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1175 .. 1199
1175 .. 1199
Please note that the TimeRef website is currently being redesigned.
Please note that the TimeRef website is currently being redesigned. This page shows what the rest of site will eventually look like.
Canterbury Choir building work
Canterbury Choir building work by William of Sens.
Murder of Sitsyllt ap Dwfnwal
Abergavenny Castle was captured from William de Braose by Sitsyllt ap Dwfnwal, a Welsh Chieftain. The castle was restored to Braose by Sitsyllt and the Chieftain was invited to a feast to celebrate its return. Instead of a friendly meeting Braose had Sitsyllt ap Dwfnwal and his guests murdered.
Joan travels to Sicily
Joan, the daughter of Henry II, King of England, travelled to Sicily to marry William II the King of Sicily.
Treaty of Windsor
A treaty signed by Henry II and Rory O'Connor allowing O'Connor control of the areas of Ireland other than Leinster, Meath, Waterford and Dublin which were controlled by the English King. O'Connor agreed to pay Henry an annual sum of money and to provide one hide from each ten animals slaughtered every year.
Monks from the Savigniac abbey Aulnay-sur-Odon in Normandy found a new abbey in England.
Construction work at Arundel
More improvements were made to Arundel Castle between 1176 and 1188.
Cwmhir Abbey is founded
Cistercian monks from Whitland founded the Welsh abbey of Cwmhir in this year.
Peveril Castle Keep
A square central keep was constructed at Peveril castle which was under the control of Henry II.
Work begins on new London Bridge
Peter de Colechurch began the construction of a new London Bridge across the Thames, replacing the old wooden structure that had been destroyed by fire in 1136. The new bridge was built of stone and took until 1209 to complete.
Assize of Northampton
With the Assize of Northampton Henry II built upon the criminal justice system that he had set out in 1166 at Clarendon. The country was divided into six areas and these areas were covered by six groups of justices. The justices would follow a circuit around each area.
Death of Strongbow in Ireland
Richard 'Strongbow' fitzGilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke died in Ireland.
Again Henry's knowledge of law is used in a conflict between Alfonso IX of Castile and Sancho VI of Navarre held in London.
Byland Abbey founded
After several years of moving the location of this abbey, the Cistercian monks finally settled at Byland in North Yorkshire.
Henry II refounds Amesbury Abbey
Henry II removed the existing nuns from Amesbury Abbey and replaced them nuns from the abbey of Fontevrault in France. The abbey was originally founded in 979 by Alfrida.
Construction of Carrickfergus Castle
Carrickfergus Castle was built by John de Courcy, the Norman knight who invaded and conquered the Irish region of Ulidia (Ulster).
Katla Volcano Eruption
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.
The conquest of Ulidia (Ulster)
John de Courcy was a Norman knight who, with an army of around 320 men from Dublin, attacked the area of Ulidia (now Ulster) and captured its capital town Downpatrick. The king of the area, MacDunlevy, attempted to retake the town but was beaten back by de Courcy.
Joan becomes the Queen of Sicily
In the city of Palermo on the island of Sicily Joan, the daughter of King Henry II married William II, the king of Sicily.
Council at Oxford
At the council Henry II gave his title of Lord of Ireland to his son Prince John.
Courcy becomes lord of Ulidia
MacDunlevy, the native king of Ulidia (Ulster), was joined by the king of a neighbouring district and raised a large army to retake Ulidia from John de Courcy. They were also joined by several Irish bishops and many clerics. But the army was not able to defeat Courcy who then became lord of Ulidia.
Earth tremors damaged the Cathedral at Lincoln beyond repair. The earthquake must have been very powerful as it was said that it was felt throughout the country. Only the West front survived in good shape and rest of the building had to be demolished.
Earthquake in Sicily
Reports of an earthquake in the Plantagenet Chronicles occurring in Sicily. Need to confirm.
John is knighted
John is knighted by his father at Windsor Castle before travelling to Ireland.
John in Ireland
John accepted the post of Lord or Ireland and travelled there to take control. He was around eighteen years old and took his friends of the same age with him. They treated the native Irish barons with contempt and the English soldiers were unable to subdue the Irish fighters in unfamiliar conditions and the mission soon became a complete disaster. By the end of the year John returned to England. William Marshal, the Earl of Pembroke was entrusted with the task of controlling Ireland.
There was an eclipse of the Sun on this day over the north of Europe. Interestingly, there was an earthquake that damaged Lincoln Cathedral in 1185. Did the earthquake happen before or after the eclipse? Are the two events related?
Treaty of Boves
Signed by Philippe Augustus to ensure his authority over his vassals.
To avoid war with Philippe Augustus, after Philippe had taken Issousun, Henry II signed a peace treaty at Chateauroux.
Crusade sermon at Llandaff Cathedral
Archbishop Baldwin preached the Crusade, the spot being marked with a cross that was restored in 1897.
Another fire at Chichester Cathedral
Chichester Cathedral suffered another disastrous fire.
Army of Jerusalem defeated
The Christian Army of Jerusalem was beaten by Turkish forces at the Battle of Hattin. Guy of Lusignan was King of Jerusalem at this time. All Knights Templars and Hospitallers who survived the battle were executed afterwards. The Archbishop of Tyre, a man called Josias, was dispatched from the city to Europe to inform the Pope and European leaders of the disaster that had taken place and to ask for help.
Saladin captures Acre
After a short siege Saladin captured the port of Acre from the Christians.
Gregory VIII was Pope from October to December
Jerusalem falls to the Muslims
The al-Asqu mosque was returned to Islam. The Muslims allowed four Christian Priests to hold services in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This was opposed to the first Crusaders who since they first captured the city in 1099 had treated Jerusalem as theirs alone. The Muslim leader was Al-Malik al-Nasir Salad ed-Din Yusuf (Saladin).
Pope Urban dies
When Josias, the Archbishop of Tyre, reached Rome and the Papel Court he informed Pope Urban III of the disaster at Hattin. The Pope was is poor health and the news was too much for him to bare. Gregory VIII was elected as Pope but his reign only lasted for two months. Gregory died on 17th of December at Pisa.
Richard takes the Cross. The Crusade
Richard took the Cross. Before going on a Crusade a vow was taken and the person was given a piece of cloth in the shape of a cross to be sown onto the surcoat. To go on a Crusade meant a person was granted a plenary indulgence which freed them from the terrors of purgatory and hell if they killed the enemy and gave them the promise of eternal life in heaven.
Odd events surrounding the meeting of Henry II and Philippe II of France in a field at Gisors. Events surround a sacred Oak tree.
The 'Saladin Tithe'
Josias, the Archbishop of Tyre, found Henry II and Philippe II at Gisors and told them of the defeat at Hattin. Both kings agreed to peace terms and to contribute to a joint Crusade. It was decided to raise a new tax to pay for the endevour. This tax, known as the Saladin Tithe, was imposed on the people of England and France to raise funds for a new Crusade. But the truce between England and France did not last long enough for the planned joint crusade to get underway.
Barbarossa takes the Cross
At Mainz Cathedral, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa took the Cross showing his intention to travel to the Holy Land.
War breaks out
The conflicts between England and France again started with Henry II attacking French lands and Philippe II attacking English lands in Normandy.
While Richard I was away on Crusade, William Longchamp, the Bishop of Ely and Chancellor ordered the enlargement of the bailey surrounding the keep Tower in London. A new ditch and bank were constructed with a new section of curtain wall.
John marries Isabella
John married Isabella of Gloucester who was the heiress of the Glamorgan lordship.
Teutonic Knights established
The Order of the Teutonic Knights established at Acre.
William Marshal and Chepstow Castle
In 1189 William Marshal married Isabel (Isabella), the heiress of Earl Richard de Clare. Isabel's castles passed to William including Pembroke Castle.
First Lord Mayor of London
The post of Lord Mayor of London was introduced in this year. The first holder of the title was Henry FitzAilwin.
Richard joins Philippe
Richard, joined forces with the French King to attack his own father.
Frederick Barbarossa's Crusade begins
In early May 1189, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa garthered his army at Ratisbon (now called Regensburg in Bavaria, Germany). He had ensured that his lands were safe while he was away on crusade and left his eldest son Henry.
Henry II Dies
Henry II died at Chinon and was buried in the choir church of Fontevrault. Richard became King of England. William Marshal, who served under Henry II and was favoured by Richard, was sent to England to prepare for Richard's arrival.
Richard returns to England
Richard of Normandy arrived at Portsmouth to claim the crown.
John 'Lackland' married Isabella of Gloucester.
Richard I Crowned King
Richard I was crowned king in Westminster Abbey. He was escorted along a path of woollen cloth. At the head of the procession was the clergy, first the priors next the abbots then the bishops. In the midst of the bishops were four barons holding golden candelabra, followed by Geoffrey de Lucy, John Marshal, William Marshal and William Fitzpatrick holding the Cap of State, golden spurs, golden sceptre and golden verge. The golden crown was carried by William de Mandeville. Richard was anointed with holy oil on his head, chest and hands. During the service a bat was seen to flutter around the throne which was seen to be an evil omen.
William of Scotland gives Richard 10,000 marks
William I of Scotland gives Richard I 10,000 marks for the Crusade. This overturns the Treaty of Falaise which William had to sign when captured in 1174.
Built by Hubert de Burgh this castle is one of the three he owned in the Welsh Marches. White Castle, and Grosmont Castle being the other two.
Kidwelly Castle rebuilt
In this year Rhys ap Gruffydd, The Lord Rhys captured the castle at Kidwelly from the Normans. It is possible that he repaired its structure at this time.
London adopts the St. George Cross flag
London adopted the cross of St. George, the red cross on a white background. This flag was being used by the fleet of Genoa and allowed the ships from London to use the flag for protection when they entered the Mediterranean on trading missions.
Foundation of the Teutontic Knights
A group of German knights on crusade during the siege of Acre formed an Order to assist sick pilgrims travelling to holy land.
Treaty of Adrianople
The large army of German crusaders marched towards Constantinople on the way to the Holy Land. But Isaac II, the Byzantine Emperor, had sided with Saladin and was attempting the stop them by attacking the crusaders. But the German army was too strong and they captured Adrianople. A peace treaty was signed by Isaac and Frederick of Germany, the crusaders' leader, that ensured the Germans were given supplies and free passage through to the Holy Land.
Massacre of Jews at York
Even though the Jews were under special protection from Richard I ,because of their wealth that could help pay for the Crusades, the mob attacked 150 Jews hiding in the castle at York. Most committed suicide rather than be attacked by the mob, but the rest believing promises that they would be spared if they came out left the castle and were promptly massacred.
Richard at Tours
Richard was given the pilgrim's scrip (a bag for the journey) and staff by the archbishop of Tours in preparation for his Crusade. These items were traditionally carried by pilgrims.
Meeting at Vézelay
Richard I and Philippe II, Augustus, met at Vézelay and agreed to divide the spoils of the Crusade equally between themselves. They planned to take different routes, Richard via Marseilles and Philippe via Genoa. Richard has around 100 ships at his disposal. Several were from the Cinque Ports, others from Shoreham and Southampton and others donated by private persons. Other ships were hired from ports in Normandy. Richard could have had a force of around 8000 men half of which could have had horses.
Richard's Crusade starts
Richard leaves to begin his crusade.
Richard was in no hurry to reach the Holy Land as he had an issue to resolve in Italy first. William II, the King of Sicily, had recently died. He was married to Richard's sister, Joan, who was bequeathed a large dower, a payment meant to support her if she outlived her husband. William had also bequeathed a large sum of money to Henry II, the king of England. Through force, Tancred of Lecce claimed the throne of Sicily and imprisoned Joan refusing to pay the money to her or the King of England. When Richard arrived in Messina he demanded that his sister should be released and all the money owing should be paid.
Richard captured Messina
The people of Messina, supporting Tancred, shut the gates on Richard and attacked his soldiers. In the harbour French ships turned against Richard as the friendship between Richard and Philippe had broken down because Philippe believed Richard was about to refuse to go through with his marriage to Alais, Philippe's half-sister. This was true as Richard had arranged a marriage to Berengaria of Navarre who was travelling to meet him. Richard's men stormed Messina and captured the town. Richard was lenient on the people of Messina and decided to build a fort overlooking the town. Tancred agreed to pay the money owed, freed Joan from prison and paid Richard a large amount of gold. Friendly relations were restored between Richard and Philippe when Richard agreed to split the gold with the French king.
Crusaders in Sicily
Richard and Philippe stayed in Sicily over the winter months waiting for the weather to improve before continuing their journeys to the Holy Land.
Foundation of a Cistercian abbey in south-west Scotland by the lords of Galloway.
John opposes William Longchamp
John began a campaign opposing William Longchamp who had been appointed administrator of England by Richard I while he was away on Crusade.
King Arthur found at Glastonbury
From the Chronicles of Meaux Abbey came the report saying 'In the twenty-third year of Henry, the body of Arthur some time king of the Britons were found at Glastonbury, between two stone pyramids formerly erected in the sacred cemetery. Hidden by a hollow oak, lay about fifteen feet deep in the ground. Some confusion with this date as I've also seen the date 1178 from Meaux Abbey chronicles.
Celestine III becomes Pope
Philippe leaves Sicily
The King of France set sail for the Holy Land a few days before Richard.
Richard's fleet leave Sicily
The fleet left Sicily to sail to Rhodes. On route, three ships were separated from the group and landed on Cyprus at the port of Limassol. The governor of Cyprus at the time was Isaac Dacus Comnenus, who had come to power from trickery. He had sided with Saladin, and treated Richard's ships as the enemy.
Philippe Augustus arrives in Acre
Philippe Augustus landed in Acre in an attempt to remove Guy of Lusignan as the King of Jerusalem, and replace him with Conrad of Montferrat.
Richard sails to Cyprus.
Richard located the three lost ships at Limissol, and promptly attacked Comnenus' troops in the town and drove them out. Comnenus was again attacked outside the town, but escaped, leaving behind his standard, embroidered with gold cloth. This was later presented to the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds.
Meeting in Limassol
Richard met Guy of Lusignan (King of Jerusalem), Geoffrey (Richard's brother), Bohemund (Prince of Antioch), Raymond (Count of Tripoli), Humphrey of Toron and other knights to discuss the attempt by Philippe II of France to replace Guy of Lusignan with Conrad of Montferrat as the King of Jerusalem.
Richard marries Berengaria
Richard took time to marry Berengaria at Limassol.
Richard controls Cyprus
By the 1st of June, Richard had control of the whole of Cyprus and imposed a 50% tax in return for letting the Cypriots return to a more traditional way of life. Richard of Camville and Robert of Turnham were left in charge of Cyprus.
Richard arrives at Tyre and attacks Acre
Richard landed at Tyre and quickly moved towards Acre, where he needed to help an army that was besieging the town which was being held by a garrison of Saladin's troops. By July 12th, the town fell to Richard. Richard held Saladin's men hostage in exchange for 200,000 dinars and 1500 of Richard's own troops who were being held by Saladin. When no ransom was paid, Richard publicly executed 2700 of the garrison. It was at this point that Richard angered Leopold of Austria, who was to imprison Richard as he tried to return to Normandy. Leopold's banner was ripped down from alongside Richard's and the French. The banners indicated that the spoils of war should be shared, but Richard was not prepared the share with Leopold, who had not contributed that much to the fall of Acre.
Most of Europe would have seen the Sun eclipsed by the moon just before midday.
Richard takes Acre
Under Richard's command, the city of Acre is taken back by the Crusaders.
Tower of London siege
Bishop William Longchamp held the Tower of London against Prince John's supporters for only three days. The Bishop surrendered the Tower and escaped to continue his support for King Richard.
After the damaging earth tremors of 1185 Bishop Hugh of Lincoln started rebuilding work on the Cathedral at Lincoln. His new scheme was followed even after his death apart from minor alterations up to the completion of the Angel Choir in 1280.
Lincoln Cathedral choir
Work on the choir and east transept progressed between 1192 and 1200.
Llansteffan Castle rebuilt
William de Camville had been granted Llansteffan Castle by Henry II and rebuilding work started in 1192.
Conrad is assassinated
Conrad of Montferrat was killed by two Assassins disguised as monks as he walked home. The Assassins, one of whom had been captured alive and questioned, had been sent by their leader Sinan. The suspected reasons for the murder are varied, some theories suggest Conrad had intercepted a shipment of wealthy goods bound for the Assassin Order while others suggest Saladin had ordered the murder of both Conrad and Richard I. Some also suggest it was Richard himself who had ordered the murder.
Richard captures a Moslem caravan
Word reached Richard that a Moslem caravan rich with supplies was heading for a well known as the Round Cistern. The caravan was not expecting an attack and the Christian army managed to capture a large amount of rich merchandise, horses and camels.
Attack on Jaffa
Saladin was in Jerusalem when he heard the news of the Christian attack on the caravan. It looked certain that the Crusaders would use the resources that they had captured to continue on and attack the city. But Richard decided to return to Jaffa against the wishes of many in his army. While peace negotiations were again sent to Saladin Richard moved his army up to Acre in preparation to leave the Holy Land. When Richard left Jaffa Saladin took his army out of Jerusalem and attacked the city. After three days of assault the walls of Jaffa fell and the Moslems entered.
Peace with Saladin
Richard the Lionheart signed a peace treaty with the Moslem leader Saladin.
Richard I leaves the Holy Land
After the agreement of a peace treaty Richard left the Middle East and began the voyage back to England.
Richard shipwrecked on the way home
Richard was shipwrecked while returning home from the middle east.
Bishop Herbert Poore presented plans to move the cathedral at Old Sarum to a new site nearer the river to be called New Sarum, or now Salisbury. Richard I approved the plan.
Siege of Nottingham Castle
The castle at Nottingham was being held by supporters of John but it fell to Richard I after a siege of several days.
Richard returns to England
Richard I returned to England after his Crusade and imprisonment in Germany. John had all his castles in England confiscated and the only title left to him was that of Lord of Ireland.
The 'Crown Wearing'
Richard took part in a precession to Winchester Cathedral. The king wore a golden crown and was followed by notables from the Church and State. The previous Crown Wearing was in 1158.
Richard leaves England
In Nottingham a council was called to hear the King's request for raising taxes. Although a large amount of money had been raised to free him from Germany even more was raised to fund Richard's expedition to France to deal with the King of France. Once the money was raised Richard left England and was never to return.
Richard defeats Philippe
On his return from imprisonment, Richard declares war on Philippe Augustus and defeats him at Fretevel. All the French archives were destroyed in the battle which were being transported in a wagon behind the army.
Modifications to the west end of the church were undertaken under the direction of the abbot John de Cella. The plan was to add an extra three bays to the existing structure. Progress was slow due to mismanagement of the funds and when John de Cella died not much progress had been achieved. The work was completed under the direction of the next abbot, William of Trumpington.
The Order of the Teutonic Knights is approved by Pope Innocent III.
Siege at the castle of Chalus, and Richard dies
Richard besieged the castle at Chalus where some treasure had been unearthed. Richard believed it was his and tried to take the castle. Riding too close to the walls, Richard was shot in the shoulder. The castle then fell and the archer who shot Richard was brought before him. Richard forgave the archer but Richard's second in command had the archer executed. Richard died of his wounds. On his death bed, Richard nominated his brother John as his heir rather than Arthur of Brittany.
John is crowned Duke of Normandy
John is crowned Duke of Normandy at Rouen by Walter the Archbishop of Rouen.
John chose people to help him run the country. He appointed the Archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert Walter, as Chancellor. Geoffrey fitz Peter was chosen as Justiciar and William, Earl of Pembroke, became Marshal of John's household.
John is crowned King of England
John is crowned as King of England at Westminster Abbey.
King John leaves England
King John, along with many nobles, knights and soldiers, left England from Shoreham and sailed to Normandy.