun  -  Hereward the Wake sacks Peterborough Abbey 
Episode: Norman Conquest
As part of a revolt against the new Norman invaders, Hereward the Wake sacks the abbey at Peterborough.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Canterbury Cathedral rebuilt by Lanfranc 
Canterbury Cathedral was rebuilt at this time by Archbishop Lanfranc. The Cathedral was based on the design of his abbey in Caen.

Byzantine army destroyed at Manzikert 
The Byzantine army was destroyed at Manzikert by the Turks. Romanus IV Diogenes, emperor of Byzantium, was defeated by the Sultan Alp-Arslan of Persia and imprisoned. Michael VII Ducas became the new emperor.

Turks conquer Syria, Jerusalem and parts of Palestine 
The Seljuk Turks conquer Syria, Jerusalem and parts of Palestine.

Ely castle ordered 
William orders a castle to be built at Ely.

William puts down the revolt 
Episode: Norman Conquest
The rebels Hereward the Wake and Morcar on the Isle of Ely were attacked and defeated by William the Conqueror.

Dudley Castle Construction 
Episode: Norman Conquest
After Eadwin, the Earl of Mercia, was killed in the revolt against William his castle and lands at Dudley were given to William's Norman followers.

Abbot of Abingdon imprisoned 
The Abbot of Abingdon was imprisoned at Wallingford Castle.

Richmond Castle construction 
Episode: Norman Conquest
The construction of Richmond Castle began around this time by Alan Rufus, the cousin of the Duke of Brittany.

Bangor Cathedral destroyed by the Normans 
Episode: Norman Conquest
A Norman army attacked the northern Welsh town of Bangor and destroyed the Cathedral there.

Construction of Oxford Castle 
Robert D'Oilly was given the task of building a castle at Oxford by William the Conqueror at the important Thames river crossing. A motte and bailey castle would have been the type of castle built at this time.

Events occurring at some time during this year 


Richmond Castle keep

Richmond Castle
Richmond Castle was begun in around 1071 when William the Conqueror held Christmas in north Yorkshire where he granted large amounts of land to Alan (Alain) Rufus from Brittany who was one of William's trusted lieutenants. Alan selected a site above the River Swale for a castle, a site which may have not been used as a defensive site before. It appears that the castle he built was of stone which was unusual for the time when castles were built of earth banks and wooden stockades.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
At Durham, another castle is ordered 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William orders the castle as Durham to be built.

Serlo takes over at Gloucester 
Serlo, William the Conqueror's chaplain, revived the floundering monastery at Gloucester and started major rebuilding work. Serlo died in 1104.

Old Sarum Cathedral 
The first cathedral at Old Sarum was built between 1075 and 1092. Its builder was Bishop Osmund, who was supposed to be William the Conqueror's nephew. From 1072 until 1078, Osmund was William's Chancellor. In 1078 Osmund was given the title of Bishop of Salisbury.

Treaty of Abernethy 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Treaty between William the Conqueror and Malcolm III of Scotland. In this treaty Malcolm paid homage to William.

First Cathedral at Lincoln begun 
The Norman Bishop of Fecamp began work on the first Cathedral church at Lincoln. The bishop's see had been moved from Dorchester-on-Thames.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Feb  -  Council of Winchester 
Lanfranc held a Church council at Winchester where the reorganisation of Bishops and Bishoprics war confirmed. Canterbury was also confirmed as the head of the English Church rather than York.

Jun  -  William leads an army into Scotland 
Episode: Norman Conquest
It is possible that William the Conqueror was planning to attack King Malcolm to prevent him protecting Edgar the Aetheling and to stop him advancing into the north of England. The treaty 'Peace of Abernethy' brought a solution to the situation where Malcolm agreed to become William's vassal and to expel Edgar.


Events occurring at some time during this year 
Edgar the Aetheling attempts to take the English throne 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Edgar joins forces with King Malcolm in Scotland and King Philippe I of France.

Gregory VII becomes Pope  (More...)

Motte and Bailey Castle at Rhuddlan 
By 1073 a motte and bailey castle had been built on the site of the earlier Welsh fort. This was done by Robert of Rhuddlan, a deputy of the Earl of Chester.


Apr 28  -  Harold III becomes King of Denmark  (More...)
Upon the death of Sweyn the King of Denmark a war of succession followed between his eldest sons. Harold became king and reigned until 1081.