1425

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Wells Cathedral North-west Tower 
The North-west tower of Wells Cathedral was constructed during this time.

Benedict XIV becomes the Antipope  (More...)

John VIII becomes Byzantine Emperor  (More...)

1426

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
London Bridge rebuilding work 
Construction work was carried out on London Bridge. The tower at the north end of the bridge with the drawbridge was rebuilt with a better drawbridge that could be raised to allow ships with their cargo to unload at Queenhithe Dock further up the river.

1428

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Law preventing unauthorised marriage 
Parliament passed a law that made it illegal for someone to marry the queen dowager without express permission. The law was passed so that Catherine of France, the widow of Henry V, could not marry anyone she chose and provide a political advantage for her new husband.

Danger of passing beneath London Bridge  
The Duke of Norfolk was involved in a boating disaster as he passed beneath London Bridge. His barge hit one of the starlings and wrecked. He and several others managed to jump onto the base of the pier but many others were not so fortunate and were swept away.

Oct 12  -  Siege of Orléans 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
The Duke of Bedford led an English army to surround the French town of Orléans and to begin the siege. Orléans was chosen because it was the most important city still under the control of Charles VII. The city was well prepared for the siege and even though the there were a small number of French soldiers in the city the defences held. Thomas Montacute, earl of Salisbury, was killed when he was hit by debris of an exploding cannonball. The siege continued into the harsh winter. The death of the Thomas Montacute meant that the Earl's title was transferred to Richard Neville who had married his daughter Anne.

Nov 22  -  Birth of Richard Neville, the Kingmaker 
Richard was the son of Richard Neville, 5th earl of Salisbury and Anne, the daughter of Thomas Montacute, 4th earl of Salisbury.

1429

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Marriage of Owen Tudor and Catherine of France 
It is believed that Owen Tudor and Catherine were secretly married in this year or just before.

Marriage of Richard and Cecily 
Richard Duke of York married Cecily Neville.

Feb 12  -  Battle of the Herrings 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
To supply the English who were besieging Orléans the Duke of Bedford arranged for a convoy of food be sent. The convoy was attacked by the French but the English managed to fight them off. After the battle the battlefield was covered with the food which was mostly salted fish.

Feb 23  -  Joan begins her mission 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Joan left Vaucouleurs dressed as a man and with an escort of attendants. They headed for Chinon where Charles VII was staying. They reached Chinon in early March.

Mar  -  Joan visits Charles VII 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Joan was granted an audience with the dauphin at Vaucouleurs. At the meeting Charles had disguised himself as a servant and had a servant dress as himself. Joan was not fooled and picked the king out. Charles was impressed when Joan told him that God had told her that he was the true heir.

Apr  -  Joan is given an army 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Charles gave Joan a small army and she sets of to free Orleans from the English.

Apr 29  -  Joan reaches Orleans 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Joan reached Orleans and managed to get past the English to enter the town. There she raised the moral of the citizens trapped by the English siege.

May 8  -  Siege of Orleans is lifted 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc had tried to negotiate with the English without success. More French troops had arrived to assist break the blockade. On May 7th, Joan was wounded by an arrow in the neck but survived and managed to lead the French to defeat the English at Les Tourelles (part of the town). On May 8th the English moved out of Orleans.

Jun 18  -  The Battle of Patay 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
The French defeat the English.

Jul 17  -  Charles VII crowned at Rheims 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc and the dauphin entered Rheims. Charles was crowned in the Cathedral and became King of France.

Sep 8  -  Joan fails to take Paris 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
The French fail to retake Paris that had been captured by the English. Joan was slightly injured during the fighting.

Nov 6  -  Henry VI crowned King of England 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Although Henry was still too young to reign he was crowned as Henry VI, King of England in response to the Duke of Bedford's concerns over the events in France. Henry was crowned at Westminster Abbey.

1430

 

May 23  -  Joan of Arc is captured 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Joan's main objective was to liberate Paris from the Burgundians, but first she needed to free Compiegne. It was during the fighting here that she was wounded again and this time captured. Joan was then sold to the English who handed her over to the Church. As Compiegne was under the bishopric of Beauvais Joan was delivered to Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais, who led the trial.

 

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1431

 

Jan  -  The trial of Joan of Arc 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Joan's trial began.

May 30  -  Joan of Arc burnt at the stake 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Joan was burnt at the stake in Rouen in the Old Market Square.

Dec  -  Henry VI crowned as King of France 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Henry was crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris by Cardinal Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester.

1432

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
York Minster south-west tower 
Building work on the south-west tower of York Minster until 1456.

Feb 9  -  Henry VI returns home 
Henry VI landed at Dover.

1433

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Licence to build Alnwick town walls 
King Henry VI granted a licence to build the town walls around the town of Alnwick.It took many years due to problems raising the funds required.

Construction of Greenwich Palace 
Humphrey, the Duke of Gloucester began the construction of the Greenwich estate which would become the important Tudor residence.

1434

 

Nov 24  -  London severe cold 
In November of 1434 severe cold set in and lasted until February 1435. The Thames froze over forcing ships to unload futher down river than usual.

1435

 

Sep 14  -  Duke of Bedford dies 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
John, Duke of Bedford, died in Rouen. Henry was still too young to rule and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, took over as regent until Henry was old enough to rule England unaided. Gloucester was not popular and was the cause of unrest with Parliament.

Sep 21  -  Treaty of Arras 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
The English lost the support of the Duke of Burgundy against Charles VII with the signing of the Treaty of Arras where the Duke recognised Charles as the true King of France.

 

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1436

 

Apr 13  -  The French retake Paris 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
The long occupation of Paris by the English was ended when the French rescued the city.

May 1  -  Richard, Duke of York is appointed Lieutenant-general 
Richard, Duke of York, is appointed lieutenant-general in France by the king, Henry VI.

Dec  -  Severe Frosts 
A severe winter in 1436-37 causes many deaths and hardship.

1437

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Eugenius IV becomes Pope  (More...)

Jan 3  -  Catherine of France dies 
Catherine died in this year after retiring to Bermondsey Abbey. Some reports say she died whilst giving birth, but this is probably wrong.

Jan 14  -  London Bridge section collapse 
The base of the Great Stone Gate as the southern end of London Bridge gave way and the whole tower collapsed taking several arches with it. This cut off the Southwark from the rest of the City.

Mar 25  -  James II becomes King of the Scots 
After the death of his father, James II became the King of the Scots.

Qtr 2  -  Owen Tudor is captured 
After the death of Catherine of France Owen Tudor was summonsed by Henry VI. Owen was unsure of Henry's motives and wanted some guarantee that he would be able to leave unharmed. That guarantee was given and Owen went to London. Still cautious, Owen used the safety of Westminster to investigate the King's reasons for his summons and when he was relatively happy visited the King. Owen was charged with certain crimes but was cleared and allowed to leave. On his return to Wales Owen was arrested and imprisoned in Newgate gaol.

Nov  -  Henry VI rules unaided 
Henry VI takes control of England when he is declared old enough to rule unaided.

1438

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Oxford University founded 
All souls college at Oxford was founded by King Henry VI.

Qtr 1  -  Owen Tudor escapes 
Somehow Owen escaped from the Newgate prison along with his priest and servant but was soon recaptured and sent to Windsor Castle.

1439

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Felix V becomes the last Antipope   (More...)

Jul  -  Owen Tudor is pardoned 
Owen Tudor was pardoned for all crimes he had been accused of and released from Windsor Castle. He was taken in by the King and given a regular income. Owen and his sons proved to be faithful Lancastrian supporters.

1440

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Tattershall Castle brick tower construction 
Construction of the brick tower at Tattershall took place around this time.

Herstmonceux Castle construction 
Construction of the brick Herstmonceux castle took place around this time.

Harfleur captured by the English 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
The English under the command of Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, captured the port town of Harfleur on the northern coast of France.

Construction of Caister Castle 
Caister Castle, in Norfolk just north of Great Yarmouth, was built around this time by Sir Jon Fastolf. Casiter is one of the first brick built castles in England.

Eton College, Cambridge founded 
King Henry VI founded Eton College at Cambridge.

Katla Volcano Eruption 
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Summer  -  Richard of York re-appointed Lieutentant-general 
Richard, Duke of York was re-appointed lieutenant-general of France and Normandy.

 

Online Medieval Shield Designer
Introduction to Heraldry

Follow this simple guide to medieval heraldry and create your own shield design. This option requires Microsoft Silverlight to be installed. 

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1441

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
King's College, Cambridge founded 
King Henry VI founded King's College, Cambridge.

Summer  -  Duke of York in Normandy 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Although Richard, Duke of York, had been appointed governor of France and Normandy he did not go until reports from Rouen in Normandy of French attacks persuaded him to do so.

1442

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Calais relieved by Edmund Beaufort 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
The English who were under siege inside Calais were resupplied by Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. For his actions Beaufort received the title Earl of Dorset.

Apr 28  -  Future Edward IV is born 
Edward was born on April 28th in Rouen in Normandy. His father was Richard, Duke of York, the great-grandson of Edward III. Richard was acting as Henry VI's lieutenant-general in France.

Dec  -  Henry VI's legal majority 
At the age of 21 Henry VI was legally old enough to rule unaided without assistance of a guardian.

1444

 

Feb 1  -  St. Paul's struck by lightning 
This was the time before lightning conductors and when lightning struck the tower on St. Paul's Cathedral it started a fire.

Apr  -  Treaty of Tours 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
A peace treaty signed between Henry VI of England and Charles VII of France. The treaty resulted in five years of peace between the two countries and included the arrangement of marriage between Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou.

May 24  -  Betrothal of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou 
To ensure peace between England and France the marriage between Henry VI and Margaret was arranged.

1445

 

Apr 23  -  Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou 
The marriage of the King of England to Margaret of Anjou had been arranged as part of the treaty signed at Tours to ensure peace between England and France.

May 30  -  Margaret of Anjou crowned 
After a triumphant entrance to London a few days earlier Margaret stayed at the Tower of London for a few days before going to Westminster Abbey where she was crowned.

Jul  -  French Embassy in London 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
A French Embassy arrived in London to meet the English King and confirm terms of a peace treaty after the marriage of Henry to Margaret of Anjou.

1446

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry VI receives the Golden Rose 
Pope Eugenius IV granted the gift of the Golden Rose to King Henry VI for his devotion to both the Church and education. The Golden Rose was a solid gold ornament in the shape of a rose.

1447

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Edmund Beaufort appointed lieutenant of France 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edmund Beaufort was appointed lieutenant of France. Richard of York had wanted to be re-appointed to the position. Edmund and Richard became rivals in the battles of the Wars of the Roses.

Nicholas V becomes Pope  (More...)

Feb 23  -  Death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester 
A parliament was held at Bury St. Edmunds where the Duke of Gloucester was accused of treason and arrested. It was said that he was planning an uprising against the king. The accusations were made falsely by the Duke of Suffolk. Gloucester died only days after his arrest.

Qtr 4  -  Richard, Duke of York, Lieutenant of Ireland 
Richard, Duke of York, had previously been the Lieutenant of France and Normandy but this had expired and the title had gone to his rival Edmund Beaufort (later Duke of Somerset). Instead, Richard was appointed the title of Lieutenant of Ireland.

1448

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Constantine XI Dragases becomes Emperor  (More...)
Constantine XI Dragases was the last Byzantine emperor.

1449

 

Events occurring at some time during this year 
Richard Neville becomes Earl of Warwick 
Richard Neville married Anne Beauchamp who was the heiress to the Warwick Earldom. The last male Beauchamp had died without an heir and so Richard took the title of earl of Warwick. This gave him control of large amounts of land in the Midlands and South Wales.

Mar  -  Fougeres captured by the English 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Several years after the Treaty of Arras, after which the conflict between England and France had subdued, an English force attacked and took over the town of Fougeres in Brittany. This sparked the resumption of the war between the two countries.

Jul  -  French Armies in Normandy  
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Several French armies moved into Normandy to retake it from the English. The English garrisons began to surrender under the pressure.

Nov  -  Siege of Rouen 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
A large army of French soldiers were able to retake the cities in Normandy that had been captured by the English. Rouen, the last to fall, was retaken in November after a siege of almost three weeks. This was a major victory for Charles, the French king and a disaster for Henry VI.