Events occurring at some time during this year 
Chichester founded as a see 
Chichester was made a bishopric in this year when the bishop moved there from Selsey.

Construction of Windsor Castle 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Construction of Windsor castle started by William the Conqueror.

Council of London 
At the Council of London Archbishop Lanfranc instigated the movement of many English Bishoprics to more important locations. One of these was the Bishopric of Sherborne and Wilton which moved to Old Sarum.

Chepstow Castle passes to the crown 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Roger Fitz Osbern joined an unsuccessful uprising against the king and lost. The castle then passed to the crown.

Events occurring at some time during this year 

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Battle Abbey Consecrated 
Even though incomplete, Battle Abbey is consecrated.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Rochester Cathedral building begins 
Work on Rochester Cathedral began. (More Information to follow)

St. Albans Cathedral building begins 
Work began on St. Albans Cathedral. (More Information to follow)

Gundulf consecrated as Bishop of Rochester 
Gundulf became Bishop of Rochester, remaining there for thirty years and where he is buried.

Jul 14  -  The Bayeux Tapestry 
The Bayeux Tapestry is first shown at the dedication of Odo's cathedral.

 

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Work starts on the White Tower 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Gundulf began work on the White Tower, the Tower of London.

Bishops of East Anglia moved to Thetford 
The two bishoprics of East Anglia and Dunwich (Suffolk) were merged into one and moved to Thetford which was an important town at the time and was in a central location.

Osmond becomes Bishop at Old Sarum 
Osmond was a Norman who came to England with William the Conqueror. He exchanged his noble title for that of a religious one and became Bishop at Old Sarum after Herbert. Osmond continued the construction work of a new cathedral at Old Sarum.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Winchester Cathedral crypt 
Work began on the crypt and transepts of Winchester Cathedral. Until 1093.

Constuction of Baynard's Castle 
The first of two castles located in London taking the name Baynard's Castle was built shortly after the Norman Conquest by Ralph Baynard, a Norman who was granted large amounts of land by William the Conqueror. The castle was demolished by King John in 1213.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Ripon monastery destroyed by Normans 
Ripon monastery destroyed by Normans.

Hereford Cathedral new building 
Robert de Losinga, a Norman Bishop started work on a new Cathedral at Hereford.

Colchester castle begun 
Episode: Norman Conquest
To defend the estuaries of Essex against attacks from the Danes William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a new castle at Colchester.

Construction of Lewes Castles 
Episode: Norman Conquest
Work on a castle at Lewes began in 1080 and lasted possibly to around 1100.

Canute the Saint becomes King of Denmark  (More...)

Clement III becomes the Antipope  (More...)

Events occurring at some time during this year 

 

Hereford Cathedral

Hereford Cathedral


The Norman invasion brought some stability and in 1080 under Bishop Losinga, rebuilding work began on the Cathedral which had been in ruins since the Welsh attack. There is a chair here supposed to be the chair used by King Stephen at his royal proclamation, in 1138.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Accession of Alexius Comnenus 
The civil wars following the battle of Manzikert led to Alexius Comnenus becoming the Eastern Emperor.

William tours south Wales 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror visited South Wales and St. David's. He met Rhys ap Tewdwr, the ruler of the area and allowed him to remain in control of the region for a yearly sum of money.

Cardiff Castle construction 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror may have ordered the creation of a castle at Cardiff during his tour of Southern Wales. The first castle on the site would have been a motte and bailey type and it was built on the site of existing Roman fortifications.

Death of Richard, William's son 
Richard was killed while hunting in the New Forest.

Events occurring at some time during this year 

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Ely Cathedral building begins 
Work began on Ely Cathedral

Odo imprisoned 
William imprisoned his half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Worcester Cathedral building begins 
Building work starts on Worcester Cathedral. Orchestrated by Bishop Wulfstan. (More Information to follow)

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Toledo recaptured from the Moors 
Toledo was recaptured from the Moors.

Dec 25  -  Domesday Book 
Episode: Norman Conquest
At the Christmas Council William ordered the creation of survey of property with their values and populations county by county covering most of England. Commissioners were sent all over England, apart from the far north, to make a record of the population, value, state and ownership of the land. The book consisted of two volumes and was completed by 1088.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
The Spanish are defeated at Zallaca 
The Spanish are defeated at Zallaca.

Stormy weather and disease 
Violent storms killed many people while cattle died from disease.

Oluf I Hunger becomes King of Denmark  (More...)

Victor III becomes Pope  (More...)

Events occurring at some time during this year 
May 24  -  Election of Pope Victor III  (More...)
The abbot of Monte Cassino, a man called Desiderius, was elected Pope a year after the death of the previous Pope Gregory VII. His reign was not to last long as he retired to his abbey at Monte Cassino with ill health and died in September of 1087.

Aug 1  -  Oath of Salisbury 
Episode: Norman Conquest
William the Conqueror called a meeting at Old Sarum where he invited his most important vassals and tenants-in-chief in England to swear allegiance to him. The oath is now known as the Oath of Salisbury.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
St. Paul's Cathedral Burns down 
Work on rebuilding St. Paul's Cathedral started after the Old St. Paul's burnt down and a good deal of London as well. The person in charge of the rebuilding work was Mauritius, chaplain to William the Conqueror and Bishop of London. The new Cathedral was reportedly extremely large.

William Rufus gives Manor of Tewkesbury 
William Rufus gave the Manor of Tewkesbury to his cousin, Robert FitzHamon. Together with the patronage of the Priory of Tewkesbury.

Castle Acre Priory founded 
The Priory was founded by William de Warrene a Norman follower of William the Conqueror.

Sep 9  -  William the Conqueror Dies 
William I of England died at the abbey of St Gervais, near Rouen.

Sep 26  -  William II (Rufus) crowned at Westminster 
William II (Rufus) was crowned at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Lanfranc after the death of his father William the Conqueror.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Foundation of Bath Abbey 
Bath Abbey is founded by John de Villula and populated by Benedictine monks.

Earldom of Warwick created 
The earldom of Warwick was created by William II and given to Henry de Beaumont. Henry de Beaumont changed his name to Newburgh.

Feb  -  Revolt against William Rufus 
Many Norman barons held land both in England and Normandy. With two opposing lords, William in England and Robert in Normandy, the barons were finding it difficult to know who to support. A revolt led by Odo sprung up in England with the aim of removing William from the throne. Odo's revolt in Kent and Sussex was supported by barons across the country. Roger Bigod from Norwich and Geoffrey of Coutances and Robert Mowbray from Bristol supported Odo. In Worcestershire Roger de Lacy captured Hereford and attacked Worcester. In the south-east Roger Montgomery at Arundel Robert of Mortain at Pevensey and Gilbert de Clare at Tonbridge also prepared to fight the King. Robert of Belleme, a Norman baron, who was able to bring support from Normandy. Robert also controlled castles in the Welsh Marches where the revolt also took place.

Mar  -  Urban becomes Pope 
Urban II was elected Pope in 1088. His real name was Odo of Lagery and chose the name Urban when he became Pope. He had at first been a monk at the abbey at Cluny from 1070 and had become a prior there.

Spring  -  Worcestershire Rebellion put down 
The Worcestershire rebellion led by Robert of Lacy was dealt with quickly by Wulfstan, the Bishop of Worcester, who called on those knights and local landowners still loyal to the King to defend Worcester. Many of the rebels were captured or killed.

Spring  -  William Rufus calls for support 
William Rufus had insufficient men at his disposal to deal with the rebellion in the south-east as there were too many ports to guard. The King called the representatives of the fyrd (the ordinary people of the country organised into an army) to a meeting in London where, with the support Lanfranc, he promised the people better laws and the removal of unfair taxes if they supported him against the rebels. The people agreed and together with the King they captured the castle at Tonbridge after a two day siege.

Apr (to Jun)  -  Pevensey Castle siege 
William Rufus lay siege to Pevensey Castle where Odo had taken shelter with Robert of Mortain. The siege lasted for six weeks. Robert, the Duke of Normandy, sent a force to support the rebels at Pevensey but they were unable to land because the King had made sure the ports were well guarded. Robert admitted defeat and withdrew his support for the rebels. Odo had little choice, other than that to starve, and surrendered to the King. Odo agreed to go to Rochester where he would convince the rebels to accept William Rufus as the rightful King of England.

May  -  William puts down the revolt 
Odo was accompanied to Rochester Castle by an escort but When they reached the castle the rebels captured the escort and refused to accept William Rufus as their King. Again William called for the people of England to support him against the rebels and together they lay siege to the castle. Odo surrendered when it was agreed that those in the castle would have their lives spared if the they came out. Odo and the rebels were allowed to leave but their lands in England were taken from them. Odo went into exiled in Normandy.

 

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Events occurring at some time during this year 
Serlo builds the crypt at Gloucester 
Some seventeen years after taking his position at Gloucester, Serlo built the crypt.

May 24  -  Lanfranc dies 
After the death of Archbishop Lanfranc William Rufus held open the post of Archbishop of Canterbury for four years taking the revenues for his own purposes.

Aug 11  -  Earthquake 
An earthquake was felt across England.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Lancaster Keep 
Construction of keep at Lancaster Castle by Roger of Poitou.

Construction of Pembroke Castle 
A motte and bailey castle was built at Pembroke by Arnulf of Montgomery.

Construction of Caernavon Castle 
The first castle to be built at Caernarvon was constructed by Hugh of Avranches in about 1090. He built a wooden motte and bailey castle.

Aug  -  Death of Constance, William's daughter 
Constance died childless.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Colchester Castle passes to Eudo 
Once the threat from invasion had reduced, the castle was passed into the control of Eudo de Rie, who held the position of high steward.

Violent storm hits London 
London was hit by a terrible storm, possibly a tornado. Damage was done to the Tower of London, the old wooden London Bridge and many churches and buildings.

May  -  Malcolm III invades the North 
The fourth major invasion into the north of England by Malcolm III started in May when the Scots began a siege of Durham. The Normans led by William Rufus went north to deal with the Scots but a conflict was averted and a renewal of the treaty of Abernethy was agreed.

Nov  -  William Rufus renews agreement with Scots 
William Rufus renewed the arrangement that his father had with Malcolm III, King of the Scots. This may have included letting Malcolm have some areas of northern England. Even so this did not prevent further attacks on England in the north by the Scots.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Tewkesbury Abbey Founded 
Robert FitzHamon, the cousin of William Rufus, together with Abbot Giraldus, founded the present Abbey at Tewkesbury.

Collegiate church founded at Carlisle. 
A collegiate church was founded at this time at Carlisle and a Norman church was built.

Carlisle Collegiate church founded 
Secular canons founded a collegiate church at Carlisle.

Work begins on Carlisle Cathedral 
Work began on the nave and the southern transept.

Old Sarum Cathedral completed and dedicated 
The cathedral at Old Sarum was completed and dedicated to Blessed Virgin. The cathedral was damaged by a storm only five days after the dedication service and the roof destroyed. The location of the cathedral meant it exposed to the wind and the sermons were sometimes drowned out by the sound.

Events occurring at some time during this year 

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Durham Cathedral begun 
Durham Cathedral was the first building in Western Europe with ribbed vaulting in the ceiling.

Anselm Becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
Anselm became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1093 succeeding Lanfranc. The post of Archbishop of Canterbury had been held open by William Rufus so that he could collect for himself the church's income. Anselm died in 1109.

Benedictines take over at Chester. 
Chester was a strategic site after the Norman Conquest and the Saxon church there was taken over in 1093 by Benedictine monks.

Cardigan Castle built 
The Norman baron, Roger de Montgomery, had a motte and bailey castle constructed at Cardigan as he attempted to control the Welsh.

Construction of Carlisle Castle 
William Rufus ordered the construction of the castle at Carlisle because of the thrreat that Malcolm III posed.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Spring  -  William Rufus seriously ill 
William fell ill early in this year and the illness was so serious that reports went out saying that he had died. William granted land to many religious houses in preparation for his death but when he recovered he claimed the land back.

Nov 13  -  Battle of Alnwick 
Malcolm III, the king of Scotland, and his son Edward were both killed at the battle of Alnwick in Northumberland. Malcolm had invaded England after William II had made moves to take more control over Cumbria and had fortified Carlisle.

Nov 13  -  Donald Bane becomes king of Scotland 
After Malcolm III and his second son Edward were killed near Alnwick Donald, Malcolm's brother, became the king of Scotland. Malcolm's family, including Edgar, were forced into exiled in England.

Nov 16  -  Death of Margaret of Scotland 
Margaret of Scotland died only days after her son and husband had been killed at Alnwick.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Battle Abbey reconsecrated 
Building work at Battle Abbey was completed and the abbey reconsecrated by William Rufus.

See of Norwich bought by Hebert de Losinga 
Herbert de Losinga purchased the see (seat of the bishop) for the area around Norwich. The bishops seat was at Thetford but Herbert moved it to Norwich itself before starting the construction of a new cathedral.

May  -  Duncan II becomes King of the Scots 
Assisted by Norman knights and his half-brother Edmund, Duncan invaded Scotland to unseat his uncle Donald from the Scottish throne. The invasion succeeded and he became king in May. His reign only lasted until November when he was killed in battle and Donald retook the Scottish throne. Edmund sided with Donald at this time and was named as heir to the throne as the King had no children. It is possible that Edmund shared the rule of Scotland with Donald from 1094.

Nov  -  Donald III restored 
Donald III was restored to the Scottish throne after the death of Duncan II. He shared the Scottish rule with his nephew Edmund.

 

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Wulfstan dies 
Wulfstan was bishop of Worcester. The location of his grave is not known.

Robert Mowbray's Rebellion 
After attacking four merchant ships Robert Mowbray was called for by William Rufus to explain his actions. Instead Mowbray rose up in rebellion against the king along with other powerful Norman Barons.

Monastery at Chester founded 
Hugh 'Lupus' d'Avaranches, the first Earl of Chester, founded a monastery at Chester. Later to become Chester Cathedral.

Erik I Ejegod becomes King of Denmark  (More...)

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Mar  -  The Council of Piacenza 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
A delegation led by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus visited Pope Urban II to raise the problems he was having fighting the Muslims in the East. Pope Urban removed the excommunication that had been placed on the Emperor by Pope Gregory and promised to help.

Nov 27  -  The Council of Clermont 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
On the last day of the council Pope Urban II preached about the oppression being inflicted on the Christians in the Middle East by the Muslim Seljuks. Christian churches were being destroyed and Christians attacked. The Pope called for the Christians in the West to help.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Norwich Cathedral building begins 
Work starts on Norwich Cathedral.

Building work on Alnwick castle begins 
Building work on Alnwick castle began.

Canterbury Choir, East Transepts and Crypt building work. 
Canterbury Choir, East Transepts and Crypt building work.

William buys Normandy 
Robert of Normandy became under pressure from William who laid claim to Normandy. William was gaining support from some Norman barons and Robert took the opportunity to leave Normandy to answer Pope Urban II's call for a Crusade. Robert agreed that William could lease Normandy for three years for a sum of 10,000 marks. This money would help him fund the expedition.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Qtr 1 (to , 1100)  -  Peter the Hermit's (or People's) Crusade 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
Following Pope Urban's speech at Clermont Peter the Hermit, a simple man with a powerful ability to move people by his words, started preaching for Christians to help their fellow Christians in the East. He started to gain a large number of followers eager to go to Jerusalem with promises of absolution and freedom from a life of hunger and depravation. His followers were poor, not prepared for the journey and not armed.

Qtr 2  -  Crusaders cause trouble  
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
Peter the Hermit's army of ordinary people was large and it needed feeding. One of the more noble members of the army was Walter Sans Avoir, also known as Walter the Penniless. When the army reached Cologne in April Peter decided to halt the army to take advantage of the good supply of food. Walter was impatient and with a small section of the army continued on. They passed through Hungary but at the town of Semlin a dispute broke out when some of his men stole food. When his men were refused food at Belgrade because the harvest had not yet been gathered Walter's army began pillaging the surrounding area. Finally Alexius Comnenus sent supplies and an escort to guard the Crusaders as they marched to Constantinople. The guard ensured that the Crusaders didn't cause any more trouble.

Jul  -  Peter reaches Byzantium 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
At Constantinople the Emperor Alexius welcomed Peter's army but there were too many people and no provision had been made for them. There was a general lack of discipline that resulted in repeated attacks and thefts from surrounding villages. Alexius warned Peter to wait for better trained troops to arrive before moving on but the pressure of the army was so great on Constantinople that they were forced to move before help could arrive.

Aug  -  The People's Crusades cross the Bosporus 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
The People's Crusaders were shipped across the Bosporus to a disused army base at Civetot. From there they attacked the surrounding areas but they had little affect.

Oct  -  Raymond starts his crusade 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
While the People's Crusade led by Peter the Hermit was being crushed in the Holy Land, preparations for the First Crusade carried on in Europe. Those leaders involved were Raymond of Toulouse, Hughes Count of Vermandois, Robert Count of Flanders, Robert Duke of Normandy and Etienne Count of Blois. The leaders arranged to meet at Constantinople and set off taking different routes. Some followed the path across Europe taken by Peter the Hermit, while others took a more southerly routes via the Alps and the Adriatic.

Oct  -  Hugh reaches Constantinople 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
Hugh of Vermandios was the first of the barons to reach Constantinople. His army had travelled via Italy and Greece using ships rather than across land like the other barons.

Oct 21  -  The People's Crusaders massacred 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
The Turks attacked the People's Crusades in their base at Civetot and ended their Crusade.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Edgar Macmalcolm becomes king of the Scots 
Edgar, the son of Malcolm III of Scotland, became the king of Scotland after taking the Scottish throne from Donald Bane.

Anselm goes into exile 
Conflicts between Archbishop Anselm and William Rufus resulted in the Archbishop leaving England and heading for Rome. William confiscated Anselm's land.

Construction of Westminster Hall 
William Rufus arranged the construction of a new hall outside of London near Westminster Abbey. Westminster Hall was the largest hall in England and designed, no doubt, to impress and somewhere to hold banquets, ceremonies and a place to celebrate the coronations that took place in teh Abbey near by. The hall is the earliest surviving building on the site.

Apr  -  Crusaders reach Constantinople 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
When the crusaders arrived at Constantinople they were greeted by Emperor Alexius. The Emperor was happy for the crusaders to capture areas of the Holy Land but he wanted the land to be under his control. Alexius persuaded the Leaders of the crusaders to swear an oath of allegiance to him and to hand over the land they captured. They could however be allowed to live on and rule that land but not own it.

May  -  Siege of Nicaea 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
The Crusaders began their campaign with a siege of the city of Nicaea. Before the Crusaders stormed the city, the Turks surrendered. They did not surrender to the Crusaders but to the Emperor instead. This infuriated the Crusaders who were expecting a large haul of treasure from the city. But the city was important for the Crusaders as control of it ensured they could not be attacked as they moved further east.

Jul 1  -  Battle of Dorylaeum 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
The Crusaders defeated an army led by Kilij Arslan, the Seljuk Sultan or Rum., who wanted revenge for the capture of Nicaea.

Oct  -  The Crusaders reach Antioch 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
In October of 1097 the Crusaders had reached Antioch. The march had been long and difficult and many had died or deserted due to starvation, diseases and the very wet weather. At once they laid siege to the city. The Turks in the city were prepared and waited to be rescued.

Oct 4  -  Comet 
A star with a long tail was seen in the south-west.

 

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Events occurring at some time during this year 
Treaty with Magnus III of Norway 
A treaty was signed between Edgar, King of Scotland, and Magnus III of Norway agreeing that the northern territories of Scotland including the Hebrides belonged to Norway.

Abbey of Citeaux founded 
The abbey of Citeaux in Burgundy was founded by Robert of Mosleme. The abbey did not prosper until around 1113 when Stephen Harding became abbot and a couple of years later St. Bernard became the abbot of Clairvaux it's daughter house. The abbey of Citeaux was the start of the massively important Cistercian Order.

Feb 13  -  London Bridge washed away 
London Bridge was washed away by a flood in this year.

Jun 3  -  Antioch falls to the Crusaders 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
The siege of Antioch was ended not by force but by betrayal. A hand full of Crusaders climbed a ladder into the city and simply opened the gates from the inside. The hoard of the Christian army surged into the city killing anyone or anything in their way. The destruction was brutal and no mercy was shown. As soon as the Crusaders were in the city the situation changed. Outside a Moslem army arrived and in turn besieged the city. Some Crusaders managed to escape over the walls and flee but the majority were trapped without food in the city.

Jun 28  -  The Crusaders fight back 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
Spurred on by the find of the Spear of Longinus, the spear that was supposed to have pierced Jesus on the cross, the Crusaders emerged from the city of Antioch to face the Moslems. The Moslems were defeated, many being killed and many fleeing. After the batlle the ownership of the city was disputed. Bohemund and Raymond of Toulouse argued over its possession and after several months of debate Raymond accepted Bohemund's right to it. In truth, the city should have been handed over to Emporer Alexius.

 

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Events occurring at some time during this year 
Nave at Durham constructed 
Construction of the nave at Durham Cathedral began in 1099 and lasted until 1128.

Flambard is made Bishop of Durham 
Ranulf Flambard is made the Bishop of Durham by William Rufus.

Paschal II becomes Pope  (More...)

Jan  -  The march to Jerusalem continues 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
After a delay of many months the crusaders under the leadership of Raymond of Toulouse left Antioch and headed south towards Jerusalem.

Jun  -  The Crusaders reach Jerusalem 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
A year after their victory at Antioch the remaining Crusaders finally reached Jerusalem, their goal.

Jul 15  -  Crusaders take Jerusalem 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
The Crusaders take Jerusalem and Godfrey of Bouillon becomes King of Jerusalem.

Aug 12  -  Battle of Ascalon 
Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade
The last battle of the First Crusade was fought between the Christians and Muslims at Ascalon. Led by Godfrey of Bouillon, the king of Jerusalem, the heavily out-numbered Christian army used their heavy armour to good affect. The Muslim army consisted mainly of Egyptians intent of driving the Christians out of Jerusalem.