This Android app allows you to find castles thar are near you. Currently the app includes only English and Welsh castles.
Download the app from the Google Play Store
Transport yourself back up to a thousand years and explore historical buildings as they may have appeared in the past.
1075 .. 1099
1075 .. 1099
Please note that the TimeRef website is currently being redesigned.
Chichester founded as a see
Chichester was made a bishopric in this year when the bishop moved there from Selsey.
Construction of Windsor Castle
Construction of Windsor castle started by William the Conqueror.
Council of London
At the Council of London Archbishop Lanfranc instigated the movement of many English Bishoprics to more important locations. One of these was the Bishopric of Sherborne and Wilton which moved to Old Sarum.
Chepstow Castle passes to the crown
Roger Fitz Osbern joined an unsuccessful uprising against the king and lost. The castle then passed to the crown.
Gundulf began work on the White Tower, the Tower of London.
Bishops of East Anglia moved to Thetford
The two bishoprics of East Anglia and Dunwich (Suffolk) were merged into one and moved to Thetford which was an important town at the time and was in a central location.
Osmond becomes Bishop at Old Sarum
Osmond was a Norman who came to England with William the Conqueror. He exchanged his noble title for that of a religious one and became Bishop at Old Sarum after Herbert. Osmond continued the construction work of a new cathedral at Old Sarum.
Construction work began on the crypt and transepts of Winchester Cathedral. This continued until 1093.
Constuction of Baynard's Castle
The first of two castles located in London taking the name Baynard's Castle was built shortly after the Norman Conquest by Ralph Baynard, a Norman who was granted large amounts of land by William the Conqueror. The castle was demolished by King John in 1213.
The civil wars following the battle of Manzikert led to Alexius Comnenus becoming the Eastern Emperor.
William tours south Wales
William the Conqueror visited South Wales and St. David's. He met Rhys ap Tewdwr, the ruler of the area and allowed him to remain in control of the region for a yearly sum of money.
Cardiff Castle construction
William the Conqueror may have ordered the creation of a castle at Cardiff during his tour of Southern Wales. The first castle on the site would have been a motte and bailey type and it was built on the site of existing Roman fortifications.
Death of Richard, William's son
Richard was killed while hunting in the New Forest.
At the Christmas Council William the Conqueror ordered the creation of survey of property with their values and populations county by county covering most of England. Commissioners were sent all over England, apart from the far north, to make a record of the population, value, state and ownership of the land. The book known as the Domesday Book consisted of two volumes and was completed by 1088.
Violent storms killed many people while cattle died from disease.
Oluf I Hunger becomes King of Denmark
Victor III becomes Pope
Election of Pope Victor III
The abbot of Monte Cassino, a man called Desiderius, was elected Pope a year after the death of the previous pope Gregory VII. His reign was not to last long as he retired to his abbey at Monte Cassino with ill health and died in September of 1087.
Oath of Salisbury
William the Conqueror called a meeting at Old Sarum where he invited his most important vassals and tenants-in-chief in England to swear allegiance to him. The oath is now known as the Oath of Salisbury.
Work on rebuilding St. Paul's Cathedral started after the Old St. Paul's burnt down and a good deal of London as well. The person in charge of the rebuilding work was Mauritius, chaplain to William the Conqueror and Bishop of London. The new Cathedral was reportedly extremely large.
William Rufus gives Manor of Tewkesbury
William Rufus gave the Manor of Tewkesbury to his cousin, Robert FitzHamon. Together with the patronage of the Priory of Tewkesbury.
Castle Acre Priory founded
The Priory was founded by William de Warrene a Norman follower of William the Conqueror.
William the Conqueror Dies
William I of England died at the abbey of St Gervais, near Rouen.
William II (Rufus) crowned at Westminster
William Rufus was crowned at Westminster Abbey by Archbishop Lanfranc after the death of his father William the Conqueror.
Bath Abbey is founded by John de Villula and populated by Benedictine monks.
Earldom of Warwick created
The earldom of Warwick was created by William II and given to Henry de Beaumont. Henry de Beaumont changed his name to Newburgh.
Revolt against William Rufus
Many Norman barons held land both in England and Normandy. With two opposing lords, William in England and Robert in Normandy, the barons were finding it difficult to know who to support. A revolt led by Odo sprung up in England with the aim of removing William from the throne. Odo's revolt in Kent and Sussex was supported by barons across the country. Roger Bigod from Norwich and Geoffrey of Coutances and Robert Mowbray from Bristol supported Odo. In Worcestershire Roger de Lacy captured Hereford and attacked Worcester. In the south-east Roger Montgomery at Arundel Robert of Mortain at Pevensey and Gilbert de Clare at Tonbridge also prepared to fight the King. Robert of Belleme, a Norman baron, who was able to bring support from Normandy. Robert also controlled castles in the Welsh Marches where the revolt also took place.
Urban becomes Pope
Urban II was elected Pope in 1088. His real name was Odo of Lagery and chose the name Urban when he became Pope. He had at first been a monk at the abbey at Cluny from 1070 and had become a prior there.
Worcestershire Rebellion put down
The Worcestershire rebellion led by Robert of Lacy was dealt with quickly by Wulfstan, the Bishop of Worcester, who called on those knights and local landowners still loyal to the King to defend Worcester. Many of the rebels were captured or killed.
William Rufus calls for support
William Rufus had insufficient men at his disposal to deal with the rebellion in the south-east as there were too many ports to guard. The King called the representatives of the fyrd (the ordinary people of the country organised into an army) to a meeting in London where, with the support Lanfranc, he promised the people better laws and the removal of unfair taxes if they supported him against the rebels. The people agreed and together with the King they captured the castle at Tonbridge after a two day siege.
Apr (to Jun)
Pevensey Castle siege
William Rufus lay siege to Pevensey Castle where Odo had taken shelter with Robert of Mortain. The siege lasted for six weeks. Robert, the Duke of Normandy, sent a force to support the rebels at Pevensey but they were unable to land because the King had made sure the ports were well guarded. Robert admitted defeat and withdrew his support for the rebels. Odo had little choice, other than that to starve, and surrendered to the King. Odo agreed to go to Rochester where he would convince the rebels to accept William Rufus as the rightful King of England.
William puts down the revolt
Odo was accompanied to Rochester Castle by an escort but When they reached the castle the rebels captured the escort and refused to accept William Rufus as their King. Again William called for the people of England to support him against the rebels and together they lay siege to the castle. Odo surrendered when it was agreed that those in the castle would have their lives spared if the they came out. Odo and the rebels were allowed to leave but their lands in England were taken from them. Odo went into exiled in Normandy.
Once the threat from invasion had reduced, the castle was passed into the control of Eudo de Rie, who held the position of high steward.
Violent storm hits London
London was hit by a terrible storm, possibly a tornado. Damage was done to the Tower of London, the old wooden London Bridge and many churches and buildings.
Malcolm III invades the North
The fourth major invasion into the north of England by Malcolm III started when the Scots began a siege of Durham. The Normans, led by William Rufus, went north to deal with the Scots but a conflict was averted and a renewal of the treaty of Abernethy was agreed.
William Rufus renews agreement with Scots
William Rufus renewed the arrangement that his father had with Malcolm III, King of the Scots. This may have included letting Malcolm have some areas of northern England. Even so this did not prevent further attacks on England in the north by the Scots.
Robert FitzHamon, the cousin of William Rufus, together with Abbot Giraldus, founded the present Abbey at Tewkesbury.
Collegiate church founded at Carlisle.
A collegiate church was founded at this time at Carlisle and a Norman church was built.
Carlisle Collegiate church founded
Secular canons founded a collegiate church at Carlisle.
Work begins on Carlisle Cathedral
Work began on the nave and the southern transept.
Old Sarum Cathedral completed and dedicated
The cathedral at Old Sarum was completed and dedicated to Blessed Virgin. The cathedral was damaged by a storm only five days after the dedication service and the roof destroyed. The location of the cathedral meant it exposed to the wind and the sermons were sometimes drowned out by the sound.
Durham Cathedral was the first building in Western Europe with ribbed vaulting in the ceiling.
Anselm Becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Anselm became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1093 succeeding Lanfranc. The post of Archbishop of Canterbury had been held open by William Rufus so that he could collect for himself the church's income. Anselm died in 1109.
Benedictines take over at Chester
Chester was a strategic site after the Norman Conquest and the Saxon church there was taken over in 1093 by Benedictine monks.
Cardigan Castle built
The Norman baron, Roger de Montgomery, had a motte and bailey castle constructed at Cardigan as he attempted to control the Welsh.
Construction of Carlisle Castle
William Rufus ordered the construction of a castle at Carlisle because of the thrreat that the Scottish King Malcolm III posed.
William Rufus seriously ill
William fell ill early in this year and the illness was so serious that reports went out saying that he had died. William granted land to many religious houses in preparation for his death but when he recovered he claimed the land back.
Battle of Alnwick
Malcolm III, the king of Scotland, and his son Edward were both killed at the battle of Alnwick in Northumberland. Malcolm had invaded England after William II had made moves to take more control over Cumbria and had fortified Carlisle.
Donald Bane becomes king of Scotland
After Malcolm III and his second son Edward were killed near Alnwick Donald, Malcolm's brother, became the king of Scotland. Malcolm's family, including Edgar, were forced into exiled in England.
Death of Margaret of Scotland
Margaret of Scotland died only days after her son and husband had been killed at Alnwick.
Building work at Battle Abbey was completed and the abbey reconsecrated by William Rufus.
See of Norwich bought by Hebert de Losinga
Herbert de Losinga purchased the see (seat of the bishop) for the area around Norwich. The bishops seat was at Thetford but Herbert moved it to Norwich itself before starting the construction of a new cathedral.
Duncan II becomes King of the Scots
Assisted by Norman knights and his half-brother Edmund, Duncan invaded Scotland to unseat his uncle Donald from the Scottish throne. The invasion succeeded and he became king in May. His reign only lasted until November when he was killed in battle and Donald retook the Scottish throne. Edmund sided with Donald at this time and was named as heir to the throne as the King had no children. It is possible that Edmund shared the rule of Scotland with Donald from 1094.
Donald III restored
Donald III was restored to the Scottish throne after the death of Duncan II. He shared the Scottish rule with his nephew Edmund.
Wulfstan was bishop of Worcester. The location of his grave is not known.
Robert Mowbray's Rebellion
After attacking four merchant ships Robert Mowbray was called for by William Rufus to explain his actions. Instead Mowbray rose up in rebellion against the king along with other powerful Norman Barons.
Monastery at Chester founded
Hugh 'Lupus' d'Avaranches, the first Earl of Chester, founded a monastery at Chester. Later to become Chester Cathedral.
Erik I Ejegod becomes King of Denmark
The Council of Piacenza
At the Council of Piacenza a delegation visited Pope Urban II led by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus to raise the problems he was having fighting the Muslims in the East. Pope Urban removed the excommunication that had been placed on the Emperor by Pope Gregory and promised to help.
The Council of Clermont
On the last day of the Council or Clemont Pope Urban II preached about the oppression being inflicted on the Christians in the Middle East by the Muslim Seljuks. Christian churches were being destroyed and Christians attacked. The Pope called for the Christians in the West to help.
Canterbury Choir, East Transepts and Crypt building work.
Canterbury Choir, East Transepts and Crypt building work.
William buys Normandy
Robert of Normandy became under pressure from William the Conqueror who laid claim to Normandy. William was gaining support from some Norman barons and Robert took the opportunity to leave Normandy to answer Pope Urban II's call for a Crusade. Robert agreed that William could lease Normandy for three years for a sum of 10,000 marks. This money would help him fund the expedition.
Qtr 1 (to 1100)
Peter the Hermit's (or People's) Crusade
Following Pope Urban's speech at Clermont Peter the Hermit, a simple man with a powerful ability to move people by his words, started preaching for Christians to help their fellow Christians in the East. He started to gain a large number of followers eager to go to Jerusalem with promises of absolution and freedom from a life of hunger and depravation. His followers were poor, not prepared for the journey and not armed.
Peter the Hermit preaches in Cologne
On Holy Saturday, the 12th of April, Peter the Hermit arrived in Cologne and preached to the Germans for a Crusade. He was eager for some nobility to join his ranks as so far he had only attracted peasants including women and children. The French part of his army was led by Walter Sans Avoir. Walter was not wiliing to wait in Cologne and with a number of crusaders left to travel on to Hungary.
Crusaders cause trouble
Peter the Hermit's army of ordinary people was large and it needed feeding. One of the more noble members of the army was Walter Sans Avoir, also known as Walter the Penniless. When the army reached Cologne in April Peter decided to halt the army to take advantage of the good supply of food. Walter was impatient and with a small section of the army continued on. They passed through Hungary but at the town of Semlin a dispute broke out when some of his men stole food. When his men were refused food at Belgrade because the harvest had not yet been gathered Walter's army began pillaging the surrounding area. Finally Alexius Comnenus sent supplies and an escort to guard the Crusaders as they marched to Constantinople. The guard ensured that the Crusaders didn't cause any more trouble.
Peter reaches Byzantium
At Constantinople the Emperor Alexius welcomed Peter's army but there were too many people and no provision had been made for them. There was a general lack of discipline that resulted in repeated attacks and thefts from surrounding villages. Alexius warned Peter to wait for better trained troops to arrive before moving on but the pressure of the army was so great on Constantinople that they were forced to move before help could arrive.
The People's Crusades cross the Bosporus
The People's Crusaders were shipped across the Bosporus to a disused army base at Civetot. From there they attacked the surrounding areas but they had little affect.
Raymond starts his crusade
While the People's Crusade led by Peter the Hermit was being crushed in the Holy Land, preparations for the First Crusade carried on in Europe. Those leaders involved were Raymond of Toulouse, Hughes Count of Vermandois, Robert Count of Flanders, Robert Duke of Normandy and Etienne Count of Blois. The leaders arranged to meet at Constantinople and set off taking different routes. Some followed the path across Europe taken by Peter the Hermit, while others took a more southerly routes via the Alps and the Adriatic.
Hugh reaches Constantinople
Hugh of Vermandios was the first of the barons to reach Constantinople. His army had travelled via Italy and Greece using ships rather than across land like the other barons.
The People's Crusaders massacred
The Turks attacked the People's Crusades in their base at Civetot and ended their Crusade.
Edgar, the son of Malcolm III of Scotland, became the king of Scotland after taking the Scottish throne from Donald Bane.
Anselm goes into exile
Conflicts between Archbishop Anselm and William Rufus resulted in the Archbishop leaving England and heading for Rome. William confiscated Anselm's land.
Construction of Westminster Hall
William Rufus arranged the construction of a new hall outside of London near Westminster Abbey. Westminster Hall was the largest hall in England and designed, no doubt, to impress and somewhere to hold banquets, ceremonies and a place to celebrate the coronations that took place in the Abbey near by. The hall is the earliest surviving building on the site.
Crusaders reach Constantinople
When the crusaders arrived at Constantinople they were greeted by Emperor Alexius. The Emperor was happy for the crusaders to capture areas of the Holy Land but he wanted the land to be under his control. Alexius persuaded the Leaders of the crusaders to swear an oath of allegiance to him and to hand over the land they captured. They could however be allowed to live on and rule that land but not own it.
Crusaders advance on Nicaea
Kilij Arslan, the Seldjuk Sultan, after easily defeating the army of the People's Crusade underestimated the strength of the Crusaders who were in Constantinople. Arslan had trouble on his eastern borders and had taken his army away from Nicaea which he thought was protected well enough. When word reached him of the advance by the Crusaders on the city his army was too far away to prevent the start of the siege.
Stephen of Blois at Constantinople
In late 1096, Stephen of Blois, his brother-in-law Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, along with his cousin Robert, count of Flanders set out for the Holy Land. They reached Constantinople in May of 1097 and were warmly welcomed by Emporer Alexis. They then joined the main party of Crusaders and helped capture the city of Nicea.
Siege of Nicaea
The Crusaders began their campaign with a siege of the city of Nicaea. The walls of the city were several miles long and as it lay on the eastern shore of a large lake a section of the walls rose out of the water. The Crusaders surrounded the city but were unable to gain entry. Attempts at undermining the walls were unsuccessful. Towards the end of May the Turks attacked the Crusaders and inflicted heavy losses but were beaten back. When it was discovered the the city was getting supplies from across the lake the Emporer Alexius sent a number of boats to prevent any further shipments getting through. This was the final straw for the defenders inside the city and on June 19th moments before the Crusaders launched an attack they surrendered. But they did not surrender to the Crusaders but to the Emperor instead. This infuriated the Crusaders who were expecting a large haul of treasure from the city. Alexius treated the captured Turks well and allowed many to buy their own freedom. But the city was important for the Crusaders as control of it ensured they could not be attacked as they moved further east.
Battle of Dorylaeum
The Crusaders defeated an army led by Kilij Arslan, the Seljuk Sultan of Rum, who wanted revenge for the capture of Nicaea. In the battle many of the Crusaders were killed but the Turks were forced to flee and abandon their tents and treasure after being surprised by the arrival of a second Crusader army. After a couple of days rest the army continued south east but were short of water. At Heraclea a Turkish army was defeated and the Crusaders would the supplies they needed.
The Crusaders reach Antioch
In October of 1097 the Crusaders had reached Antioch. The march had been long and difficult and many had died or deserted due to starvation, diseases and the very wet weather. At once they laid siege to the city. The Turks in the city were prepared and waited to be rescued.
A star with a long tail was seen in the south-west.
A treaty was signed between Edgar, King of Scotland, and King Magnus III of Norway agreeing that the northern territories of Scotland including the Hebrides belonged to Norway.
Abbey of Citeaux founded
The abbey of Citeaux in Burgundy was founded by Robert of Mosleme. The abbey did not prosper until around 1113 when Stephen Harding became abbot and a couple of years later St. Bernard became the abbot of Clairvaux its daughter house. The abbey of Citeaux was the start of the massively important Cistercian Order.
London Bridge washed away
London Bridge was washed away by a flood in this year.
Stephen of Blois deserts the Crusade
At the end of May, after a hard winter where the Crusaders has made no real gains, Stephen of Blois decided to abandon the Crusade and return home. He assumed that the Crusaders would not succeed and his excuse was that he was ill. But the Crusaders did succeed and in June, the city of Antioch fell. By the tiime he had returned to France, news of his desertion had already arrived.
Antioch falls to the Crusaders
The siege of Antioch was ended not by force but by betrayal. A hand full of Crusaders climbed a ladder into the city and simply opened the gates from the inside. The hoard of the Christian army surged into the city killing anyone or anything in their way. The destruction was brutal and no mercy was shown. As soon as the Crusaders were in the city the situation changed. Outside a Moslem army arrived and in turn besieged the city. Some Crusaders managed to escape over the walls and flee but the majority were trapped without food in the city.
The Crusaders fight back
Spurred on by the find of the Spear of Longinus, the spear that was supposed to have pierced Jesus on the cross, the Crusaders emerged from the city of Antioch to face the Moslems. The Moslems were defeated, many being killed and many fleeing. After the batlle the ownership of the city was disputed. Bohemund and Raymond of Toulouse argued over its possession and after several months of debate Raymond accepted Bohemund's right to it. In truth, the city should have been handed over to Emporer Alexius.
Construction of the nave at Durham Cathedral began in 1099 and lasted until 1128.
Flambard is made Bishop of Durham
Ranulf Flambard is made the Bishop of Durham by William Rufus.
Paschal II becomes Pope
The march to Jerusalem continues
After a delay of many months the crusaders under the leadership of Raymond of Toulouse left Antioch and headed south towards Jerusalem.
The Crusaders reach Masyaf
The Crusader army reached Masyaf, where a treaty was agreed. The Crusaders agreed to continue their march rather than capture or destroy the town.
Supplies found at Rafaniye
The Crusaders entered the deserted town of Rafaniye that provided them with much needed supplies. They stayed their for a few days before moving on into the Buqaia valley. On the site of the future Krak de Chevaliers castle, was an old, run-down fort. The locals had moved all of their livestock into the ruins and when the Crusaders approached let them out to create a diversion. In the confusion the locals escaped before the Crusaders took the fort.
Tortosa falls to the Crusaders
Count Raymond sent a small part of his army to attack the port of Tortosa, now called Tartus, on the Syrian coast. The Criusaders lit many fires around the port to make believe their number was greater than it was. Fooled by the deception, the governor of the port, and his garrison, fled by sea leaving the port open for the Crusaders to capture. The port was strategically important and a boost to the Crusaders' success.
The Crusaders reach Jerusalem
A year after their victory at Antioch the remaining Crusaders finally reached Jerusalem, their goal.
Crusaders take Jerusalem
The Crusaders take Jerusalem and Godfrey of Bouillon becomes King of Jerusalem.
Battle of Ascalon
The last battle of the First Crusade was fought between the Christians and Muslims at Ascalon. Led by Godfrey of Bouillon, the king of Jerusalem, the heavily out-numbered Christian army used their heavy armour to good affect. The Muslim army consisted mainly of Egyptians intent of driving the Christians out of Jerusalem.