Construction work was carried out on London Bridge. The tower at the north end of the bridge with the drawbridge was rebuilt with a better drawbridge that could be raised to allow ships with their cargo to unload at Queenhithe Dock further up the river.
Parliament passed a law that made it illegal for someone to marry the queen dowager without express permission. The law was passed so that Catherine of France, the widow of Henry V, could not marry anyone she chose and provide a political advantage for her new husband.
Danger of passing beneath London Bridge
The Duke of Norfolk was involved in a boating disaster as he passed beneath London Bridge. His barge hit one of the starlings and wrecked. He and several others managed to jump onto the base of the pier but many others were not so fortunate and were swept away.
Siege of Orléans
The Duke of Bedford led an English army to surround the French town of Orléans and to begin the siege. Orléans was chosen because it was the most important city still under the control of Charles VII. The city was well prepared for the siege and even though the there were a small number of French soldiers in the city the defences held. Thomas Montacute, earl of Salisbury, was killed when he was hit by debris of an exploding cannonball. The siege continued into the harsh winter. The death of the Thomas Montacute meant that the Earl's title was transferred to Richard Neville who had married his daughter Anne.
Birth of Richard Neville, the Kingmaker
Birth of Richard Neville, the Kingmaker. Richard was the son of Richard Neville, 5th earl of Salisbury and Anne, the daughter of Thomas Montacute, 4th earl of Salisbury.
It is believed that Owen Tudor and Catherine were secretly married in this year or just before.
Marriage of Richard and Cecily
Richard Duke of York married Cecily Neville.
Battle of the Herrings
To supply the English who were besieging Orléans the Duke of Bedford arranged for a convoy of food be sent. The convoy was attacked by the French but the English managed to fight them off. After the battle the battlefield was covered with the food which was mostly salted fish.
Joan begins her mission
With an escort of attendants, Joan of Arc left Vaucouleurs dressed as a man. The party headed for Chinon where King Charles VII was staying. They reached Chinon in early March.
Joan visits Charles VII
Joan was granted an audience with the dauphin at Vaucouleurs. At the meeting Charles had disguised himself as a servant and had a servant dress as himself. Joan was not fooled and picked the king out. Charles was impressed when Joan told him that God had told her that he was the true heir.
Joan is given an army
Charles gave Joan a small army and she sets of to free Orleans from the English.
Joan reaches Orleans
Joan reached Orleans and managed to get past the English to enter the town. There she raised the moral of the citizens trapped by the English siege.
Siege of Orleans is lifted
Joan of Arc had tried to negotiate with the English to lift the siege of Orleans without success. More French troops had arrived to assist break the blockade. On May 7th, Joan was wounded by an arrow in the neck but survived and managed to lead the French to defeat the English at Les Tourelles, part of the town. On May 8th the English moved out of Orleans.
The Battle of Patay
The French defeat the English.
Charles VII crowned at Rheims
Joan of Arc and the dauphin entered Rheims. Charles was crowned in the Cathedral and became King of France.
Joan fails to take Paris
The French fail to retake Paris that had been captured by the English. Joan was slightly injured during the fighting.
Henry VI crowned King of England
Although Henry was still too young to reign he was crowned as Henry VI, King of England in response to the Duke of Bedford's concerns over the events in France. Henry was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
Joan's main objective was to liberate Paris from the Burgundians, but first she needed to free Compiegne. It was during the fighting here that she was wounded again and this time captured. Joan was then sold to the English who handed her over to the Church. As Compiegne was under the bishopric of Beauvais Joan was delivered to Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais, who led the trial.
John, Duke of Bedford, died in Rouen. Henry was still too young to rule and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, took over as regent until Henry was old enough to rule England unaided. Gloucester was not popular and was the cause of unrest with Parliament.
Treaty of Arras
The English lost the support of the Duke of Burgundy against King Charles VII of France with the signing of the Treaty of Arras where the Duke recognised Charles as the true King of France.
Catherine died in this year after retiring to Bermondsey Abbey. Some reports say she died whilst giving birth, but this is probably wrong.
London Bridge section collapse
The base of the Great Stone Gate as the southern end of London Bridge gave way and the whole tower collapsed taking several arches with it. This cut off the Southwark from the rest of the City.
James II becomes King of the Scots
After the death of his father, James II became the King of the Scots.
Owen Tudor is captured
After the death of Catherine of France Owen Tudor was summonsed by Henry VI. Owen was unsure of Henry's motives and wanted some guarantee that he would be able to leave unharmed. That guarantee was given and Owen went to London. Still cautious, Owen used the safety of Westminster to investigate the King's reasons for his summons and when he was relatively happy visited the King. Owen was charged with certain crimes but was cleared and allowed to leave. On his return to Wales Owen was arrested and imprisoned in Newgate gaol.
Henry VI rules unaided
Henry VI took control of England when he was declared old enough to rule unaided.
Owen Tudor was pardoned for all crimes he had been accused of and released from Windsor Castle. He was taken in by the King and given a regular income. Owen and his sons proved to be faithful Lancastrian supporters.
The English who were under siege inside Calais were resupplied by Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. For his actions Beaufort received the title Earl of Dorset.
Future Edward IV is born
The future King Edward IV was born on April 28th in Rouen in Normandy. His father was Richard, Duke of York, the great-grandson of Edward III and his mother was Cecily Neville. Richard was acting as Henry VI's lieutenant-general in France.
Henry VI's legal majority
At the age of 21 King Henry VI was legally old enough to rule unaided without assistance of a guardian.
This was the time before lightning conductors and when lightning struck the tower on St. Paul's Cathedral it started a fire.
Treaty of Tours
The Treaty of Tours was signed by King Henry VI of England and Charles VII of France. The treaty resulted in five years of peace between the two countries and included the arrangement of marriage between Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou.
Betrothal of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou
To ensure peace between England and France the marriage between Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou was arranged.
Edmund Beaufort was appointed lieutenant of France. Richard of York had wanted to be re-appointed to the position. Edmund and Richard became rivals in the battles of the Wars of the Roses.
Nicholas V becomes Pope
Death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
A parliament was held at Bury St. Edmunds where the Duke of Gloucester was accused of treason and arrested. It was said that he was planning an uprising against the king. The accusations were made falsely by the Duke of Suffolk. Gloucester died only days after his arrest.
Richard, Duke of York, Lieutenant of Ireland
Richard, Duke of York, had previously been the Lieutenant of France and Normandy but this had expired and the title had gone to his rival Edmund Beaufort (later Duke of Somerset). Instead, Richard was appointed the title of Lieutenant of Ireland.
Constantine XI Dragases became the Byzantine Emperor. He as the last Byzantine emperor.
Richard Neville becomes Earl of Warwick
Richard Neville married Anne Beauchamp who was the heiress to the Warwick Earldom. The last male Beauchamp had died without an heir and so Richard took the title of earl of Warwick. This gave him control of large amounts of land in the Midlands and South Wales.
Fougeres captured by the English
Several years after the Treaty of Arras, after which the conflict between England and France had subdued, an English force attacked and took over the town of Fougeres in Brittany. This sparked the resumption of the war between the two countries.
French Armies in Normandy
Several French armies moved into Normandy to retake it from the English. The English garrisons began to surrender under the pressure.
Siege of Rouen
A large army of French soldiers were able to retake the cities in Normandy that had been captured by the English. Rouen, the last to fall, was retaken in November after a siege of almost three weeks. This was a major victory for Charles, the French king and a disaster for Henry VI.