Louis VII, the king of France, was not happy with Henry's new position as Duke of Normandy. Louis declared war on Henry. The dispute was sent to arbitration in Paris (who by - probably Knights Templar) and was resolved by Henry doing homage to Louis for Normandy and giving France the area of Vexin.
Foundation of Flaxley Abbey
Located in the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, the remains of this Cistercian abbey are in the grounds of a private house. The abbey's benefactor was Roger, Earl of Hereford and it was populated by monks from Bordesley Abbey.
Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, dies
After returning from Paris with his son Henry, Geoffrey fell ill and died. He was taken back to Le Mans in the province of Maine (France) and buried in St. Julien's Cathedral.
At the age of five or six, William Marshal was handed over to King Stephen as a hostage. Instead of being killed, which was possible, William began a new life that would make him a knight.
Death of Ranulf, Earl of Chester
Newbury Castle Siege
Newbury Castle was besieged and captured by King Stephen in 1152 (or 1153).
Henry captures Malmesbury
Prince Henry captured the town of Malmesbury and its castle.
Baldwin III demands self rule
Baldwin III was old enough to rule Jerusalem unaided and demanded that the control he shared with his mother was ended. This split the Crusader state and led to civil war.
Divorce of Louis VII and Eleanor
The marriage of King Louis VII of France and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine was annulled. The reason for the divorce was given as consanguinity which means both Louis and Eleanor shared a common ancestor. But the marriage had never been a happy one and Eleanor had been accused of adultery while accompanying Louis on crusade to the Holy Land in 1149.
Theobald refuses to crown Eustace
King Stephen had several lords swear to have Eustace, his son, as the next king of England. Theobald the Archbishop of Canterbury, who had to accept as well, refused to crown Eustace favouring Henry II's claim to the throne instead.
Henry marries Eleanor
Only two months after Eleanor of Aquitaine's marriage to Louis VII, king of France was annulled, she married Henry of Anjou - future king of England - Henry II.
Henry defends his position
After marrying Eleanor Henry came under attack by Louis, Eleanor's previous husband, who did not recognise Henry as the new Duke of Aquitaine. Stephen sent troops and his son Eustace to help Louis against Henry. Henry's younger brother, Geoffrey, was also not happy with the situation and joined the quarrels. Henry moved quickly attacking Louis and capturing Geoffrey to secure his position as Duke.
Richard de Lucy was appointed the title of Constable at the Tower of London, an extremely important position, by King Stephen.
Nottingham Castle attacked
Henry attacked Nottingham where a fire resulted in damage to the town.
Anastasius IV becomes Pope
Henry invades England
Henry, the son of Matilda, and a fleet of 30 to 40 ships landed on the south coast of England. Henry chose to attack Malmesbury, one of King Stephen's outposts. The winter weather took its toll on Stephen's troops and a truce was agreed. The truce agreement was to have the castle at Malmesbury destroyed but this was not carried out and Henry took control of the fortress. Henry then went in search of supporters. In the Midlands, the Earl of Leicester took Henry's side and this gave Henry control of large number of castles.
Malcolm IV becomes King of the Scots
After the death of David I Malcolm became king. He was crowned at Scone Abbey.
Henry lays siege to Tutbury Castle
The Earl of Ferrers was a supporter of King Stephen and Henry of Anjou laid siege to his castle at Tutbury. The castle fell to Henry when the Earl decided to join Henry's fight against King Stephen.
Stephen's son Eustace dies
Eustace wanted to continue the fight against Henry and had started attacking areas around Cambridge and East Anglia. He ransacked the Abbey at Bury St. Edmunds but died very shortly afterwards from a sudden illness.
Death of Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard, the abbot of Clairvaux, the post he had held since 1115, and one of the most important religious people in the Middle Ages died at the age of sixty-three.
Treaty of Wallingford
Henry had besieged a fort that King Stephen had built at Crowmarsh on the banks of the Thames opposite Wallingford Castle. An agreement of succession of Henry II after Stephen was concluded and witnessed by the English Knights Templars. King Stephen accepted Henry of Normandy, Anjou and Aquitaine as heir to the throne and in turn Henry recognised Stephen as King. Stephen made his barons do homage to Henry in January of 1154.
Henry II granted the castle at Berkeley to Robert Fitz Harding, a wealthy merchant who had helped Henry with financial aid during the conflict with Stephen.
Chapter House at Bristol
Building of the Chapter House at Bristol started in 1154 and continued until 1164.
Ripon Cathedral rebuilt
Under the direction of Archbishop Roger of York, Ripon Cathedral was rebuilt. Building work continued until 1180.
Last entry in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles are a series of historical timelines originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great. The chronicles were maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scribes until the last entry was made in 1154.
Adrian IV becomes Pope
Meeting at Oxford
At a meeting at Oxford the barons accepted Henry as the rightful heir to the English throne and paid homage to him. Henry was displeased because in the terms of the treaty of Wallingford many of the castles that had been built during the civil war were supposed to have been destroyed but were still standing.
Henry returns to Normandy
A triumphant Henry returned to Rouen in Normandy to a warm reception from his family including Eleanor and his eight month old son William.
Stephen had agreed that Henry should become King on his death. Henry was in Normandy at the time.
Henry II succeeds Stephen
Henry became king of England upon the death of King Stephen.
Henry lands in England
Although the English Channel was stormy, Henry needed to get to England as it had been without a King since the end of October. His ship landed somewhere near Southampton and he went straight to Winchester where he received the Royal treasures and the homage of the English barons.
Henry crowned at Westminster Abbey
Henry of Normandy was crowned as King Henry II of England, and Eleanor of Aquitaine was crowned Queen, at Westminster Abbey.
Henry II at Bermondsey Abbey
After being crowned at Westminster Abbey, King Henry II held court at Bermondsey Abbey during the Christmas period.
Being the superintendents of the Masons, the Knights Templars build their Temple in Fleet Street in London.
Plan for the conquest of Ireland approved
A plan to conquer Ireland was approved by Pope Adrian IV in a Papal Bull (a formal proclamation issued by the Pope) called Laudabiliter.
Henry takes Scarborough Castle and Bridgnorth
As part of his attempt to subdue the Barons who had become too powerful during the civil war, Henry took the castle at Scarborough from William of Aumale and Bridgnorth from Hugh Mortimer.
Peterborough Cathedral Nave
The nave of Peterborough Cathedral was the next phase of rebuilding work after the choir and transept. Work continued until 1175.
Bridgnorth castle surrendered to Henry
King Henry II captured the castle at Bridgnorth from Hugh de Mortimer who had taken possession of the fortress during the reign of King Stephen.
Farnham Castle demolished
Orders were given to destroy the central tower at Farnham Castle. The castle belonged to Henry, Bishop of Winchester who was the brother of King Stephen.
Henry the Young King is born
Eleanor gave birth to Henry at Bermondsey Palace in London.
Repairs to Westminster Palace
The Palace at Westminster had been badly damaged by Stephen's supporters at the time of the Anarchy and it had become unfit as a Royal residence. Thomas Becket was given the task of repairing the buildings and by the summer of the same year Eleanor was able to move in.
Henry II at Westminster Palace
The king spent the festive period at Westminster Palace. Repairs must have been completed if the royal court spent time there.
The areas of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmoreland were surrendered by Malcolm IV, King of Scotland to King Henry II of England. The lands had been acquired by King David I in 1135 at the Treaty of Durham. Henry took back control of Carlisle Castle from the Scots.
Basingwerk Castle is rebuilt
Henry II rebuilt a castle at Basingwerk on the north coast of Wales overlooking a holy well. The king spent time at the castle while visiting the well.
Devizes Castle passed to the Crown
The castle at Devizes passed into King Henry II's control.
Construction of Harbottle Castle
Henry II ordered a new castle to be built at Harbottle in Northumberland.
Wark Castle refortified
The castle at Wark-on-Tweed was refortified. Henry II ordered a new stone castle be built on the site of the older wooden fort.
Henry invades Gwynedd
King Henry II invaded the northern territories of the Welsh Prince Owain Gwynedd. At truce was agreed and the Welsh Prince paid hamage to English King.
Richard (I) born at Oxford
Richard may have been born at the Palace of Beaumont in Oxford.
Henry II at Lincoln
Henry held court at Lincoln in this year. It is thought St Mary's Guildhall was constructed for the purpose of the crown-wearing ceremonies held at Christmas.
The Knights Templars were known to be present in the Italian port of Lucca home of silk trading. They may have been present from the 1130's. Also present in the Adriatic ports of Barletta, Bari, Brindisi, Siponto and Messina.
Dieulacres Abbey founded
Monks from Combermere founded Dieulacres Abbey in 1158 at Poulton in Cheshire, but it would later be moved.
Cardiff Castle attack
Welsh leader Ifor Bach attacked the castle and kidnapped William Fitzcount, the Lord of Glamorgan, along with his family.
Henry visits Wulfstan's Shrine
At Easter King Henry II, and his wife Eleanor, visited Worcester Cathedral and placed their crowns on the shrine of Wulfstan, vowing not to wear them again.
Henry II proposes a marriage
King Henry II travelled to France to meet Louis VII the French King and propose a marriage between his son Henry and Louis' daughter Margaret. This was accepted but the actual betrothal did not occur until November of 1160. Louis' children were all female, two by Eleanor of Aquitaine and the third, Margaret, by Constance , the daughter of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile. Henry was only three years old and Margaret was less than a year old.
King Henry II claimed the area around Toulouse in the name of his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, At Poitiers he gathered his army and on June 24th the army began its march. He invaded the region and advanced on the city of Toulouse. Louis VII of France was unhappy with Henry's increasing power and took an army to Toulouse to prevent the English king entering the city. As Henry was the vassal of King Louis he backed down from attacking the city while Louis was inside.
Alexander III becomes Pope
Alexander III was elected to the position of Pope after the death of Adrian IV. Alexander was supported by the English and the French, but the Germans supported and elected a second Pope known as Octavian.
Victor IV becomes the Antipope
A double election took place after the death of Pope Adrian IV. In February 1160, the council of Pavia choose Victor IV, but by the summer of 1160 the English, Norman and French churches had chosen Cardinal Roland Bandinelli.
Henry II in Normandy
Henry took his army north to Normandy where Louis' brothers were attacking the border. Henry took several castles and cut Louis off from Paris.
Louis signs a peace treaty
King Henry I held the upper hand and King Louis VII of France had no choice other than sign a peace treaty. It was agreed that the treaty would last until Whitsun 1160.
Henry II at Failaise
The royal court spent Christrmas at Falaise this year.
Under the direction of the new Bishop of Paris, Maurice de Sulley, a new church was planned for Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. The major construction work would last until around 1235 while minor construction would continue for another 100 years after that. The existing church was pulled down and construction work began in 1163.
Henry pays homage
It was agreed that most of the gains that Henry achieved in the last twelve months from Louis were to be reversed and as hier to Normandy Henry did homage to Louis, the French king.
Louis marries again
Within weeks of the death of his second wife, King Louis of France married Adela, the daugter of Theobald count of Champange.
At a betrothal ceremony between Henry the Young King and Margaret, King Henry II accepted the dowry of the Vexin castles as agreed with King Louis of France.
Eleanor of Aquitaine gave birth to a daughter at Rouen. The girl was named Eleanor after he mother.
Death of Baldwin III
Baldwin, the king of Jerusalem died. He was succeeded by his brother Amalric.
Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Thomas Becket was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury on June 3rd. He accepted the pallium sent by the Pope on August 10th. A pallium is a piece of clothe sent by the Pope and is woven from white lamb's wool. It is draped around the neck.
Bishop Maurice de Sulley united the two Cathedrals of Paris, St. Stephen's and the Blessed Virgin with the construction of Notre Dame Cathedral and laid the foundations of the new building that was designed by Eudes de Montreuil.
Trial by combat
King Henry II judged a trial by combat between Robert de Montfort and Henry of Essex. Henry of Essex was accused of cowardice being the flag bearer of the King who had dropped the flag and fled the battle. In his defence Henry said that he had heard incorrectly that the king had been killed. Robert de Montfort won the combat when it appeared that Henry of Essex had been killed. When the monks from Reading Abbey took Henry's body for burial they found that he was still alive and nursed him back to health. Henry of Essex became a monk at Reading Abbey.
Henry invades south Wales
Henry IIinvaded Deheubarth taking Lord Rhys prisoner and confiscating his lands. Rhys was released a few weeks later. This prompted Lord Rhys to make an alliance with Owain Gwynedd, the Prince of Gwynedd to create an army to stand up to the Anglo-Normans.
Henry II returns to England
Henry returned from Normandy to England coming ashore at Southampton where he was met by Thomas Becket.
Council at Woodstock
The council held at the Royal Palace of Woodstock near Oxford was the scene for a clash between Henry II and Thomas Becket over the control of payments to Sheriffs. Becket opposed the plan and was going to oppose more of Henry's reforms in the near future.
Henry II puts plans of reform to Council of Westminster
Henry II put his plans before the Council of Westminster to reform the judicial system allowing the courts power over members of the Church which had the luxury of their own courts. Thomas Becket stood against the plans starting a rift between him and Henry that would led to Becket's death.
Edward the Confessor moved
The body of Edward the Confessor was moved to a more fitting location within the Abbey. The ceremony was attended by Henry II and Thomas Becket.
Richard de Hastings, Master of the Knight Templars, attempted to reconcile the differences between King Henry II and Thomas Becket.
An Airburst Meteor?
From the Chronicles of Meaux Abbey came the report saying 'In the tenth year of Henry II, about the first hour there appeared in the sky three circles and two suns; and a dragon of immense size was seen in St. Osyth (Osey Island, co. Essex), sailing the air so close to the earth that divers houses were burnt by the heat.' Is this a report of an airburst meteor? An airburst meteor is a meteor that explodes in the air before it reaches the ground and doesn't create an impact crator. A more recent example of an airburst meteor occurred in Russia at a place called Tunguska. This event, known and the great Siberian explosion, happened in 1908 and resulted in the felling of millions of trees.
Foundation of Strata Florida Abbey
This Cistercian abbey was founded by Robert fitz Stephen, a Norman. Monks were sent from the Cistercian abbey at Whitland to populate the new monastery.
Paschall III becomes the Antipope
Construction of the Great Tower at Bamburgh
A large Norman square keep was built as Bamburgh castle as the cost of four pounds.
Constitutions of Clarendon
The Constitutions of Clarendon were series of statements laid down by Henry II regarding the relationship between the church and the state. One statement was the cause for the rift between Henry and Thomas Becket, that said that a member of the church who committed a crime should be available to be tried in a state court and not just a church one. Clarendon is near Salisbury.
William of Paitin dies
William of Paitin, Henry II's brother, died at Rouen.
Reading Abbey consecrated
Thomas Becket consecrated the abbey at Reading on its completion in this year.
Council of Northampton
At the Council of Northampton the Welsh rebellion and the Constitution of Clarendon were discussed. The Council tried Thomas Becket and found him guilty of perjury for failure to appear at Council and heresy. Becket was sentenced to forfeiture of his possessions. The sentence was quashed by King Alexander III and Becket fled to Lincoln on the 14th and then France in early November.
Becket flees to France
Becket fled to France and sought the protection of Pope Alexander III, who himself was in exile.
Henry II and Eleanor's marriage is effectively ended when she moves back to Aquitaine leaving Henry to rebuild England after the civil war in Stephen's reign.
Hugh Bigod buys back Framlingham
King Henry II had confiscated Framlingham Castle from the rebellious Earl Hugh Bigod. But Hugh raised the money required to buy back the castle. Henry built the castle at Orford, a few miles to teh south, to keep Hugh under control.
Birth of Philip Augustus
The future king of France was born.
William I 'the Lion' becomes king of the Scots
On the death of Malcolm IV his brother, William, became the king of the Scots. William was crowned at Scone.
King Henry II, had the castle at Orford built in Norfolk between 1166 and 1172, to counter the threats of Hugh Bigod and to confront his castle fortress at Framlingham.
Assize of Clarendon
The Assize of Clarendon was a series of legislative statements made by King Henry II with the aim of improving the justice process, including the jury system.
Building work at Bridgnorth Castle
Work on the tower at the castle of Bridgnorth progressed between 1166 and 1174.
Becket excommunicates his enemies
Richard de Lucy, joint Chief Justiciar in England, excommunicated by Thomas Becket.
Dermot exiled from Ireland
Dermot, the King of Leinster in eastern Ireland, was defeated in battle by Tighernan O Ruairc, another ruler in the region. Dermot was exiled and went to Normandy and the court of Henry II of England to ask for assistance in retaking his lands. Henry gave Dermot permission to find a willing army from either England or Wales and so Dermot approached Richard de Clare, the Earl of Pembroke who agreed to help in return for several demands. These demands were Dermot's daughter's hand in marriage and to rule Leinster after Dermot died.
Robert D'Oyley of Liseux built the castle at a strategic site of Wallingford where it was possible to cross the river Thames. Originally the castle would have been a motte and bailey type castle.
University of Paris ban
Due to a dispute with France, Henry II banned all English scholars from attending the University of Paris. The scholars returned to England and boosted the numbers attending the English universities such as Oxford.
Dermot returns to Ireland
Dermot returned to Ireland but without an army. He was unable to retake Leinster and had to wait until the forces he had been promised arrived from Wales.
Death of Matilda
Matilda, the mother of King Henry II of England died at Rouen, France, and buried in Fontevrault Abbey.
Henry II began the reconstruction of Dover Castle. The work would continue for twenty years and at the end of it, a brand new keep had been built, along with the outer walls of the inner bailey and sections of the outer wall.
A marriage agreement was arranged between Prince Richard and the daughter of King Louis VII, bringing peace between England and France.
Welsh American Indians
A Welsh tradition tells of David ap Owen Gwynedd and his followers who sailed to America. They returned the next year and took more people back. The tradition states David founded a tribe of Welsh American Indians. This is supposed to have happened some 300 years before Columbus discovered the continent.
Becket submits to Henry
Henry II of England, Louis VII of France and Thomas Becket met at Montmirail to hold peace talks. Becket submitted to Henry excepting only on one point, and the negotiations failed. A second meeting took place at St. Leger-en-Yvelines, and a papal ultimatum was served on Henry.
Dermot retakes Leinster
Some the men promised to assist Dermot in Ireland landed at Bannow with the sons of Nesta. The poorly protected Irish warriors were no match for the armoured knights and archers that arrived from Wales. By the end of the year Leinster fell and Dermot once again became the King. After his victory Dermot was not satisfied with just ruling Leinster but wanted to become High King of Ireland. To fulfil his ambitions he had to wait for the arrival of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, for that to be a possibility.
The Galilee porch on the West front of Durham Cathedral was built between 1170 and 1175.
Construction of Middleham Castle
Middleham Castle in Yorkshire could have been built at this time.
Kingswood Abbey Founded
The Gloucestershire abbey was moved back to Kingswood and populated by monks from Tintern.
Raymond de Gros lands in Ireland
Raymond de Gros arrived in Ireland in support of Dermot a few months ahead of Strongbow. He landed at Waterford and constructed a fort in which he and his men prepared for the arrival of the Earl.
Henry II coronation of Prince Henry
King Henry II used the Archbishop of York in the coronation of his son Henry, to insult Thomas Becket. This was an act that infringed the rights of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The coronation took place at Westminster Abbey.
Huge Eastern Mediterranean Earthquake
A large earthquake hit the eastern Mediterranean along the fault line that runs along that region. A huge amount of damage was done causing a major loss of life. The earthquake was so powerful that the massive castle Krak des Chevaliers was damaged and needed repairing.
Becket and Henry at Freteval
Henry II and Thomas Becket met near Freteval in France where they came to an agreement to end their differences. This resulted in Becket's partial restoration.
Ireland attacked by Earl of Pembroke
Richard de Clare, the Earl of Pembroke, invaded Ireland with 200 knights in armour and up to a 1,000 foot-soldiers capturing Waterford easily and then Dublin on behalf of Dermot, the King of Leinster.
Dublin Captured by the Normans
Dublin fell to the Norman army.
The Earl at Dublin
After letting the population of Dublin leave, the Earl of Pembroke and his men spent the Winter in the city.
Thomas Becket returns to England
King Henry II sent word to England saying that the conflict with Thomas Becket was at an end and his lands should be restored. Hearing this Becket returned to England landing on the south coast at Sandwich.
Becket excommunicates his enemies
On Christmas Day Thomas Becket took to the pulpit at Canterbury Cathedral and gave his sermon. At the end of the sermon he excommunicated several of his enemies who had taken part in his earlier troubles with the King.
Thomas Becket is murdered
When Henry II heard that Thomas Becket had returned to England and was threatening to excommunicate his opponents, his outrage was such that four knights overhearing the King travelled to England and killed Becket inside Canterbury Cathedral.
A group of Cistercian monks from Forde Abbey colonised a new abbey at Bindon near Wareham on the south coast of England.
Fire damages Norwich Cathedral
At Norwich Cathedral repair work was carried out after a major fire. The works were carried out by Bishop John de Oxford and were completed by 1197.
Construction of Bowes Castle
Henry II financed the construction of an improved Bowes Castle on an old site in County Durham.
York Minster construction work
Archbishop Roger began reconstruction work of a new church after the previous one had been destroyed by fire.
Cardiganshire granted to Lord Rhys
Henry II granted territories of south Wales including Cardiganshire to Rhys, the Prince of Wales.
Henry II told of the murder of Becket
King Henry II was told of the murder of Thomas Becket.
Death of Dermot, King of Leinster
The agreement between the Earl of Pembroke and Dermot, the King of Leinster, was that if the Earl helped the King retake Leinster the Earl would become the ruler of Leinster when Dermot died. When the king died in the spring of 1171 the agreement fell apart due to the lack of support from Dermot's tribesmen. The tribesmen elected a nephew of Dermot's as the new king instead.
Henry plans invasion of Ireland
King Henry II had become concerned that Strongbow was building a strong base in Ireland, strong enough to become an independent state separate from England. Henry planned to take an army to Ireland to deal with Strongbow but Strongbow travelled to England and in September met Henry and promised his loyalty to the King.
Henry II returns to England
King Henry II returned to England and visited Henry of Blois, the bishop of Winchester who was dying. He also met with Lord Rhys, the important south Wales prince. A series of meetings took place during 1171 and 1172 where an agreement was reached whereby Lord Rhys could keep his land and was given the title justiciar of south Wales.
Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, dies
Henry of Blois died.
Henry lands at Waterford in Ireland
King Henry II travelled to Ireland to receive the homage of the Irish leaders. Traders were invited to Dublin where a colony of English was set up. Henry stayed in Ireland over the winter months returning to England in the spring of 1172.
Laugharne Castle was the location of one of a series of meetings between King Henry II and Lord Rhys, that confirmed the lands held by the Lord, and where he was given the title of justiciar.
Henry returns to England
When news of the Papal Legates threatening to place England under an interdict becuase of the murder of the archbishop and news of his wife and sons plotting against him reached Henry in Ireland he decided to return. He sailed from Wexford Harbour and landed at Port Finnan, in Wales.
Compromise of Avranches
The Compromise of Avranches. Even though Henry II was cleared of involvement in Thomas Becket's murder, he did penance before the Cathedral at Avranches in Normandy. The compromise was a deal struck between Henry and the church over the matter of Becket's death.
Richard become Duke of Aquitaine
In a ceremony held at the church of St. Hilary in Poitiers, Richard was granted the title of Duke of Aquitaine.
The Young King is crowned
At a ceremony at Winchester Cathedral Henry, the Young King, and his wife Margaret were both crowned.
The baronial rebellion against Henry II. One of it leaders was Hugh Bigod. (Need to investigate)
Henry called as arbitrator
Henry II's knowledge of law was extensive and he was called in as arbitrator in a conflict between Toulouse and Aragon.
Wallingford Castle repairs
Repairs to the castle at Wallingford.
Remodelling of Windsor Castle
Henry II carried out major rebuilding work at Windsor Castle, including raising the height of the keep and improved the walls around the bailey. He added towers to the walls and built himself a house, the basement of which survives.
Henry takes control of Kenilworth
With the threat of attack from the Barons and his own sons, Henry II took control of Kenilworth Castle and defended it with a small army of men.
Becket was canonized by Pope Alexander III. His shrine at Canterbury Cathedral became extremely wealthy due to the number of pilgrims visiting it and donating money.
Canterbury Cathedral suffered another disastrous fire and was damaged so badly that it needed almost completely rebuilding. William of Sens was given the task of constructing a new Cathedral. William was injured by a fall from scaffolding and the work was continued by William the Englishman.
Construction of Bolebec Castle
Bolebec Castle near Whitchurch was built around this time by Hugh de Bolebec.
William of Scotland held prisoner
King William of Scotland was held captive at Richmond Castle.
Richard of Dover becomes Archbishop
Pope Alexander III consecrated Roger of Dover as the Archbishop of Canterbury and gave him the pallium.
Richard (I) seizes the town of Saintes from his father, Henry II
Richard seized the town of Saintes from his father but soon lost it again as Henry's tactics and forces were more superior.
The Battle of Alnwick
William I, king of Scotland invaded England to help fight in the baronial rebellion against Henry II. The Scottish King attacked the castle at Prudhoe but was unable to capture it. William was captured at the Battle of Alnwick and the rebellion came to an end. He was transported to Falaise in Normandy where he would later sign a peace treaty.
Whipping of Henry II
Henry II accepted his part, even though indirect, in the killing of Thomas Becket. He was whipped by the monks of Canterbury as punishment.
Siege of Rouen
From the middle of July King Louis of France, Henry the Young King and Philip the count of Flanders had surrounded the city of Rouen. The city held out against the war engines long enough for Henry II to arrive in the middle of August to stage a rescue. The besiegers were fearful that Henry II would invade France and the siege was lifted.
Henry II reaches a peace agreement
After a year and a half of rebellion against him, Henry II achieved peace agreements with Louis VII the French king and his own three sons. (Treaty of Falaise?)
An aurora is seen across Europe
At about midnight, for the space of an hour or more, the whole face of the sky towards the north part was seen to be suffused with a red colour like blood.
William I of Scotland signs Treaty of Falaise
Captured by the English, William I of Scotland was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise. The treaty made Scotland a feudal possession of England and William and his nobles swore fealty to Henry II. William had to hand over several castles to the English in return for his freedom. One of these was Stirling Castle.This treaty was overruled by King Richard I in return for funds paid by Scotland that Richard needed for his crusade in 1189.