1350

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
John II becomes King of France 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
John became king of France after the death of his father Philippe.

Aug  -  Edward III attacks the Spanish fleet 
The Spanish fleet was returning from Sluys where it had stayed over winter. Edward had taken his time and prepared an English fleet that could attack the Spanish boats as they came back down the English Channel. The two fleets met off the south coast near Winchelsea. Fierce hand-to-hand fighting took place as the ships, using grappling hooks, came together. Both Edward III and his son the Black Prince took part in the battle and defeated the Spanish.

 

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1351

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Statute of Labourers 
Episode: The Black Death
Because so many people died from the plague, labour was a scarce resource. To prevent workers demanding their own prices, the costs were fixed for labourer's wages at the pre-plague levels. Labourers had to stay in their own villages, and had to appear before a steward or constable each year to swear to abide by the rules of the statute. Stocks were built in each village to punish and deter any that did not abide by the rules.

Statutes of Provisors 
This was a statute that allowed the King to overrule Church appointments proposed by the Pope.

Henry of Gosmont becomes Duke of Lancaster 
Edward III makes Henry the Duke of Lancaster.

Eastminster Abbey founded 
Edward III founded a new Cistercian abbey near the Tower of London. Monks from Beaulieu Abbey populated the new abbey.

Events occurring at some time during this year 

1352

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Corpus Christi College founded 
Corpus Christi College was founded in Cambridge.

Innocent VI becomes Pope  (More...)

1354

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Statute of Staples 
A law that fixed 15 towns as staple towns. A staple town was a town that was restricted in what it could sell to foreign merchants. The towns were Bristol, Canterbury, Carmarthen, Chichester, Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Exeter, Lincoln, London, Newcastle, Norwich, Waterford, Winchester and York.

1355

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Bishops of Salisbury regains Sherborne Castle 
Robert Wyvil, the Bishop of Salisbury regained control of the castle at Sherborne.

Carisbrooke Castle passes to Isabel  
After the death of Isabella de Fortibus in 1293 the castle became the property of Edward I and the crown. In 1355 Edward III granted the ownership of the castle to his daughter Isabel.

Jan 7  -  Birth of Thomas of Woodstock 
Thomas of Woodstock was born to Philippa and Edward III.

Oct  -  Edward III travels to Calais 
Edward III landed in Calais. His plan was to lay waste to the northern lands owned by France.

Oct  -  The Black Prince starts his chevauchée 
Edward the Black Prince set out from Bordeaux at the start of a chevauchée into lands held by King John of France. Chevauchée was a medieval term for a process destroying the towns, villages and land of an enemy lord in an attempt to reduce the wealth that the lord could extract and put to use in going to war. It also caused panic in the local population and an exodus of refugees.

1356

 

Jan  -  Edward Balliol gives up Scottish throne 
After the defeat of David II of Scotland at Neville's Cross Edward Balliol had attempted to claim the Scottish throne but eventually decided to surrender his title as King of the Scots to Edward III and accept a pension in return.

Sep 17  -  English and French armies meet 
On Saturday 17th of September while the Black Prince was moving his army to English owned city of Bordeaux the English and French armies finally came across each other near Poitiers. Edward moved his army into a defensive position protected by hedges on three sides and a narrow lane on the fourth.

Sep 18  -  Papal mission 
On the Sunday a Cardinal attempted to get the English prince and French king to agree a truce, but the two leaders used the Sunday to rest their troops and prepare for the battle ahead.

Sep 19  -  Battle of Poitiers 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
On Monday the 19th of September the battle of Poitiers took place. Even though the English army was outnumbered the Black Prince used superior tactics in the battle and defeated the French without suffering many losses. John, the French King, was captured along with many other French nobles and taken to Bordeaux.

Oct  -  King John at St. Albans 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
King John of France was held prisoner at St. Alban's monastery after being captured at Poitiers.


1357

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Katla Volcano Eruption 
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano. Plus or minus three years.

Mar  -  Truce with France 
On behalf of the King of England, Edward, the Black Prince arranged a two year truce with John, the King of France at Bordeaux.

Apr  -  John brought to England 
The Black Prince with the French king and many other prisoners began the journey from France to England. Once back in England these nobles were ransomed for large amounts of money.

Oct 3  -  Treaty of Berwick 
This treaty, signed between Edward III and David II of Scotland, allowed David to go free from prison where he had been kept for the previous 11 years. A ransom of 100,000 marks was the price of his freedom.

1358

 

Apr 23  -  A Splendid Tournament at Windsor 
To celebrate St. George's day Edward III held a large tournament at Windsor Castle. Edward, the Black Prince, oversaw the proceedings in which kings and nobles from all over Europe were given safe passage to take part in.

Aug 23  -  Death of Queen Isabella 
Episode: Isabella, She-Wolf of France and death of Edward II
Queen Isabella, the wife of Edward II and the mother of Edward III died on the 22nd or 23rd of August.

1360

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Winchester Cathedral West Front 
Work began on the West Front of Winchester Cathedral. Extra work was carried out on the North and South aisles

May  -  Treaty of Bretigny 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
The treaty of Bretigny brought a period of peace for nine years during the Hundred Years War. The treaty was arranged between the Black Prince and the dauphin (later Charles V of France) before being approved by Edward III of England and King John of France. As part of the treaty Edward was given control of the areas of Gascony, Calais and Ponthieu as long as he agreed to give up his claim for the French throne. King John, currently being held hostage in England, was to be released on condition of a payment of 3 million gold crowns to by paid in instalments.

Oct  -  Treaty agreed 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
At Calais Edward III and King John of France, who had be released from captivity, signed the Treaty of Bretigny.

1361

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Another outbreak of the plague 
Episode: The Black Death
Another outbreak of the plague takes its tool.

John of Gaunt owns Kenilworth 
John of Gaunt married Blanche, the daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster. Henry owned Kenilworth Castle and when he died (?) John became Duke of Lancaster and took ownership of the castle. Gaunt rebuilt the hall and constructed new grand apartments.

New choir built at York 
Under the direction of Archbishop Thoresby the eastern end of the building was extended elongating the choir. The architectural fashion of Decorated Gothic was changing to Perpendicular Gothic as this construction work was undertaken.

Oct  -  Marriage of the Black Prince and Joan of Kent 
Edward, the black Prince married Joan of Kent at Westminster Abbey.

 

  • Kenilworth Castle
    Kenilworth Castle

    Kenilworth Castle was founded in around 1120 by Geoffrey de Clinton who was Henry I's Lord Chamberlain. The castle was used by Henry II and King John who improved the defences from around 1210. The keep is built of soft red sandstone and has 14ft thick walls and is around 80ft high. In the time of King John the Finham brook was damned so that a moat was formed on the southern and western sides of the castle.
    More Details

1362

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
John becomes Duke of Lancaster 
John of Gaunt, Edward III's fourth son is created Duke of Lancaster.

Urban V becomes Pope  (More...)

Westminster Abbey Nave 
Rebuilding work was begun on the nave and west cloister at Westminster Abbey. The architect in charge of the works was Henry Yevele.

Jan  -  Hurricane damages spire at Norwich 
A fierce storm or hurricane hit Britain and the spire at Norwich Cathedral fell. The spire damaged the presbytery as came down..

Jul  -  The Black Prince is given Gascony 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
Edward III transferred control of Gascony to his eldest son, the Black Prince. Edward the Black Prince had just married Joan of Kent at Windsor and together they created a magnificent court in Bordeaux.

1363

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of the Chantry Chapel at Canterbury 
The Black Prince organised the construction of the Chantry Chapel at Canterbury Cathedral and he expressed the wish to be buried there.

Canterbury Black Prince chantry in crypt built 
The Black Prince chantry in the crypt of Canterbury cathedral built by John Box.

Carlisle Cathedral work on the choir 
Extra work on the choir was carried out between 1363 and 1395.

1364

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Charles V becomes King of France 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
Charles became king of France after the death of his father John and was crowned at Rheims Cathedral.

1365

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Wells Cathedral South-west Tower 
William Wynford was the architect behind the South-west tower of Wells Cathedral.

1366

 

Oct  -  Wykeham becomes Bishop 
William of Wykeham became the Bishop of Winchester. Although not approved of by the Pope (Urban V), Wykeham was consecrated in October 1367.

1367

 

Mar  -  Henry (IV) future king of England in born 
Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire.

Apr  -  Wykeham becomes Chancellor 
William of Wykeham became Chancellor of England.

Apr 3  -  Battle of Nájera in Spain 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
Edward the Black Prince went to assist Peter the Cruel, King of Castile, who had been driven from his throne by Henry Trastamara. With a combined army of English, Gascons, Navarrese and Castilians the Black Prince won a battle to put Peter back on the thrown. The victory at Nájera also brought the Castilian fleet under control which had been fighting on the side of the French when Trastamara was in power. Peter was later overthrown and the fleet again started fighting on the French side.

 

Henry IV

Henry IV was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire in April of 1366/67 and was the grandson of Edward III. He is commonly known as Henry Bolingbroke due to his association with the castle in which he was born. Henry was the only son of John of Gaunt and Blanche of Lancaster. Both of his parents were descended from Henry III and were distant cousins. Blance died from the Black Death when Henry was very young and his upbringing was left to other Lancastrian supporters. Henry married Mary Bohun, the daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford in 1381 when he was fourteen years old. Henry and Mary's first son was born at Monmouth Castle in September 1387. More Information

1369

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Again England is hit by the plague 
Another outbreak of the plague affects England.

Beaudesert Castle passes to Warwick 
When Peter de Montfort died, the castle's ownership passed to Thomas, Earl of Warwick.

Jun 3  -  Edward III restates claim for French throne 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
The English Parliament freed Edward III from the Treaty of Bretigny that was signed in 1360. When Edward signed the treaty he had agreed to give up the claim for the French throne. Now that Edward was free from the treaty he was able to restate and pursue his claim to be the French King.

Jul (to Nov)  -  John of Gaunt in northern France 
John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, left Calais with 2,000 soldiers and marched across northern France destroying towns along the way.

Aug  -  Queen Philippa dies 
Queen Philippa, Edward's wife, died. Edward's affections turned to Alice Perrers who became his mistress and had several illegitimate children.

1370

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Gregory XI becomes Pope  (More...)

Aug  -  The French reclaim Limoges 
French forces led by the Duke of Berry retook the town of Limoges.

Sep 18  -  Limoges falls to the Black Prince 
Edward, the Black Prince, used miners to undermine the section of the town that did not surrender to the English. The walls were brought down and those who had not surrendered were executed. This included women and children.

1371

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Wykeham asks for war supplies 
William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and chancellor, asked for supplies for war. Parliament petitioned the king to stop the practice of ecclesiastics having positions of power and not being liable to account for their actions, and that non-clerical laymen should replaced them. An important supporter of this action was John of Gaunt.

Feb  -  David II dies and is succeeded by Robert II 
The Stewart dynasty was begun when Robert II took the Scottish throne after the death of David II.

Mar 27  -  Robert II is crowned at Scone 
Robert II is crowned at Scone.

1372

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Canterbury Crypt Lady Chapel building work 
Canterbury Crypt Lady Chapel building work by John Box.

1373

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Nunney Castle construction begins 
Work on the Somerset castle by Sir John de la Mare began.

1374

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
A Tomb for John of Gaunt 
Henry Yevele was commissioned to design a tomb for John of Gaunt and his first wife Blanche of Lancaster to be built at St. Paul's Cathedral.