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Transport yourself back up to a thousand years and explore historical buildings as they may have appeared in the past.
Transport yourself back up to a thousand years and explore historical buildings as they may have appeared in the past.
1200 .. 1224
1200 .. 1224
Please note that the TimeRef website is currently being redesigned.
Rochester Cathedral Presbytery and Choir
Building work on eastern area of the Cathedral at Rochester began in around 1200 and continued until 1227.
Lincoln Cathedral Great transept
Work began on the Lincoln Cathedral's main West transept, or Great transept in 1200.
Fire destroys the cathedral at Rouen
The early cathedral at Rouen in France was badly damaged by a fire that destroyed other churches and parts of the city as well.
John divorces Isabella of Gloucester
King John had been married to Isabella of Gloucester for several years but they had no children. When John became king he quickly obtained a divorce leaving himself free to arrange a marriage that would give him political gain. Within the year he would marry Isabella of Angouleme, the daughter of an important baron in Aquitaine.
Annular Eclipse of the moon
An eclipse of the moon occurred at around midnight. (Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA's GSFC)
Philippe and John sign a treaty
At le Goulet on the River Seine, Philippe II of France signed a peace treaty with King John providing two years of peace. The agreement recognised John as overlord of most of the English owned lands in France, but John had to give Philippe the lands of Norman Vexin and Evreux and a large sum of money.
John marries Isabella of Angouleme
Eager to make peace with the count of Angouleme, John marries his only daughter, Isabella. Isabella was engaged to Hugh of Lusignan, a family which John was worried about due to their power and influence and the fact that an alliance between Angouleme and Lusignan would be a danger to him. Isabella was twelve or thirteen.
John and Isabella are crowned
John and Isabella returned to England in late September and were both crowned at Westminster Abbey.
William does homage to John
During a tour of the Midlands, John received homage from William 'the Lyon', King of Scotland at Lincoln. William was looking to move into the areas of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland. John on the other hand ensured that those areas were controlled by Barons he could trust.
Work on improving Banbury Castle continued between 1201 and 1207.
Dunkeswell Abbey founded
This Cistercian abbey in Devon was founded by William Brewer.
Valle Crucis Abbey founded
Valle Crucis Abbey in North Wales was founded in 1201 by Madog ap Gruffuud Maelor.
Kidwelly Castle captured by the Normans
The Normans recaptured the castle at Kidwelly in around 1201, when Meredith, the son of Lord Rhys, was killed by the garrison of the castle.
Hubert de Burgh granted castles
Hubert de Burgh was granted the three castles of White, Skenfrith and Grosmont in the Welsh Marches by King John.
John sails to Normandy
In France the Lusignans were causing problems still angry over John's marriage to Isabella. John ordered that an army should assemble at Portsmouth. Instead of taking the assembled army John used the money to hire mercenaries and took them in their place.
Philippe entertains John in Paris
Even though Philippe was hearing complaints from the Lusignans about John's treatment towards them, he was not willing to go against John at this time and entertained him in Paris.
Storms do much damage
Severe thunderstorms and floods during the summer affected England.
Construction work began on the retrochoir, the area to the east of the presbytery, and the Lady Chapel of Winchester Cathedral. Work continued until 1235.
Worcester Cathedral fire
The devastating fire in this year caused so much damage that the building needed to be rebuilt.
Philippe sides with the Lusignans
John charged the Lusignans with treason. The Lusignans went to Philippe for help and Philippe demanded to see John in Paris and for John to surrender several castles in good faith.
John fails to attend a summons to Philippe's court
Failing to attend the court of Philippe II, John was declared to be a rebel and to have forfeited the areas of Aquitaine, Poitou and Anjou. Philippe tried to mediate in the problems between John and the Lusignans but was ignored by John. The lands were given to Arthur of Brittany. Philippe kept Normandy for himself.
Wallingford Castle granted to Hubert de Burgh
Hubert de Burgh's power and influence increased. In this year he was appointed sheriff of Cornwall and in May was granted Wallingford Castle.
Philippe of France knights Arthur of Britanny.
Battle of Mirabeau
Arthur of Brittany and the Lusignans had laid siege to Mirabeau Castle trapping Eleanor of Aquitaine inside. King John launched a rescue mission to free her. Arthur was captured by William de Braose and was handed over to King John. Many other important knights were also captured and it was an important and famous victory for the English king. Those that were captured were treated badly by King John. He could have ransomed them for their freedom and made a lot of money, instead he kept them prisoner locked in dungeons. Some he had shipped to England and imprisoned. Arthur was sent to the dungeon in the castle at Falaise in Normandy.
Order to blind Arthur of Brittany
The young prince was being held in the castle at Falaise, where Hubert de Burgh had become castellan. King John ordered that Authur should be blinded and sent several of his court to carry this out. But only one reached the castle. The others could not commit such a crime and fled. When the man reached Falaise and told Hubert what had to be done Hubert refused. To protect the young prince, a story was concocted stating that Aurthur had died of grief. This caused an uprising by the Bretons and to avoid conflict Hurbert then declared that the prince was still alive. But Arthur could not be prodcued as he had been moved to Rouen.
Founded by King John who wanted to become an object of prayer by the Cistercian order. The abbey was built on the site of a hunting lodge in the New Forest and was colonised by monks directly from Citeaux.
Arthur is murdered
Arthur had been moved to Rouen from Falaise where he was being held captive. There it is said that King John killed Arthur and dumped his weighted-down body in the Seine. The body was discovered and later buried.
Dover Castle handed to William of Huntingfield
With events going badly in France for King John, the threat of invasion was a real possibility. To help prevent that John ordered Dover Castle to be handed over to William of Huntingfield who should defend it against attack. To ensure he did so, William's son and daughter were taken hostage and were not to be released until the castle was safely returned in person to the King or Hubert de Burgh.
King John returns to England
King John abandoned the lands that had been held by the Dukes of Normandy for over a hundred years and returned to England. Only two castles held out against Philip Augustus, they were Chinon, controlled by Hubert de Burgh and Loches, defended by Girard d'Athee.
King John gave Goodrich castle to William Marshal on his marriage to the heiress of the earldom of Pembroke.
William Marshall captures Cilgerran
William Marshall captured the Welsh castle at Cilgerran in Pembrokeshire from the Welsh.
Dublin Castle construction started
King John ordered the construction of a castle at Dublin.
Peace negotiations with France
After losing Normandy to the French, John sent an embassy to France to negotiate with Philippe. In the party that went from England were Hubert Walter and William Marshal. The negotiations failed due to Philippe's demands.
Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor, Henry II's wife and John's mother died.
Normandy is taken by Philippe
Philippe II, King of France won control of Rouen, the capital of Normandy and Normandy itself. John still had control of Aquitaine.
William de Braose, King John's favourite, was granted the three castles of White, Grosmont and Skenfrith.
River Thames freezes
The winter of 1204/05 was so cold that the River Thames froze over and the cold spell lasted until March.
Philippe plans invasion
Philippe II of France held a meeting in Normandy to discuss invading England. This forced King John to abandon his own plans of invading Normandy as he could not risk moving his army abroad when the French were about to attack. The planned French invasion never materialised.
Hubert de Burgh loses his lands
While Hubert de Burgh was defending the castle at Chinon and then later in captivity, King John back in England gave orders for his land to be taken back. By the end of the year the order was given to transfer ownership of the tree castles Skenfrih, Grosmont and Llantilio (White Castle) to William de Braose.
John prepares invasion
Worried by rumours of an invasion from Philippe of France, led by heirs of king Stephen, John prepared an invasion fleet of his own. But the barons refused to cross the Channel and attack Normandy and so the fleet was disbanded.
More castles fall to the French
The castles at Chinon and Loches both fell to the French as Philippe strengthened his position. Again William Marshall travelled to see Philippe to agree peace terms, but his attempts were destroyed by Hubert Walter who sent a secret letter to Philippe telling him not to accept William Marshal's promise that John would do homage to Philippe. (What's going on here?)
Hurbert de Burgh captured
Hubert held out in the castle at Chinon for as long as he could but when it finally fell to the French he was captured as his men rushed out to attack the besiging army.
Hubert Walter dies
Hubert Walter the Archbishop of Canterbury and King John's most important advisor died.
John forces election of De Gray
When Hubert Walter died a dispute began between King John and the monks of Canterbury over who should become the new Archbishop of Canterbury. King John wanted John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, to have the position but the monks wanted their sub-prior, Reginald. The matter was delayed until December when a mission sent to Rome could consult the Pope. Reginald himself went as part of the mission and stated that he had been elected by the monks. When King John heard of this he demanded that De Gray should be elected and the monks dutifully did.
After Philippe failed to invade England the year earlier, John took to opportunity to land an army at La Rochelle to defend his interests in Aquitaine which was his from his inheritance from Eleanor of Aquitaine, John's mother. John moved his army north and took back some of the lands he had lost to Philippe.
Philippe and John reach a truce
A two year truce is agreed between the Kings of England and France.
The Pope chooses Stephen Langton for Canterbury
Although the monks of Canterbury wanted their own sub-prior for the post of Archbishop and King John wanted John de Gray, Pope Innocent III chose Stephen Langton. Langton was originally from Lincolnshire but after teaching in Paris had moved to Rome where he had become a Cardinal. The monks of Canterbury accepted the Pope's decision and voted Langton in as the new Archbishop. King John did not agree.
Stephen Langton was chosen as Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Innocent III.
Earl of Leicester loses land
King John took the land of the Earl of Leicester (father of Simon de Montfort) and banished him from England.
Odiham Castle built
At a cost of £1200, King John built the castle at Odiham.
Marshall inherits the lands of Leinster in Ireland
As Earl of Pembroke, William Marshall inherited the lands of Leinster in Ireland. The link between Pembroke and Leinster started when Richard de Clare married the daughter of the King of Leinster in 1170.
Aberystwyth Castle demolished
The castle at Aberystwyth was demolished by Maelgwyn, the brother of the then Lord of Cardiganshire. Maelgwyn had risen up in revolt against his brother and put him in prison. Maelgwyn had first captured the castle but decided to destroy it because Llywelyn the Great was threatening to attack Maelgwyn's lands and he feared the that castle could fall into Llywelyn's hands.
John introduces the first income tax
King John introduced the first income tax in England. One thirteenth of income from rents and moveable property had to be paid. Collected locally by sheriffs and administered by the Exchequer. The amount was one shilling on each mark of income, where a mark was 13 shillings and 4 pence. The tax was unpopular with the barons and especially in the churches and monasteries. The tax did raise a lot of money for the king, doubling his annual income for the year.
The Pope threatens an Interdict
The Pope threatened King John with the sentence of Interdict unless he accepted Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. An Interdict meant that church services would be banned in England except for baptisms and confessions.
Birth of Henry III
Henry, the future king of England, was born at Winchester Castle.
John at Worcester
King John visited Worcester and gave funds for the rebuilding of the Cathedral after the devastating fire.
After the nave was completed construction work commenced on the west front of Notre Dame Cathedral under the direction of Pierre de Nemours.
Peter of Castelnau is murdered
Peter of Castelnau, the papal legate, was murdered by heretics belonging to the Albigensains. The Albigensains were an extreme religious group based in the south of France. The Pope wanted them to cease their opposition to the Church. The murder led to the start of the Albegensian Crusade that would destroy the heretics.
John demands hostages
King John suspected that the loyalty of some barons towards the Crown was not strong so demanded they provide hostages to ensure they did not rise up against him. William de Braose was one of these barons. When a messanger arrived at Bramber Castle from the King with demands to hand over his children William de Braose refused stating that he could not trust the King with their safety. Together with his family William fled to Ireland.
Interdict served by the Pope
With King John still refusing to accept Langton as Archbishop the Pope served the sentence of Interdict on England. In response King John confiscated church property. Many of the bishops of the great churches in the country fled abroad to the Continent.
Stephen Langton landed in England from France to see King John and take the position of Archbishop of Canterbury. John refused to meet with him although John did meet Stephen's brother Simon.
Cambridge University founded
The university at Cambridge was founded by scholars from Oxford who left the university there after violent disputes with the local people.
The Albignsian stronghold of Beziers was besieged and when it was captured all the people within it were massacred.
John prepares to invade Scotland
John mobilized an army with the help of Llywelyn of Gwynedd a Welsh chieftain and moved them up to Norham Castle. William 'the Lyon', the king of Scotland was not ready for conflict and paid John to leave and a treaty was signed.
King John spent time and money on the castle at Kenilworth, building outer walls and raising the height of the lake.
Fountains Abbey rebuilding work
Rebuilding work of the eastern parts at Fountains Abbey.
Haverfordwest Castle hosts King John
King John used Haverfordwest Castle as a staging post before and after travelling to Ireland.
Katla Volcano Eruption
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.
John lands in Ireland
John landed at Waterford looking for the rebel baron William de Braose who had fled to Ireland. John took the opportunity to visit his lands in Ireland receiving homage from the Irish Chieftains. de Braose fled but his wife and son were captured, taken back to England and starved to death in Windsor Castle.
King John captures Carrickfergus Castle
The castle belonging to the Earl of Ulster was besiged by the English. It did not take long for the castle to fall into English hands.
Arrest of Wealthy Jews
King John ordered that Jews across the country had to pay a 'tullage', a sum of money to the king. Those who did not pay were arrested, imprisoned and forced to pay the money in return for their release. May Jews were executed or left the country.
Work was carried out on the outer defences at Bridgnorth.
Rheims Cathedral destroyed by fire
The French cathedral was left beyond repair after a fire.
Alfonso II becomes King of Portugal
Alfonso became King of Portugal after the death of his father Sancho.
In Northampton the Papal legate Pandulf served King John with his excommunication ordered by the Pope. For John this was a serious blow to his ability to rule the country as it absolved the King's subjects from their oaths of allegiance, gave the Barons reason to revolt and allowed the King of France to invade England to remove John from power.
Peace with Wales
John and Llywelyn the Great of Wales reached an agreement and a peace treaty was signed.
Obsessed with regaining the Angevin empire, John tried all means to get money from the barons to pay for it. He held inquiries into tenures, confiscated estates, took hostages all in the hope that the barons would be forced to be loyal and to give him funds.
William gives son as hostage
William, King of the Scots was prepared to give John his eldest son, Alexander as hostage to keep the peace between the two countries. William was also eager that Alexander should become King of the Scots after himself. Earning the trust of John was to be repaid later when John sent an army to Scotland to help William put down a rebellion.
A Great fire of London
Fire broke out on the southern shore of the River Thames and crossed the river starting more fires on the northern shore. Many people were killed. Boats tried to rescue people trapped on London Bridge but the boats became overloaded and many drowned. This appears to be a big a disaster as the fire of 1666.
Straw roofs to be replaced by tiles
Possibly due to the disastrous fire in London this year bylaws were passed to ensure flammable straw roofs were replaced by tiles.
A mysterious Crusade supposed to have consisted of children from Germany and possibly France. How young the children were who took part is not known and they may not have been children at all. The Crusaders did not get very far and many of those that took part never came back. They were either killed or sold into slavery.
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
At the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212 Alfonso, along with a coalition of Christian leaders, defeated the Almohads and the Muslim-held lands in Spain were retaken.
John accepts Pope's demands
Taking the advice of William Marshal John accepted the demands of the Pope and that Stephen Langton should become Archbishop. A peace mission was also sent to the Pope.
This Cistercian abbey near Peterhead in Scotland was founded by monks from Kinloss.
Dieulacres Abbey moved
A new location for this Cistercian abbey was found near Leek in Staffordshire.
Peter Des Roches becomes Justiciar
John elects Peter Des Roches, the Bishop of Winchester as his Justiciar. Des Roches had supported John through the years of Interdict and was repaid for his loyalty, but he was not popular with the other Barons.
John sails for France
John's conflict with Philippe of France started again with John's departure from Portsmouth. With him sailed his wife and second son, Richard. He also took a large amount of treasure.
At St. Paul's Cathedral, in London, the Interdict was finally lifted.
Battle of Bouvines
English forces under the control of Emperor Otto IV were defeated by Philip II of France.
John returns from France
Upset by demands for higher taxes and less control over affairs in England, the Barons met John on his return with a charter from the time of Henry I which they wanted John to agree to and abide by.
Charter of Liberties
A group of barons, after finding a copy of King Henry I's Charter of Liberties, swore an oath at the altar of t. Edmunds at Bury St. Edmunds to force King John to acknowledge thier rights.
An invasion force from France under direction of Philippe II, the king of France captured Colchester Castle. Their objective was to help the cause of the Baron's against king John.
Wallingford Castle fortified
The fortifications at Wallingford castle were strengthened at this time.
Llewellyn captures Abervagenny Castle
The castle at Abervagenny was captured from King John's forces by Llewellyn.
Llewellyn captures Cilgerran Castle
Llewellyn's fight against the Normans continued with the capture of Cilgerran Castle.
Kidwelly captured by the Welsh
Rhys Grug, another son of the Lord Rhys, captured and burnt the castle at Kidwelly. The Welsh held the castle for several years until Llywelyn the Great forced its restoration to the Normans .
John meets the Barons in London
Promising the Barons safe passage, John met them in London to discuss their demands. John postponed any answer until Easter.
John takes oath for Crusade
Hoping to gain the support of the Pope against the Barons, John took the oath to go on Crusade.
Pope sides with John
Pope Innocent III sent a letter to the Barons asking them to halt their actions against King John.
London falls to the Rebels
The gates to London were opened by a supporter of the rebellious Barons and the houses of Jews were targeted for ransacking and burning. The rebels called for those Barons still on the side of John to join them. The Tower of London held by John's supporters was too well defended to fall into the hands of the rebels.
A truce is sought
Stephen Langton and William Marshall attempted to get the Barons and John to meet and find a settlement to the civil war.
John's Great Charter (the Magna Carta)
A large number of barons, led by Stephen Langton the archbishop of Canterbury, meet King John on an island in the Thames at Runnymede. They forced the king to sign the 'Great Charter' or Magna Carta that would limit the power of the monarchy. The barons insisted that the old feudal contract should be reinstated and that the king should abide by the laws that the rest of the population did. The feudal contract allowed the barons to run their own lands, renting it from the king but paying rent by supplying knights rather than money. This feudal system had been set up by William the Conqueror.
The Magna Carta is annulled
Pope Innocent III annulled the Magna Carta freeing King John from its limitations. The Pope annulled the charter on the grounds that the King only signed it because he was forced to and that the document was illegal. The Pope was prepared to support John against the rebel barons because he wanted him to take a key role in a new crusade.
King John appeals to the Pope
In a letter dated 13th September 1215, King John sought help from Pope Innocent III in his fight against the barons. In the letter, written while the King stayed at Dover Castle, John stated that he believed the defence of England was ultimately the responsibility of God and the Pope. Pope Innocent III agreed and declared that the Magna Carta should be annulled.
Oct (to 1217)
After the Magna Carta was annulled and it was clear that King John was not going to agree to the terms of the charter the civil war between King John and the rebel barons began.The barons offered the English crown to Prince Louis, the son of King Philippe II of France and invited him to invade England. John confiscated the rebel barons' lands and gave them to his own supporters. King John besieged Rochester Castle where a garrison of men had been left by the barons. The garrison was starved out and the castle fell to the King.
Peter de Montfort rebuilt the inner bailey of Beaudesert Castle in stone, of which nothing remains.
Honorius III becomes Pope
Berkhamsted Castle is captured by the French
Prince Louis of France besieged the castle at Berkhamsted. It fell to his army within a few weeks.
King John attacks Berwick
King John attacked Berwick and forced the Scots to leave. He also raided the lowlands.
King John puts down revolt
King John put down a revolt in East Anglia. The Barons and the French kept hold of London.
Small French fleet land in London
A small French army landed in London. Their commander informed the rebel barons that Prince Louis would soon arrive from France.
A storm hits John's fleet
John's fleet of ships was badly damaged by storms as they prepare to defend against an invasion from France. This left the way open for Prince Louis to sail to England a few days later.
Prince Louis of France claims English Throne
Invited by the barons opposed to king John, Prince Louis of France landed in England to claim the English Throne. Louis captured Rochester Castle after a short siege.
Jun (to Oct)
Prince Louis advances across England
Prince Louis advanced on Winchester and captured the city and its castle. Elsewhere, Windsor Castle and Dover Castle were besieged by the rebel barons. Both castles were defended and held out against the sieges. King John used Corfe Castle in the south-west as his base of operations while he planned his campaign against the rebel barons and Prince Louis.
Honorius III elected as the new Pope
Pope Innocent III died on July 16 and two days later in Rome the cardinals elected Honorius III as the Pope.
William of Cassingham
A man called William of Cassingham, possibly known as Willekin of the Weald, supported King John against the invaders and attacked the rebel barons and French in whatever means he could using a form of guerrilla warfare.
King John at Cambridge
King John was at Cambridge Castle before heading north. He left the castle in the hands of Falcasius de Brent. The castle fell into the hands of the rebel barons.
Death of King John
King John died at Newark from excessive eating and drinking. Protestant historians of the 16th century wrote that he was poisoned by a monk at Swineshead in Lincolnshire. The monk received orders from the Pope to kill King John and took a small amount of poisoned wine himself to reassure the King and also died. But had King John become the Pope's ally before his death?
King John buried at Worcester
King John's wishes were to be buried at the church at Worcester.This was done and King John's body was placed in a tomb at the centre of the Cathedral.
King John dies
King John died at Newark. This was shortly after he lost his baggage train in the Wash estuary as the tide returned. There was supposed to be a large amount of treasure in the baggage train at the time and it has never been found.
King Henry III Crowned
King John's eldest son Henry was crowned King Henry III at the abbey church of Gloucester by Peter des Roches the Bishop of Winchester. The Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal of England (William Marshal), was declared Regent.
Llywelyn divides Wales
Llywelyn of Wales divided south Wales amongst the native princes.
Revision to the Magna Carta
The Magna Carta was revised at King Henry's Council at Bristol.
Prince Louis captured and almost destroyed the castle at Portchester.
Foundation of Culross Abbey
Cluross Abbey, in Fife Scotland, was founded by this year by Malcolm, the Earl of Fife.
Siege of Mountsorrel Castle
Royalists besieged the French controlled Mountsorrel Castle in Lincolnshire. When Louis sent reinforcements to assist those in the castle the royalists moved away to Nottingham. The French army then made the mistake of moving on to Lincoln where the royalists had held out against previous attacks.
Battle of Lincoln
Henry III's supporters defeated the forces belonging to Prince Louis and the rebel barons that were besieging the castle at Lincoln.
Battle off Sandwich
A fleet of French ships were defeated off the coast near Sandwich by Hubert de Burgh. The French fleet was commanded by Eustace the Monk, a pirate and mercenary who fought for both the French and English when it suited his needs. The French fleet were bringing more men and supplies to assist Prince Louis in his quest to take the English throne. The ship Eustace was on was captured and the monk was executed.
Treaty of Kingston
The defeat of the French fleet left Prince Louis without much hope of taking the English throne. William Marshall blockaded London from the sea and land and at Lambeth Louis accepted peace terms. Louis waived his claim to the throne of England and should have restored Normandy to Henry but did not. Louis was paid 10,000 marks to ensure he left the country as soon as possible. William Marshall pardoned all those who had supported Louis.
A new site 2 miles from the original site at Old Sarum was chosen for the new Salisbury Cathedral. For a cathedral the construction work was completed in a very short time and the building was consecrated in 1258 only 38 years later.
Work on the Lady Chapel of Salisbury Cathedral
The Lady Chapel of Salisbury Cathedral appears to be the starting point of the construction of the new cathedral. Work continued until 1225.
Chapter-house of Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral's chapter-house was constructed between 1220 and 1235.
Grosmont Castle building work
Hubert de Burgh improved the defences at Grosmont Castle, including the gatehouse and towers.
Lady Chapel at Oxford
Work began on the Lady Chapel at Oxford Cathedral. The chapel was incorporated into the layout of the Cathedral as an extra aisle built onto the north side of the building.
Henry III's improvements at the Tower
Henry III made large alterations to the Tower of London including new curtain walls, an improved water filled ditch, and a water gate, so the King could enter the castle directly from the Thames.
Llywelyn raids Pembrokeshire
Llywelyn, the Prince of Wales, began raiding Pembrokeshire to retake land that he accused William Marshall, the younger, of stealing. This included Wiston Castle.
Tower Collapse at St. David's
The central tower collapsed at St. David's Cathedral destroying the presbytery resulting in construction work to repair the damage.
Construction of Beverley Minster
Building work on the Beverley Minster began in this year. The building was designed using the Gothic style and construction work continued until 1425.
Coronation of Henry III
At his coronation in Westminster Abbey, Henry was reminded of his duties at king to maintain peace, defend the rights of the crown and to dispense justice where required. Henry was only around thirteen years old. The day before the coronation Henry laid the foundation stone of a new Lady Chapel at the Abbey.
Stephen Langton returns to England
Stephen Langton returned to England and resumed the role of Archbishop of Canterbury. He performed a ceremony in Canterbury in which relics from St. Thomas Becket were put in a tomb. The 7th of July became St. Thomas of Canterbury's Day; a major holy day.
From the Chronicles of Meaux Abbey came the report saying 'A London fog occurred while the Bishop of London was officiating in St. Paul's there came on suddenly such a thickness of the clouds and darkness of the sun, accompanied by thunder and lightening and a most foul stench, that the people departed, leaving only the bishop there with one attendant.'
Henry reclaims castles
All those castles that had been taken from King John were claimed back by Henry. Henry did not want to have untrustworthy Barons in control of strong castles. Fawkes de Breaute, one of the castle occupiers refused to relinquish his castle(s) and started a short rebellion. Stephen Langton and Hubert de Burgh dealt with Fawkes and the castles were handed over. (Need to find out which castles)
Jun (to Aug)
Bedford Castle siege
The garrison at Bedford Castle, belonging to the rebel Falkes de Breute, refused to surrender to the Crown. Falkes had been repeated summonsed to account for his refusal to comply with agreement and when he refused to appear before the King the castle was surrounded. The castle fell when the keep was undermined. The garrison, who had surrendered the castle, were all hung on the order of the Justiciar. Falkes was allowed to leave the country but he lost all his possessions in doing so. Bedford Castle was badly damaged as a result.