Events occurring at some time during this year 
Fountains Abbey cloisters rebuilt 
Work began on rebuilding the cloisters at Fountains Abbey.

Rochester Cathedral West Front 
Work on the West front of Rochester Cathedral began in 1150.

Combe Abbey founded 
This Cistercian abbey in the Midlands was founded by Richard de Camville and was a daughter house of Waverley in the south.

Kinloss Abbey founded 
Another Cistercian abbey helped by David I, King of the Scots. The first monks came from Melrose.

Worcester siege  
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
King Stephen besieged then plundered the city of Worcester but was unable to capture the castle due to its strong defences.

Katla Volcano Eruption 
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Jan  -  Henry becomes Duke of Normandy 
Henry returned to Normandy from Scotland and he was given the title of Duke of Normandy by his father.

 

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
War in Normandy 
Louis VII, the king of France, was not happy with Henry's new position as Duke of Normandy. Louis declared war on Henry. The dispute was sent to arbitration in Paris (who by - probably Knights Templar) and was resolved by Henry doing homage to Louis for Normandy and giving France the area of Vexin.

Foundation of Flaxley Abbey 
Located in the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, the remains of this Cistercian abbey are in the grounds of a private house. The abbey's benefactor was Roger, Earl of Hereford and it was populated by monks from Bordesley Abbey.

Sep  -  Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, dies 
After returning from Paris with his son Henry, Geoffrey fell ill and died. He was taken back to Le Mans in the province of Maine (France) and buried in St. Julien's Cathedral.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
William Marshal as hostage 
At the age of five or six, William Marshal was handed over to King Stephen as a hostage. Instead of being killed, which was possible, William began a new life that would make him a knight.

Death of Ranulf, Earl of Chester 
He died.

Newbury Castle Siege 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Besieged and captured by King Stephen in 1152 (or 1153).

Henry captures Malmesbury 
Prince Henry captured the town of Malmesbury and its castle.

Baldwin III demands self rule 
Baldwin III was old enough to rule Jerusalem unaided and demanded that the control he shared with his mother was ended. This split the Crusader state and led to civil war.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Mar 11  -  Divorce of Louis VII and Eleanor 
The marriage of King Louis VII of France and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine was annulled. The reason for the divorce was given as consanguinity which means both Louis and Eleanor shared a common ancestor but the marriage had never been a happy one and Eleanor had been accused of adultery while accompanying Louis on crusade to the Holy Land in 1149.

Apr 6  -  Theobald refuses to crown Eustace 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
King Stephen had several lords swear to have Eustace, his son, as the next king of England. Theobald the Archbishop of Canterbury, who had to accept as well, refused to crown Eustace favouring Henry II's claim to the throne instead.

May  -  Henry marries Eleanor 
Only two months after Eleanor of Aquitaine's marriage to Louis VII, king of France was annulled, she married Henry of Anjou - future king of England - Henry II.

Qtr 3  -  Henry defends his position 
After marrying Eleanor Henry came under attack by Louis, Eleanor's previous husband, who did not recognise Henry as the new Duke of Aquitaine. Stephen sent troops and his son Eustace to help Louis against Henry. Henry's younger brother, Geoffrey, was also not happy with the situation and joined the quarrels. Henry moved quickly attacking Louis and capturing Geoffrey to secure his position as Duke.

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Reading Castle destroyed 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Reading Castle destroyed by Henry II.

Richard de Lucy becomes Constable of the Tower 
Richard de Lucy was appointed the title of Constable at the Tower of London, an extremely important position, by King Stephen.

Nottingham Castle attacked 
Henry attacked Nottingham where a fire resulted in damage to the town.

Anastasius IV becomes Pope  (More...)

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Jan  -  Henry invades England 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Henry and a fleet of 30 to 40 ships landed on the south coast of England. Henry chose to attack Malmesbury, one of Stephen's outposts. The Winter weather took its toll on Stephen's troops and a truce was agreed. The truce agreement was to have the castle at Malmesbury destroyed but this was not carried out and Henry took control of the fortress. Henry then went in search of supporters. In the Midlands, the Earl of Leicester took Henry's side and this gave Henry control of large number of castles in the area.

Jun  -  Malcolm IV becomes King of the Scots 
After the death of David I Malcolm became king. He was crowned at Scone Abbey.

Jun  -  Henry lays siege to Tutbury Castle 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
The Earl of Ferrers was a supporter of King Stephen and Henry of Anjou laid siege to his castle at Tutbury. The castle fell to Henry when the Earl decided to join Henry's fight against King Stephen.

Aug 17  -  Stephen's son Eustace dies 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Eustace wanted to continue the fight against Henry and had started attacking areas around Cambridge and East Anglia. He ransacked the Abbey at Bury St. Edmunds but died very shortly afterwards from a sudden illness.

Aug 20  -  Death of Bernard of Clairvaux 
Bernard, the abbot of Clairvaux, the post he had held since 1115, and one of the most important religious people in the Middle Ages died at the age of sixty-three.

Nov 6  -  Treaty of Wallingford 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Henry had besieged a fort that Stephen had built at Crowmarsh on the banks of the Thames opposite Wallingford Castle. An agreement of succession of Henry II after Stephen was concluded and witnessed by the English Knights Templars. King Stephen accepted Henry of Normandy, Anjou and Aquitaine as heir to the throne and in turn Henry recognised Stephen as king. Stephen made his barons do homage to Henry (Jan.1154).

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Berkeley Castle changes hands 
Henry II granted the castle at Berkeley to Robert Fitz Harding, a wealthy merchant who had helped Henry with financial aid during the conflict with Stephen.

Chapter House at Bristol 
Building of the Chapter House at Bristol started in 1154 and continued to 1164.

Ripon Cathedral rebuilt 
Under the direction of Archbishop Roger of York, Ripon Cathedral was rebuilt. Building work continued until 1180.

Last entry in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles 
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles are a series of historical timelines originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great. The chronicles were maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scribes until the last entry was made in 1154.

Adrian IV becomes Pope  (More...)

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Jan  -  Meeting at Oxford 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
At a meeting at Oxford the barons accepted Henry as the rightful heir to the English throne and paid homage to him. Henry was displeased because in the terms of the treaty of Wallingford many of the castles that had been built during the civil war were supposed to have been destroyed but were still standing.

Spring  -  Henry returns to Normandy 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
A triumphant Henry returned to Rouen in Normandy to a warm reception from his family including Eleanor and his eight month old son William.

Oct 25  -  Stephen dies 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Stephen had agreed that Henry should become King on his death. Henry was in Normandy at the time.

Dec  -  Henry II succeeds Stephen 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Henry became king of England upon the death of King Stephen.

Dec 8  -  Henry lands in England 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Although the English Channel was stormy, Henry needed to get to England as it had been without a King since the end of October. His ship landed somewhere near Southampton and he went straight to Winchester where he received the Royal treasures and the homage of the English barons.

Dec 19  -  Henry crowned at Westminster Abbey 
Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda
Henry of Normandy crowned Henry II of England, and Eleanor of Aquitaine crowned Queen, at Westminster.


Christmas  -  Henry II at Bermondsey Abbey 
After being crowned at Westminster Abbey, Henry II held court at Bermondsey Abbey during the Christmas period.

1155

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Knights Templar build Temple in Fleet Street 
Being the superintendents of the Masons, the Knights Templars build their Temple in Fleet Street in London.

Plan for the conquest of Ireland approved 
A plan to conquer Ireland was approved by Pope Adrian IV in a Papal Bull (a formal proclamation issued by the Pope) called Laudabiliter.

Henry takes Scarborough Castle and Bridgnorth 
As part of his attempt to subdue the Barons who had become too powerful during the civil war, Henry took the castle at Scarborough from William of Aumale and Bridgnorth from Hugh Mortimer.

Peterborough Cathedral Nave 
The nave of Peterborough cathedral was the next phase of rebuilding work after the choir and transept. Work continued until 1175.

Bridgnorth castle surrendered to Henry 
Henry II captures the castle at Bridgnorth.

Farnham Castle demolished 
Orders were given to destroy the central tower at Farnham Castle. The castle belonged to Henry, Bishop of Winchester who was the brother of King Stephen.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Feb 28  -  Henry the Young King is born 
Eleanor gave birth to Henry at Bermondsey Palace in London.

Spring  -  Repairs to Westminster Palace 
The Palace at Westminster had been badly damaged by Stephen's supporters at the time of the Anarchy and it had become unfit as a Royal residence. Thomas Becket was given the task of repairing the buildings and by the summer of the same year Eleanor was able to move in.

Christmas  -  Henry II at Westminster Palace 
The king spent the festive period at Westminster Palace. Repairs must have been completed if the royal court spent time there.

1156

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry captures Anjou 
Anjou was captured by Henry II in this year. It was regained by the French in 1205 from king John.

Kremlin built at Moscow 
The Kremlin started as a wooden stockade.

Christmas  -  Henry II at Bordeaux 
It is possible that Henry II held his Christmas court at Bordeaux in this year.

1157

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Malcolm IV surrenders land to Henry 
The areas of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmoreland are surrendered by Malcolm IV, King of Scotland to Henry. The lands had been acquired by David I in 1135 at the Treaty of Durham. Henry took back control of Carlisle Castle from the Scots.

Basingwerk Castle is built 
Henry II builds a castle at Basingwerk.

Devizes Castle passed to the Crown 
The castle at Devizes passed into King Henry II's control.

Construction of Harbottle Castle 
Henry II ordered a new castle to be built in Northumberland.

Wark Castle refortified 
The castle at Wark-on-Tweed was refortified. Henry II ordered a new stone castle be built on the site of the older wooden fort.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Sep 9  -  Richard (I) born at Oxford 
Richard may have been born at the Palace of Beaumont in Oxford.

Christmas  -  Henry II at Lincoln 
Henry held court at Lincoln in this year. It is thought St Mary's Guildhall was constructed for the purpose of the crown-wearing ceremonies held at Christmas.

1158

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Knights Templars present in Italy 
Knights Templars were known to be present in the Italian port of Lucca home of silk trading. They may have been present since the 1130's. Also present in the Adriatic ports of Barletta, Bari, Brindisi, Siponto and Messina.

Dieulacres Abbey founded 
Monks from Combermere founded this daughter house in 1158 at Poulton in Cheshire, but it would later be moved.

Cardiff Castle attack 
Welsh leader Ifor Bach attacked the castle and kidnapped William Fitzcount, the Lord of Glamorgan, along with his family.

Spring  -  Henry visits Wulfstan's Shrine 
At Easter Henry II and his wife Eleanor visited Worcester Cathedral and placed their crowns on the shrine of Wulfstan, vowing not to wear them again.

Aug  -  Henry II proposes a marriage 
Henry travelled to France to meet the French King and propose a marriage between his son Henry and Louis' daughter Margaret. This was accepted but the actual betrothal did not occur until November of 1160.

Sep 23  -  Birth of Geoffrey Plantagenet 
Birth of Geoffrey Plantagenet.

Christmas  -  Henry II at Cherbourg 
The king held court at Cherbourg this year.

1159

 

Jun 24  -  Henry II moves on Toulouse 
Henry claimed the area around Toulouse in the name of his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, At Poitiers he gathered his army and on June 24 the army began its march. He invaded the region and advanced on the city of Toulouse. Louis VII of France was unhappy with Henry's increasing power and took an army to Toulouse to prevent the English king entering the city. Henry backed down from attacking the city while Louis was inside it. Henry was Louis' vassal and taking the French King captive was not a good idea.

Sep  -  Alexander III becomes Pope 
Alexander III was elected to the position of Pope after the death of Adrian IV. Alexander was supported by the English and the French, but the Germans supported and elected a second Pope known as Octavian.

Sep  -  Victor IV becomes the Antipope  (More...)

Oct  -  Henry II in Normandy 
Henry took his army north to Normandy where Louis' brothers were attacking the border. Henry took several castles and cut Louis off from Paris.

Dec  -  Louis signs a peace treaty 
Henry held the upper hand and Louis had no choice other than sign a peace treaty. It was agreed that the treaty would last until Whitsun 1160.

Christmas  -  Henry II at Failaise 
The royal court spent Christrmas at Falaise this year.

1160

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France 
Under the direction of the new Bishop of Paris, Maurice de Sulley, a new church was planned. The major construction work would last until around 1235 while minor construction would continue for another 100 years after that. The existing church was pulled down and construction work began in 1163.

Oct  -  Henry pays homage 
It was agreed that most of the gains that Henry achieved in the last twelve months from Louis were to be reversed and as hier to Normandy Henry did homage to Louis, the French king.

Christmas  -  Henry II at Le Mans 
Christmas festivities were held at Le Mans.

1161

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Knights Templars move London Temple 
The Knights Templars moved their London temple to the new site between Fleet Street and the Thames.

Coupar Angus Abbey founded 
This Scottish Cistercian abbey was founded by Malcolm IV, King of Scotland. The monks that colonised it came from the abbey at Melrose.

Apr 18  -  Death of Theobald of Bec 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Theobald of Bec, archbishop of Canterbury, died after an illness. Henry II was informed and wanted his friend Thomas Becket elected as archbishop.

1162

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Eleanor gives birth in Rouen 
Eleanor of Aquitaine gave birth to a daughter at Rouen. The girl was named Eleanor after he mother.

Feb 10  -  Death of Baldwin III 
Baldwin, the king of Jerusalem died. He was succeeded by his brother Amalric.

Jun 3  -  Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.

 

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1163

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Notre Dame in Paris  
Bishop Maurice de Sulley united the two Cathedrals of Paris, St. Stephen's and the Blessed Virgin with the construction of Notre Dame Cathedral and laid the foundations of the new building that was designed by Eudes de Montreuil.

Trial by combat 
Henry II judged a trial by combat between Robert de Montfort and Henry of Essex. Henry of Essex was accused of cowardice being the flag bearer of the Henry II who had dropped the flag and fled a battle, he said, when he heard incorrectly that the king had been killed. Montfort won the combat when it appeared that Essex had been killed. When the monks from Reading Abbey took the body for burial they found that he was still alive and nursed him back to health. Essex became a monk at Reading Abbey.

Henry invades south Wales 
Henry IIinvaded Deheubarth taking Lord Rhys prisoner and confiscating his lands. Rhys was released a few weeks later. This prompted Lord Rhys to make an alliance with Owain Gwynedd, the Prince of Gwynedd to create an army to stand up to the Anglo-Normans.

Jan  -  Henry II returns to England 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Henry returned from Normandy to England coming ashore at Southampton where he was met by Thomas Becket.

Jul  -  Council at Woodstock 
The council held at the Royal Palace of Woodstock near Oxford was the scene for a clash between Henry II and Thomas Becket over the control of payments to Sheriffs. Becket opposed the plan and was going to oppose more of Henry's reforms in the near future.

Oct  -  Henry II puts plans of reform to Council of Westminster 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Henry II put his plans before the Council of Westminster to reform the judicial system allowing the courts power over members of the Church which had the luxury of their own courts. Thomas Becket stood against the plans starting a rift between him and Henry that would led to Becket's death.

Oct 13  -  Edward the Confessor moved 
The body of Edward the Confessor was moved to a more fitting location within the Abbey. The ceremony was attended by Henry II and Thomas Becket.

1164

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Templars attempt a reconciliation 
Richard de Hastings, Master of the Templars, attempted to reconcile the differences between Henry II and Thomas Becket.

An Airburst Meteor? 
From the Chronicles of Meaux Abbey came the report saying 'In the tenth year of Henry II, about the first hour there appeared in the sky three circles and two suns; and a dragon of immense size was seen in St. Osyth (Osey Island, co. Essex), sailing the air so close to the earth that divers houses were burnt by the heat.' Is this a report of an airburst meteor? An airburst meteor is a meteor that explodes in the air before it reaches the ground and doesn't create an impact crator. A more recent example of an airburst meteor occurred in Russia at a place called Tunguska. This event, known and the great Siberian explosion, happened in 1908 and resulted in the felling of millions of trees.

Foundation of Strata Florida Abbey 
This Cistercian abbey was founded by Robert fitz Stephen, a Norman. Monks were sent from the Cistercian abbey at Whitland to populate the new monastery.

Paschall III becomes the Antipope  (More...)

Construction of the Great Tower at Bamburgh 
A large Norman square keep was built as Bamburgh castle as the cost of four pounds.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Jan 30  -  Constitutions of Clarendon 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
A series of statements laid down by Henry II regarding the relationship between the church and the state. One statement was the cause for the rift between Henry and Thomas Becket, that said that a member of the church who committed a crime should be available to be tried in a state court and not just a church one. Clarendon is near Salisbury.

Jan 30  -  William of Paitin dies 
William of Paitin, Henry II's brother, died at Rouen.

Apr 19  -  Reading Abbey consecrated 
Thomas Becket consecrated the abbey at Reading on its completion in this year.

Oct 6  -  Council of Northampton 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Council of Northampton held to discuss the Welsh rebellion and the Constitution of Clarendon; the Council tried Thomas Becket (8.10) and found him guilty of perjury (failure to appear at Council) and heresy; he was sentenced to forfeiture of his possessions; the sentence was quashed by Alexander III and Becket fled to Lincoln (14.10) and then France (2.11).

Nov 2  -  Becket flees to France 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Becket fled to France and sought the protection of Pope Alexander III, who himself was in exile.

1165

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Eleanor moves back to Aquitaine 
Henry II and Eleanor's marriage is effectively ended when she moves back to Aquitaine leaving Henry to rebuild England after the civil war in Stephen's reign.

Hugh Bigod buys back Framlingham 
Henry II had confiscated the castle from the rebellious Earl. But Hugh raised the money required to buy back the castle. Henry built the castle at Orford to keep Hugh under control.

Aug 21  -  Birth of Philip Augustus  
The future king of France was born.

Dec  -  William I 'the Lion' becomes king of the Scots 
On the death of Malcolm IV his brother, William, became the king of the Scots. William was crowned at Scone.

1166

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Building of Orford Castle 
Henry II, had the castle at Orford, in Norfolk built between 1166 and 1172, to counter the threats of Hugh Bigod and to confront his castle fortress at Framlingham.

Assize of Clarendon 
A series of legislative statements made by Henry II with the aim of improving the justice process, including the jury system.

Building work at Bridgnorth Castle 
Work on the tower at the castle of Bridgnorth progressed between 1166 and 1174.

Becket excommunicates his enemies 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Richard de Lucy, joint Chief Justiciar in England, excommunicated by Thomas Becket.

Dermot exiled from Ireland 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
Dermot, the King of Leinster in eastern Ireland, was defeated in battle by Tighernan O Ruairc, another ruler in the region. Dermot was exiled and went to Normandy and the court of Henry II of England to ask for assistance in retaking his lands. Henry gave Dermot permission to find a willing army from either England or Wales and so Dermot approached Richard de Clare, the Earl of Pembroke who agreed to help in return for several demands. These demands were Dermot's daughter's hand in marriage and to rule Leinster after Dermot died.

Events occurring at some time during this year 

1167

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of Wallingford Castle 
Robert D'Oyley of Liseux built the castle at a strategic site of Wallingford where it was possible to cross the river Thames. Originally the castle would have been a motte and bailey type castle.

University of Paris ban 
Due to a dispute with France Henry II banned all English scholars from attending the University of Paris. The scholars returned to England and boosted the numbers attending the English universities such as Oxford.

Aug  -  Dermot returns to Ireland 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
Dermot returned to Ireland but without an army. He was unable to retake Leinster and had to wait until the forces he had been promised arrived from Wales.

Sep 10  -  Death of Matilda 
Matilda, the mother of King Henry II of England died at Rouen, France, and buried in Fontevrault Abbey.

Dec 24  -  John, the future king of England is born 
John is born at Oxford.

1168

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Reconstruction of Dover Castle 
Henry II began the reconstruction of Dover Castle. The work would continue for twenty years and at the end of it, a brand new keep had been built, along with the outer walls of the inner bailey and sections of the outer wall.

Calixtus III becomes the Antipope  (More...)

1169

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Betrothal of Richard and Alice 
A marriage agreement was arranged between Prince Richard and the daughter of King Louis VII, bringing peace between England and France.

Welsh American Indians 
A Welsh tradition tells of David ap Owen Gwynedd and his followers who sailed to America. They returned the next year and took more people back. The tradition states David founded a tribe of Welsh American Indians. This is supposed to have happened some 300 years before Columbus discovered the continent.

Jan 6  -  Becket submits to Henry 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Henry II of England, Louis VII of France and Becket met at Montmirail; Becket submitted to Henry excepting only on point, and negotiations failed (7.1); a second meeting took place (7.2) at St. Leger-en-Yvelines, and a papal ultimatum served on Henry..

May  -  Dermot retakes Leinster 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
Some the men promised to assist Dermot in Ireland landed at Bannow with the sons of Nesta. The poorly protected Irish warriors were no match for the armoured knights and archers that arrived from Wales. By the end of the year Leinster fell and Dermot once again became the King. After his victory Dermot was not satisfied with just ruling Leinster but wanted to become High King of Ireland. To fulfil his ambitions he had to wait for the arrival of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, for that to be a possibility.

1170

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
The Galilee porch at Durham is built 
The Galilee porch on the West front of Durham Cathedral was built between 1170 and 1175.

Construction of Middleham Castle 
Middleham Castle in Yorkshire could have been built at this time.

Fire damages Norwich Cathedral 
Some repair work was carried out at the Cathedral after the fire in 1170 (or 1171).

Kingswood Abbey Founded 
The Gloucestershire abbey was moved back to Kingswood and populated by monks from Tintern.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
May  -  Raymond de Gros lands in Ireland 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
Raymond de Gros arrived in Ireland in support of Dermot a few months ahead of Strongbow. He landed at Waterford and constructed a fort in which he and his men prepared for the arrival of the Earl.

Jun 14  -  Henry II coronation of Prince Henry 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
To insult Thomas Becket, Henry II used the Archbishop of York in the coronation of his son Henry. This was an act that infringed the rights of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The coronation took place at Westminster Abbey.

Jun 29  -  Huge Eastern Mediterranean Earthquake 
Episode: The Crusaders in the Holy Land
A large earthquake hit the eastern Mediterranean along the fault line that runs along that region. A huge amount of damage was done causing a major loss of life. The earthquake was so powerful that the massive castle Krak des Chevaliers was damaged and needed repairing.

Jul 22  -  Becket and Henry at Freteval 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Henry II and Thomas Becket met near Freteval in France where they came to an agreement to end their differences. This resulted in Becket's partial restoration.

Aug  -  Ireland attacked by Earl of Pembroke 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
Richard de Clare, the Earl of Pembroke, invaded Ireland with 200 knights in armour and up to a 1,000 foot-soldiers capturing Waterford easily and then Dublin on behalf of Dermot, the King of Leinster.

Sep 21  -  Dublin Captured by the Normans 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
Dublin fell to the Norman army.

Winter  -  The Earl at Dublin 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
After letting the population of Dublin leave, the Earl of Pembroke and his men spent the Winter in the city.

Dec 1  -  Thomas Becket returns to England 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Henry II sent word to England saying that the conflict with Thomas Becket was at an end and his lands should be restored. Hearing this Becket returned to England landing on the south coast at Sandwich.

Dec 25  -  Becket excommunicates his enemies 
On Christmas Day Thomas Becket took to the pulpit at Canterbury Cathedral and gave his sermon. At the end of the sermon he excommunicated several of his enemies who had taken part in his earlier troubles with the King.

Dec 29  -  Thomas Becket is murdered 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
When Henry II heard that Thomas Becket had returned to England and was threatening to excommunicate his opponents, his outrage was such that four knights overhearing the King travelled to England and killed Becket inside Canterbury Cathedral.

1171

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Bindon Abbey founded 
A group of Cistercian monks from Forde Abbey colonised a new abbey at Bindon near Wareham on the south coast of England.

Construction of Bowes Castle 
Henry II financed the construction of an improved castle on an old site in County Durham.

York Minster construction work 
Archbishop Roger began reconstruction work of a new church after the previous one had been destroyed by fire.

Cardiganshire granted to Lord Rhys 
Henry II granted territories of south Wales including Cardiganshire to Rhys, the Prince of Wales.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Jan 1  -  Henry II told of the murder of Becket 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Henry II told of the murder of Becket.

Spring  -  Death of Dermot, King of Leinster 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
The agreement between the Earl of Pembroke and Dermot, the King of Leinster, was that if the Earl helped the King retake Leinster the Earl would become the ruler of Leinster when Dermot died. When the king died in the spring of 1171 the agreement fell apart due to the lack of support from Dermot's tribesmen. The tribesmen elected a nephew of Dermot's as the new king instead.

Jul  -  Henry plans invasion of Ireland 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
King Henry II had become concerned that Strongbow was building a strong base in Ireland, strong enough to become an independent state separate from England. Henry planned to take an army to Ireland to deal with Strongbow but Strongbow travelled to England and in September met Henry and promised his loyalty to the King.

Aug 6  -  Henry II returns to England 
Henry II returned to England and visited Henry of Blois, the bishop of Winchester who was dying. He also met with Lord Rhys, the important south Wales prince. A series of meetings took place during 1171 and 1172 where an agreement was reached whereby Lord Rhys could keep his land and was given the title justiciar of south Wales.

Aug 8  -  Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, dies 
Henry of Blois died.

Oct 17  -  Henry lands at Waterford in Ireland 
Episode: Conquest of Ireland
Henry II travelled to Ireland to receive the homage of the Irish leaders. Traders were invited to Dublin where a colony of English was set up. Henry stayed in Ireland over the winter months returning to England in the spring of 1172.

 

1172

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry II and Lord Rhys meet 
Laugharne Castle was the location of one of a series of meetings between Henry II and Lord Rhys that confirmed Rhys' lands and where he was given the title of justiciar.

Apr 17  -  Henry returns to England 
When news of the Papal Legates threatening to place England under an interdict becuase of the murder of the archbishop and news of his wife and sons plotting against him reached Henry in Ireland he decided to return. He sailed from Wexford Harbour and landed at Port Finnan, in Wales.

May 21  -  Compromise of Avranches 
Even though Henry II was cleared of involvement in Thomas Becket's murder, he did penance before the Cathedral at Avranches in Normandy. The compromise was a deal struck between Henry and the church over the matter of Becket's death. (More detail required).

Jun  -  Richard become Duke of Aquitaine 
In a ceremony held at the church of St. Hilary in Poitiers, Richard was granted the title of Duke of Aquitaine.

Aug 28  -  The Young King is crowned 
At a ceremony at Winchester Cathedral Henry, the Young King, and his wife Margaret were both crowned.

 

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1173

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Baronial rebellion 
Episode: Rebellion against Henry II
The baronial rebellion against Henry II. One of it leaders was Hugh Bigod. (Need to investigate)

Henry called as arbitrator 
Henry II's knowledge of law was extensive and he was called in as arbitrator in a conflict between Toulouse and Aragon.

Wallingford Castle repairs 
Repairs to the castle at Wallingford.

Remodelling of Windsor Castle 
Henry II carried out major rebuilding work at Windsor Castle, including raising the height of the keep and improved the walls around the bailey. He added towers to the walls and built himself a house, the basement of which survives.

Henry takes control of Kenilworth 
With the threat of attack from the Barons and his own sons, Henry II took control of Kenilworth Castle and defended it with a small army of men.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Feb 21  -  Becket canonised 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Becket was canonized by Pope Alexander III. His shrine at Canterbury Cathedral became extremely wealthy due to the number of pilgrims visiting it and donating money.

1174

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Canterbury Cathedral fire 
Canterbury Cathedral suffered another disastrous fire and was damaged so badly that it needed almost completely rebuilding. William of Sens was given the task of constructing a new Cathedral. William was injured by a fall from scaffolding and the work was continued by William the Englishman.

Construction of Bolebec Castle 
Bolebec Castle near Whitchurch was built around this time by Hugh de Bolebec.

William of Scotland held prisoner 
King William of Scotland was held captive at Richmond Castle.

May  -  Richard (I) seizes the town of Saintes from his father, Henry II 
Episode: Rebellion against Henry II
Richard seized the town of Saintes from his father but soon lost it again as Henry's tactics and forces were more superior.

Jun 13  -  The Battle of Alnwick 
Episode: Rebellion against Henry II
William I, king of Scotland invaded England to help fight in the baronial rebellion against Henry II. The Scottish King attacked the castle at Prudhoe but was unable to capture it. William was captured at the Battle of Alnwick and the rebellion came to an end. He was transported to Falaise in Normandy where he would later sign a peace treaty.

Jul 7  -  Whipping of Henry II 
Episode: Henry II and Thomas Becket
Henry II accepted his part, even though indirect, in the killing of Thomas Becket. He was whipped by the monks of Canterbury as punishment.

Aug  -  Siege of Rouen 
Episode: Rebellion against Henry II
From the middle of July King Louis of France, Henry the Young King and Philip the count of Flanders had surrounded the city of Rouen. The city had held out against the war engines. Henry II arrived at Rouen in the middle of August to rescue the city. The besiegers were fearful that Henry II would invade France and the siege was lifted.

Oct 11  -  Henry II reaches a peace agreement 
Episode: Rebellion against Henry II
After a year and a half of rebellion against him, Henry II achieved peace agreements with Louis the French king and his own three sons. (Treaty of Falaise?)

Nov 4  -  An aurora is seen across Europe 
At about midnight, for the space of an hour or more, the whole face of the sky towards the north part was seen to be suffused with a red colour like blood.

Dec 8  -  William I of Scotland signs Treaty of Falaise 
Captured by the English, William of Scotland was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise. The treaty made Scotland a feudal possession of England and William and his nobles swore fealty to Henry II. William had to hand over several castles to the English in return for his freedom. One of these was Stirling Castle.This treaty was overruled by Richard I in return for funds paid by Scotland that Richard needed for his crusade in 1189.