1375

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Simon Sudbury becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
Simon Sudbury becomes the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Worcester Cathedral major building work 
Work progressed on the vaults of the nave and crossing, the west front, north porch and east cloister. Until 1395. The work was desiged by the master mason John Clyve.

Galilee porch as Peterborough 
The Galilee porch on the West front of Peterborough Cathedral was started in 1375.

Construction of Bolton Castle 
Work on Bolton Castle was begun by Lord Scrope, the Chancellor to Richard II.

Events occurring at some time during this year 

 

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1376

 

Jun  -  Death of the Black Prince 
Heir to the English throne, the Black Prince died. His son Richard would become the next king of England as Richard II.

1377

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Building work at Gloucester Cathedral 
Work on Perpendicular style choir and cloisters was begun at Gloucester Cathedral.

Carisbrooke defended against the French 
The French landed on the Isle of Wight and attacked Carisbrooke castle. The castle did not fall to the French.

Construction of Farleigh Hungerford Castle 
Sir Thomas Hungerford began the construction of a castle at Farleigh.

Clement VII becomes the Antipope  (More...)

Gregory XI becomes Pope  (More...)

French attacks on the south coast of England 
Several attacks on the south coast of England tool place in this year. The village of Rye was sacked and left burning.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Feb  -  Wycliffe tried for heresy 
John Wycliffe was tried for heresy at the court of the bishop of London at St. Paul's. Wycliffe was supported by John of Gaunt but the trial failed to convict the religious reformer when it ended in riots and chaos.

Jun 21  -  Edward III Dies 
Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War
Edward III, the King of England died in June 1377. One year earlier Edward's eldest son and heir to the throne, Edward the Black Prince died. Richard, the son of the Black Prince, was proclaimed heir to the throne. King Edward was ill for some time before his death, and John of Gaunt another of Edward's sons took the affairs of the nation under his control. Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey in a tomb designed by Henry Yevele.

Jun 23  -  Richard II becomes king 
Richard, the son of Edward the Black Prince, and grandson of Edward III, became king.

Jul 16  -  Richard II is crowned 
The 10 year old Richard II was crowned king of England. Ceremonies were overseen by his uncle John of Gaunt. Henry Percy was created Earl of Northumberland at the ceremony in recognition for his services as a soldier leading troops against the French.

1378

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Canterbury Cathedral rebuilding work 
Work on rebuilding the nave and transepts of Canterbury Cathedral was started. The designer was Henry Yeveley one of the greatest architects in the late medieval period.

Urban VI becomes Pope  (More...)

A small Scottish army captures Berwick Castle 
With just forty men, Alexander Ramsay approached Berwick Castle and finding no guards on the walls raised ladders and gained entry to the keep. There they killed the castle's commander and took control, The residents of Berwick reacted by destoying the drawbridge to the castle to prevent the Scots leaving. A larger Scottish army was north of Berwick and Ramsay decided to wait for their arrival, but the Earl of Northumberland with 10,000 men arrived first. They laid seige to the castle but quickly recaptured it, killing all the Scots apart from Ramsay who surrendered.

Murder at Westminster Abbey 
Westminster Abbey was closed for several months after a murder took place in the Choir. The Abbey was not reopened for services until it was reconsecrated. Two knights called Schakell and Hawle had taken a Spanish Count prisoner whilst fighting with the Black Prince. As usual a ransom was required for the release of the Count. The Count was allowed to return to Spain to organise the ransom leaving his son as a hostage to ensure the ransom was paid. At this time John of Gaunt was in the process of acquiring the crown of Castile and the saga with the Count's son was an embarrassment. When the two knights refused to release their prisoner they were arrested and sent to the Tower of London. They managed to escape from the Tower and fled to Westminster Abbey and sanctuary, but this was ignored by a group of soldiers led by the Constable of the Tower, Alan Boxhall. Schakell was captured but Hawle and a monk were murdered in the Choir. Several of those involved were excommunicated meaning that they could not be buried after their deaths.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Feb  -  Wycliffe again tried for heresy 
Again John Wycliffe was tried for heresy but this time he was supported by Joan of Kent the widow of Edward, the Black Prince. The trial ended when the citizens entered the courtroom to save him.

Oct  -  Parliament at Gloucester 
Richard II held a parliament at Gloucester from October to December in this year putting much strain on the abbey due to the size of the crowds.

Nov  -  Halley's Comet 
Return of the comet now named after Edmond Halley (died 1742) that returns approximately every 75 years.

1379

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
New College Oxford founded 
William of Wykeham founded his college, New College, Oxford. The foundations being laid in 1380.

Canterbury Nave and South Transept 
Canterbury Nave and South Transept built by Henry Yevele.

Canterbury Cloisters 
Canterbury Cloisters built by Henry Yevele.

1380

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Richard takes control 
Since coming to the throne in 1377, Richard had been too young to rule. This ended when the last of the 'continual councils' was dismissed.

Construction of Wressle Castle 
Sir Thomas Percy built Wressle Castle.

Death of Charles V and accession of Charles VI 
Charles V, King of France, died and was succeeded by his son Charles as King Charles VI, of France.

More French attacks 
The village of Hastings on the south coast of England was attacked by the French.

Events occurring at some time during this year 

1381

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of Raby Castle 
John Neville, the 6th Lord of Raby, began the building of Raby Castle.

May  -  Start of the Peasant's Revolt 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
Essex villagers resisted tax collection; beginning of the Peasant's Revolt in England.


Jun 7  -  Peasant's Revolt reaches Maidstone 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
The Kentish section of the Revolt reached Maidstone where they were joined by Wat Tyler who became their leader. They released John Ball from the church prison.

Jun 10  -  William Courtenay becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
William Courtenay became the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Jun 10  -  Peasant's Revolt reaches Canterbury 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
William Courtenay was elected the new archbishop of Canterbury by the Kentish rebels who crowded into the church. The previous archbishop was in London with the king and was to be beheaded by the rebels. The Essex section of the revolt burnt and sacked a Hospitaller commandery that had previously belonged to the Templars called Cressing Temple.

Jun 11  -  Rebels move towards London 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
Both the Kentish and the Essex rebels move towards London.

Jun 12  -  Rebels reach London 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
The Essex rebels reach Mile End near Aldgate and the Kentish rebels reach Southwark.

Jun 13  -  Rebels enter London 
The English rebels entered London and joined the local poor in attacking the Savoy Palace and other property; a general insurrection began in Cambridgeshire.


Jun 14  -  Richard meets the rebels 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
Richard II negotiated with the rebel peasants at Mile End, London. At the same time a group of rebels entered the Tower and Archbishop Simon of Sudbury, Sir Robert Hales and other officials were killed. Disturbances also started in St.Albans.


Jun 15  -  Watt Tyler killed 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
Richard II again met the rebels, at Smithfield; they demanded the confiscation of church land; Watt Tyler was killed and the rebels dispersed; the Prior of Bury St.Edmunds was executed by the townspeople; University property was attacked in Cambridge (-17.6).


Jun 16  -  Rebellion elsewhere 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
The English rebellion spread to Norfolk and (19.6) Somerset; Sir John Cavendish murdered by rebels.


Jun 17  -  Rebellion again 
Episode: Peasants Revolt
Norfolk rebels entered Norwich and (18-26.6) were repelled by local landowners, led by Henry le Despenser, bishop of Norwich; the bishop met the rebels (26.6) at North Walsham and captured their stronghold; rebel attacks occurred at Peterborough Abbey and Dunstable priory, and in Buckinghamshire and Leicestershire.

1382

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Founding of Winchester College 
William of Wykeham founded Winchester College so that prayers could be said for his soul for all time. It also provided training for boys that were to enter his other college, New College Oxford.

A new castle at Sherriff Hutton is begun 
Building work on a new castle started under the direction of John Neville.

Jan 14  -  King Richard marries Anne of Bohemia 
Richard II married Anne, the sister of Wenceslas of Bohemia. This was a diplomatic move over the French as the king of France Charles V wanted Anne his marry his own son. The marriage was not popular as a large loan had to be paid to Wenceslas for the privilege. (or Jan 20). The coronation of Queen Anne took place a few days later at Westminster Abbey.

May 21  -  Earthquake 
An earthquake occurred somewhere in the Straits of Dover and was felt in southern England and in the Low Countries across the North Sea. The event happened during a meeting to condem the works of John Wycliffe.

1384

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Chapel on London Bridge 
A chapel dedicated to St. Thomas was constructed on London Bridge. The architect was Henry Yevele.

Apr  -  Criticism of Richard 
Episode: Lords Appellant
At a session of Parliament held this year both John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock argued with Richard about the way in which the country was being run, his finances and the influences of his advisors.

Dec 31  -  Death of John Wycliffe 
John Wyciffe died.

1385

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Licence granted to crenellate at Donnington 
Threats of invasion prompted Richard to allow the creation of fortified manor houses. Donnington is one example.

Richard leads army to North 
Differences between Richard and his uncles were temporarily suspended when an army from France landed in Scotland to help the Scots attack the North of England. Richard took an army to deal with the threat. No battles took place and the English spent most of their time burning the area in front of the Scots to prevent them advancing. In the destruction Melrose and Dryburgh abbeys were damaged.

Richard make his uncles Dukes 
Episode: Lords Appellant
Richard gave his uncles Edmund of Langley and Thomas of Woodstock new titles. He made Edmund the Duke of York and made Thomas the Duke of Gloucester.

Qtr 2  -  French prepare for invasion 
Episode: Richard II - The Hundred Years War
All through the summer months, the French prepared men and supplies in the Norman ports.

1386

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Licence granted to crenellate at Bodiam 
The king granted Sir Edward Dalyngrugge a licence to crenellate his mansion in Sussex due to threats of invasion. But Dalyngrugge decided to build a completely new structure instead.

Richard makes de Vere more powerful 
Episode: Lords Appellant
Robert gave the title of Marquis of Dublin to his favourite Robert de Vere. This gave de Vere power over all royal lands in Ireland and made him almost as powerful as Richard's uncles.

Spring  -  Gaunt and the Castilian throne 
With the defeat of the Castilians by the king of Portugal, James of Aviz, John of Gaunt saw his chance of taking the Castilian throne by right of his wife. He asked Richard for a loan to be repaid once he had the throne. Richard was pleased to pay the loan and get rid of Gaunt, as Gaunt was criticising Richard's handling of finances and his choice of advisors.

Summer  -  French fleet mass at Sluys 
Episode: Richard II - The Hundred Years War
An invasion from France seemed to be imminent as the French fleet mass at Sluys.

Summer  -  Commission appointed 
Episode: Lords Appellant
With the French threatening to invade, Richard's continued disregard of his uncles' requests to remove his Chancellor and Treasurer from office, a delegation met Richard at Eltham. His uncle, Duke of Gloucester acted as spokesman for Parliament. He reminded Richard of his duties and demanded that his advisors be removed. He reminded Richard that if he didn't comply he could be removed from his position as King. Richard had little choice and a commission was set up to oversee the king's affairs.

Jul 8  -  John of Gaunt leaves Plymouth 
John of Gaunt set sail from Plymouth, his task to take the Castilian throne.

1387

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
The Canterbury Tales 
Geoffrey Chaucer begins the Canterbury Tales.

Apr  -  Future Henry V born 
It is believed that Henry, the future king of England Henry V, was born at the gatehouse tower of Monmouth castle in late summer. His father was Henry Bolingbroke the future Henry IV king of England and his mother was Mary de Bohun. Mary was seventeen when Henry was born.

Dec  -  Invasion threat from France 
Episode: Richard II - The Hundred Years War
During the winter months of 1387 and spring months of 1388, Henry Bolingbroke prepared defences along the south coast.

Dec 19  -  Battle of Radcot Bridge 
Episode: Lords Appellant
Forces belonging to the Lords Appellant defeated forces led by Robert de Vere, the favourite of Richard II.

1389

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Boniface IX becomes Pope  (More...)

May  -  Richard II declared his intention to rule freely 
Richard announced that he intended to rule unaided.

1390

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of Lumley Castle 
Lumley Castle at Chester-le-Street was built by Ralph, Lord Lumley.

Apr 19  -  Robert III becomes King of the Scots 
Robert II, king of the Scots died at the age of seventy-four and was succeeded by Robert III who ruled from 1390 to 1406. Robert II was buried at Scone Abbey.

Apr 23  -  A joust on London Bridge 
A matter of honour between the English Ambassador to Scotland, Lord Wells, and Sir David de Lindsay, a Scottish knight was settled by the two men taking part in a joust on London Bridge. As relations with Scotland were not good, a safe-conduct order was given so that the knight could travel down to London. The joust took part in front of Richard II himself. After the first two runs neither man had the advantage, but in the third Lord Wells fell from his horse and was injured. The Scottish knight jumped from his horse and tended to Wells much to the delight of the crowd.

1391

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Manuel II becomes the Byzantine Emperor  (More...)

1393

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of Wardour Castle 
The work on Wardour Castle (now Old Wardour Castle) was begun in this year. The architect in charge may have been William Wynford who was responsible for the changes made to Winchester Cathedral around about the same time. The castle is very unusual in that is hexagonal and aligned to the north-east.

1394

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Winchester Cathedral rebuilding work 
Work began on converting the Norman front and nave of Winchester Cathedral to the Perpendicular style by the Bishop of Winchester, William of Wykeham.

Queen Anne dies 
Richard II's first wife Anne of Bohemia died.

Winchester College opens 
William of Wykeham founded Winchester College in 1382 and building work had been progressing since then. The college opened in this year for its first students.

Benedict XIII becomes the Antipope  (More...)

Events occurring at some time during this year 

 

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1395

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Guy's Tower completed at Warwick Castle 
The construction of the huge circular tower called Guy's Tower at Warwick Castle was completed.

A tomb for Richard II and Anne 
Henry Yevele designed a tomb for King Richard II and his first wife Anne of Bohemia at Westminster Abbey,

1396

 

Oct 31  -  Richard II marries Isabella of Valois 
The marriage of Richard II and the seven or eight year-old Isabella of Valois took place at Calais. Isabella was the daughter of Charles VI, King of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. Richard was near thirty years old but the marriage went ahead because it was part of a peace treaty between the English and French Kings.

1397

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Wilton Diptych painted 
A series of miniature images painted on the side of the Black Prince's tomb in Canterbury Cathedral.

Thomas Arundel exiled 
Episode: Lords Appellant
Shortly after becoming Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Arundel was exiled by Richard II because of his support for the lords appellant who opposed the King's misrule of the country.

1398

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Urquhart Castle becomes the King's property 
An act of Parliament is passed which brings the ownership of Urquhart Castle into the hands of the English King.

Sep 16  -  Bolingbroke exiled 
Richard II had executed or exiled other members of the Lords Appellant the previous year and now Bolingbroke and Thomas Mowbray were concerned that their turn was next. Mowbray confided these concerns with Bolingbroke. Bolingbroke informed the King of Mowbray's treasonable words and Mowbray was arrested. Mowbray denied the accusations and that he ever talked to Bolingbroke. To bring the dispute to an end, a duel between Bolingbroke and Mowbray was arranged. But before the duel took place Richard changed his mind and banished Bolingbroke for ten years and Mowbray for life.

1399

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Treasure found at Beeston Castle 
In this year Beeson Castle, which had belonged to Richard II, was handed over to Henry IV. In the castle a hoard of Richard's treasure was found.

Feb  -  Death of John of Gaunt 
.

Mar  -  Bolingbroke's land confiscated 
Bolingbroke should have inherited the lands from his father, John of Gaunt, but Richard had other ideas. The king confiscated Bolingbroke's inheritance and increased his term of exile to life.

Summer  -  Richard goes to Ireland 
Richard sailed to Ireland to suppress a rebellion. He took almost all of his closest supporters with him, leaving an inexperienced Edmund of York in command.

Jul  -  Bolingbroke returns to England 
Landing at Ravenspur in Yorkshire, Bolingbroke returned to England intent to taking the throne from Richard. He marched south to Bristol taking control of Lancastrian castles on route, all of which welcomed his return.

Aug  -  Richard is captured 
Richard returned to England landing in Wales. Richard was captured at Conway Castle and was moved to Pontefract Castle where he was imprisoned.

Sep  -  Bolingbroke accepted by Parliament 
Parliament accepted Bolingbroke's claim to the throne. He was to become Henry IV, king of England.

Oct 13  -  Henry IV becomes king 
Henry IV is crowned king of England after the abdication of Richard II. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey.

Oct 15  -  A new Prince of Wales 
Bolingbroke's son Henry, Prince of Monmouth, was made Prince of Wales. The Prince was not the true heir to the English throne as this honour fell to the young Earl of March, but Henry would become Henry V, king of England.