Events occurring at some time during this year 
Southwell Cathedral West window 
The West window of Southwell Cathedral was begun in this year.

Jan  -  The Duke of Suffolk is sent to the Tower 
The Duke of Suffolk was accused by Parliament of using his position close to the king to influence matters for his and his followers own ends. He was also accused of increasing his own wealth at the expense of the king and perverting the course of justice. Suffolk was murdered on his way to exile in May of the same year.

Jan  -  Murder at Portsmouth 
Adam Moleyns, the Bishop of Chichester and Lord Privy Seal, had been sent to Portsmouth by the king to pay the wages of soldiers and sailors who had not been paid for some time. But the anger of the soldiers was so great that they turned on him and he was murdered.

Mar 15  -  Siege of Valognes 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
An English army landed at Cherbourg under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriel. Joined by forces led by Matthew Gough the combined army laid siege to Valognes. The town fell to the English in April.

Apr 15  -  Battle of Formigny 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
An English army under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriel and Matthew Gough were attacked at Formigny in Normandy. The English were defeated and many of them were captured including Kyriel. Matthew Gough managed to escape.

May  -  Revolt in Kent 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Jack Cade was the leader of a rebellion that began in Kent and elsewhere in the south east of England. The rebels' grievances were directed at the king's councillors who were using their influence on the king for their own gains.

May  -  Death of William de la Pole 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk was accused by Parliament of being the cause of the country's problems. Suffolk was arrested and imprisoned. The King allowed the Duke to be banished rather than executed but as he left the country he was attacked and killed.

May 16  -  Bayeux surrendered to the French 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
English forces led by Matthew Gough held out at Bayeux against a French siege. The French used powerful cannons and finally Gough agreed to surrender the town to the French.

Jun  -  London ransacked by the rebels 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The rebels under the command of Jack Cade defeated a section of King Henry's army at Sevenoaks and entered London. The rebels ransacked the city and after crossing London Bridge to the south were prevented crossing back to the north by angry Londoners. The rebels were defeated and fled.

Summer  -  Matthew Gough made Captain of the Tower 
On his return from Normandy Matthew Gough was made Captain of the Tower of London. Gough was killed in the fighting with Jack Cade and the rebels on London Bridge soon afterwards.

Jul  -  Jack Cade killed 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
After the defeat of the rebels in London Jack Cade fled but was pursued. He was caught and killed while resisting arrest.

Jul  -  Surrender of Caen 
The Duke of Somerset surrendered the town of Caen to the French after a short siege and he returned to England.

Aug 1  -  Somerset arrives in London 
The Duke of Somerset entered London and positioned himself as part of the king's council.

Aug 12  -  Fall of Cherbourg to the French 
The lands in Normandy held by the English began to fall to the French one-by-one until Cherbourg finally fell on August 12th.

Sep  -  Richard returns from Ireland 
As a possible heir to throne of England, Richard, Duke of York returned from Ireland where he had been placed as lieutenant by the Duke of Somerset who had possible aspirations of taking the throne for himself. Edmund Beaufort, the Duke of Somerset and his associates were being shown favouritism and Richard along with the Welsh land owners were finding it hard to retain the earnings they were making from their own lands. Richard failed this time in removing the Duke of Somerset.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Glasgow University founded 
Founded in 1451, Glasgow University is one of the oldest universities in the UK.

Support for Richard in Parliament 
Thomas Young, the member of Parliament for Bristol stood up and declared that Richard, Duke of York's claim to the throne should be considered. Thomas Young was quickly arrested and locked up in the Tower of London.

Birth of Christopher Columbus 
Episode: The Great Explorers
The son of a wool weaver, Christopher Columbus was born in the Italian coastal city of Genoa.

Jun 30  -  Bordeaux falls to the French 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
The port city of Bordeaux fell to the French and English control was lost.

Qtr 4  -  York starts an uprising 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Duke of York writes to supporters in Norfolk asking for their support in an uprising against the King.


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Feb  -  The Duke of York marches on London 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Duke of York gathered an army and marched on London intent on persuading the king to remove Somerset from power, King Henry took an army north to Northampton to prevent Yorkist supporters in the east joining York in the west. The king also sent word to the city of London to not allow York to enter, Learning that he was refused entry to the city the Duke continued south and crossed the the river Thames at Kingston. York moved his army to Dartford while the king came back south to London.

Mar  -  The Duke of York surrenders 
The Queen had raised an army and with the King they met the Duke of York at Dartford. Outnumbered, York disbanded his army and surrendered to the King. He was taken to London and later at St. Paul's Cathedral he was forced to swear an oath saying he would not oppose the King.

Oct 2  -  Richard (III) is born 
Richard, the future King of England, was born in Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire. His father was Richard Duke of York and his mother was Cecily Neville. Richard was their fourth son.

Nov  -  Edmund and Jasper created Earls 
The two sons of Owen Tudor, Edmund and Jasper were made Earls. Edmund became the Earl of Richmond and Jasper became the Earl of Pembroke.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Turks established in Constantinople 
Turks established in Constantinople

Jul  -  English defeated at Castillion 
Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc
Sir John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury and his army were totally destroyed by the French as they attempted to regain control of the region around Bordeaux. This is regarded as the last event in the Hundred Years War.

Aug  -  The King's health suffers 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
From August 1453 until the end of 1454, the King's mental health was such that he was unable to conduct the day-to-day government of the country. The illness was some kind of mental condition possibly inherited from his grandfather Charles VI of France who also suffered from bouts of madness.

Oct 13  -  Prince Edward of Lancaster is born 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward of Westminster, also known as Edward of Lancaster, King Henry's and Margaret of Anjou's only son, was born at Westminster.

Nov  -  Somerset sent to the Tower 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edmund Beaufort, the duke of Somerset was unpopular and only kept his position of power with the support of the King. While Henry VI was ill Somerset was sent to the Tower of London.



Feb 17  -  Feast of the Pheasant 
A lavish banquet held at Lille put on by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy to raise support for a crusade against the Turks who had captured Constantinople. The banquet was so large that it included a landscape with ships, mock villages, castles and churches. It had a pie in which more than twenty musicians palyed. Chariots of gold were moved around by hidden machinery and a horse had been trained to walk backwards. To complete the spectacle a huge Saracen giant and an elephant appeared. On the elephant rode a female figure meant to represent the Holy Church who appealed to the banqueting guests to join the crusade and save her.

Mar 27  -  Richard, Duke of York made Protector 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
With the King unable to govern, the queen with the support of the powerful Neville Earls gave Richard, Duke of York the position of 'Protector of England'.

Apr 2  -  Earl of Salisbury becomes chancellor 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
With Richard, Duke of York running the country, several changes were made, one of which was to make the elder Richard Neville chancellor. Richard also made himself the Captain of Calais removing his rival the Earl of Somerset from the post.

Dec  -  Henry's health returns 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Henry returned to health and Edward, the Duke of York was removed from the position of Protector.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Edmund Tudor marries Margaret Beaufort 
Edmund Tudor married Margaret Beaufort, the heiress of the Duke of Somerset. Margaret was only twelve years old.

The Gutenberg Bible  
Johannes Gutenberg, the inventor of the printing press, printed the first Bible. At the time all Bibles were hand copied and prone to errors and amendments making each copy unique. A standard Bible meant all priests would be able to work from the same version of the text. The Gutenberg Bible was also a work of art each page having two columns of text and many pages being illuminated with colourful letters and flowers.

Calixtus III becomes Pope  (More...)

Feb  -  Somerset released from the Tower 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
With Henry back in power the Duke of Somerset was released from captivity.

Mar  -  Somerset back in command 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Henry's return to sanity swung the balance of power back to favour the Duke of Somerset and he was quickly restored to his former position of Captain of Calais. The Yorkists at this time felt it wise to leave London in fear of reprisals.

May 21  -  The Yorkists are summoned 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
A council was called and the Edward and Warwick were summoned to attend. Concerned that the reason they have been called to attend was that they would be punished, the Yorkists decided to demand a meeting of their own with the King at St. Albans.

May 22  -  Battle of St. Albans 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The King had by his side at St. Albans the Dukes of Somerset and Buckingham, Lords Pembroke, Northumberland and Devon and around 2,000 Lancastrian men. They tried to hold the town against the Yorkists led by Salisbury and Warwick but Warwick was able to enter the town through an unguarded spot and attack the flanks of the Lancastrian barricades. Although this battle was small it left the Duke of Somerset dead along with Lord Northumberland and Clifford. As a result of this victory power again swung to the Yorkists although support from the Barons was not total. Richard, Duke of York, again became Protector of the Realm and the powerful position of Captain of Calais was given to the Earl of Warwick.

Jul  -  Parliament held 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
A Parliament was held after the Battle of St. Albans to confirm the changes of appointment. Richard, Duke of York became protector for the second time.

Oct  -  Henry VI becomes ill once more 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
King Henry VI suffered another bout of mental illness. This time to last until February of the following year.



Feb 25  -  Duke of York resigns as protector 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Henry Vi again came around from a bout of mental illness and Richard, Duke of York, was relieved of position of protector of the realm.

Summer  -  Edmund Tudor captured 
Edmund Tudor Earl of Richmond is captured.

Jun  -  Halley's Comet 
Return of the comet now named after Edmond Halley (died 1742) that returns approximately every 75 years.

Nov  -  Edmund Tudor dies 
Edmund the Earl of Richmond died in captivity in Carmarthen Castle. His thirteen year old bride Margaret was expecting their child who would become the future King Henry VII.

Dec  -  Margaret Beaufort moved to Pembroke 
After the death of Edmund Tudor his brother Jasper Tudor Earl of Pembroke moved Margaret Beaufort to Pembroke Castle. Margaret was the wife of Edmund and expecting their first child.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
French attack on Sandwich 
The coastal town of Sandwich on the south coast of England was raided by the French. The town was left burning and the mayor dead,

Jan 28  -  Henry (VII) is born 
The future king of England, Henry VII, was born at Pembroke Castle. His father was Edmund Tudor who had died a couple of months before the birth and his mother was Margaret Beaufort who was directly descended from Edward III.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Warwick fights several naval battles 
England's naval power was weak and the waters between France and England were filled with pirates. Sandwich had been attacked by the French the year before. To put an end to this problem, the Earl of Warwick, the Captain of Calais, commanded a fleet of ships to patrol the English Channel. His fleet attacked and captured Spanish and Genoese ships talking prisoners and treasure. This made the Earl popular with the sailors under his command and the traders who the pirates had previously attacked.

Pius II becomes Pope  (More...)

Mar 24  -  Loveday march 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
In an attempt to bring both Yorkists and Lancastrians together in peace, King Henry led a march of both parties to a ceremony at St. Paul's Cathedral. Could have been on the 25th of March.



Jun 24  -  Great Council 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
A council at Coventry decided that the Yorkists should be brought under control by the use of force.

Sep  -  Warwick returns to England 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Earl of Warwick arrived in England from Calais. He was welcomed in London before setting off north to meet up with the Duke of York.

Sep 23  -  Battle of Blore Heath 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Led by Richard Earl of Salisbury the Yorkists in the north mobilised an army and headed south to meet the Duke of York at Ludlow. Salisbury was intercepted by a Lancastrian army led by Lord Audley at Blore Heath in Shropshire. The Lancastrians were the first to attack. Their first and second cavalry charges were repulsed and when the Lancastrian foot soldiers were also repulsed they turned and fled. In the battle Audley was killed and although two of Salisbury's sons were captured they were quickly released. The Yorkists had won this battle.

Oct 12  -  Battle of Ludford Bridge 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Earl of Warwick with a force from Calais reached Ludlow and the combined army of the Yorkists attacked the King's army at Ludford Bridge near Ludlow. The men from Calais refused to fight their king and a weak Yorkist army was defeated. Richard Duke of York and his younger son escaped and fled to Ireland while Salisbury, Warwick and Edward of March (later Edward IV) fled to Calais.

Nov  -  Parliament acts against the Yorkists 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
At a Parliament called in Coventry the Yorkists are condemned as rebels and their land was confiscated by the crown.



Jan 15  -  Yorkists capture Lancastrian fleet 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Lancastrians were building a large fleet of ships at Sandwich on the south coast and with it they planned to attack Calais. The Earl of Warwick became aware of this and arranged a raid led by John Dinham to steal the ships. Early in the morning of the fifteenth of January the Yorkists supporters attacked the dockyard and stole those ships that were seaworthy. Richard Woodville (Earl Rivers), his wife Jacquetta and their son Anthony were captured.

Mar  -  Warwick sails to Ireland 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
With the Yorkists in control of the seas around the south coast of England, the Earl of Warwick was able to leave Calais and sail to Ireland where the Duke of York had taken refuge. There they planned their invasion of England and the defeat of the Lancastrians.

Apr 10  -  James III crowned at Kelso Abbey 
James III was crowned King of Scotland at Kelso Abbey.

May  -  Warwick returns to Calais 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
With plans of invasion made the Earl of Warwick sailed back to Calais to organise his army.

Jun  -  Yorkists take control of Kent 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Yorkists from Calais landed on the south coast of England and quickly seized Sandwich. They prepared for the arrival of the Earl of Warwick and the Earl of March.

Summer  -  Queen Margaret flees to Wales 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
After the Lancastrian defeat at Northampton, Queen Margaret and her son Edward escaped to Wales and the safety of Harlech Castle.

Jun 26  -  Earls of March and Warwick land in England 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Once the Yorkist army had secured Sandwich the Earls of March and Warwick arrived from Calais. They had a force of around 2,000 and the support of the Kentish men.

Jul 2  -  Yorkists enter London 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Yorkists marched first to Canterbury where the officers in charge of protecting the town against them joined forces with the rebels. They then moved on and arrived at London on July 2nd. There they were welcomed by the Mayor of London and the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Jul 5  -  The Earls of Warwick and March leave London 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Accompanied by a large army of Yorkist supporters, the Earl of Warwick and Edward, the Earl of March left London and marched towards Northampton where the King was staying.

Jul 10  -  Battle of Northampton 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Lancastrians's Court was in Coventry at the time of the Yorkist rebels entering London. When news reached them, the Lancastrians moved south to Northampton to meet the rebels. The Yorkists led by the Earl of Warwick wanted to talk but the Lancastrians led by the Duke of Buckingham wanted to fight. Although the Lancastrians had less men than the Yorkists, they did have control of a stronger position. The Yorkists managed to defeat the Lancastrians due to a section of the Lancastrian army led by Lord Grey of Ruthin moving away allowing the Yorkists through. Orders were given that the King and ordinary men should be spared, while the knights and lords should be killed. When the fighting was over the casualties were light, but the Lancastrian leaders, Buckingham, Shrewsbury and Egremont were dead and the King was captured.

Jul 19  -  Garrison at Tower of London surrenders 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Lancastrian garrison holding the Tower of London surrendered. Lord Scrope tried to escape but was seen and killed by the river, but most of the garrison escaped.

Jul 30  -  Yorkists in power 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Now that the Yorkists had control of the King, they started moves to regain their confiscated lands and reverse the sentences of attainder passed by the Coventry Parliament. To this end they sent letters demanding Parliament should meet on 7th October. George Neville, the Kingmaker's brother was made chancellor of England.

Aug 3  -  James II accidentally killed 
Whilst besieging Roxburgh Castle, James II, King of the Scots was killed by one of his own army's bombards. He was succeeded to the throne by his son James III.

Sep  -  Richard, Duke of York returns 
Richard, Duke of York returned from Ireland arriving somewhere near Chester.

Oct  -  Duke of York claims throne 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Richard, Duke of York returned from Ireland to claim the throne of England as a direct descendant of Edward III. The Lords refused to abandon Henry VI and Parliament agreed he should remain King until his death. Then Richard or his heir should become the next king of England.

Dec 30  -  Battle of Wakefield 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Queen Margaret had been building an army in the North and started attacking Yorkist held settlements. Richard left London with a small army to deal with the Queen. He had underestimated the Lancastrians and at his castle at Sandal Richard was confronted by superior forces. Although Richard sent word to the Earl of March for assistance he didn't wait and attacked. The battle left Richard Duke of York and his son Earl of Rutland dead.



Feb 2  -  Battle of Mortimers Cross 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward Earl of March, now the heir to the English throne, showed off his military skills at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in Herefordshire. The Lancastrians with Welsh support had caught Edward as he travelled to London. On the morning of the battle three bright lights were seen in the sky. Edward used this strange sight as a good omen. The Lancastrians were defeated and Owen Tudor was captured and beheaded. Jasper Tudor escaped.

Feb 17  -  Second Battle of St. Albans 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Lancastrians army led by the Queen met the Yorkist army led by Warwick at St. Albans. The Yorkist army was split in two and during the battle sections of the Yorkists defected to the Queen's side. The Yorkists were defeated and Warwick escaped. The King, who had been travelling with the Yorkists, was freed and he was reunited with his wife and son.

Feb 27  -  Yorkists enter London 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward and Warwick were allowed to enter the city of London. The citizens of London had refused to let the Queen enter and so she returned north with the King.

Mar 4  -  Edward IV is proclaimed king 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward, the Earl of March, was crowned Edward IV of England at London by the available peers and public acclamation.

Mar 13  -  Edward leaves London 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward IV with a large army left London to march north and face the Lancastrians. Richard and George, the young sons of the late Duke of York were put on a ship and sent to Burgundy where they would be safe from Lancastrian hands.

Mar 28  -  Battle of Ferrybridge 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
This small battle occurred just before the larger battle of Towton. The Lancastrians were defeated and John Clifford, Lord Clifford was killed.

Mar 29  -  Battle of Towton 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
This was the bloodiest battle of the Wars of the Roses and was fought in a snowstorm at Towton in Yorkshire. Both the Lancastrian and Yorkist armies were large having possibly 40,000 men each. The battle lasted many hours until the Lancastrians's line was broken. Fleeing into a river many of the Lancastrians were drowned due to their heavy armour and the rest were killed by the pursuing Yorkists.

Jun 28  -  Edward IV is crowned 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Yorkists were in control after the battle of Towton and Richard and George were brought back to England where they were made Knights of the Order of the Bath. Edward took part in the crown-wearing ceremonies at Westminster Abbey and became King of England. Shortly afterwards his younger brother George was given the title of Duke of Clarence.

Jul  -  Lancastrian Embassy in France 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
An embassy of several Lancastrians, including the Duke of Somerset, travelled to France and the court of Charles VII to ask for men and a loan of money to continue the fight against the Yorkists. But the death of Charles on the 22nd put an end to their plans. Their situation became serious when they were arrested. The new French King, Louis XI, at this stage of the Wars of the Roses was a Yorkist supporter.

Jul 22  -  Death of Charles VII 
Charles VII died in July of 1461 after a long illness resulting in an abscess in his mouth that meant he could not eat or drink. Louis, his on, had refused to
see his dying father, but as soon as he learnt of the King's death Louis headed to Rheims and Paris to claim the French throne.

Aug  -  Edward on a royal tour 
Edward began a tour of the south and west of England visiting the Welsh Marches and the midlands.

Aug 15  -  Louis XI crowned King of France 
Louis and his wife were crowned at Rheims Cathedral.

Sep  -  Pembroke Castle captured 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Pembroke Castle was captured by William Herbert. The young Henry Tudor was found in the castle where he had been hiding.

Oct  -  Lancastrians lose castles in Wales 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
By October the Lancastrians were losing control of the castles that they held in Wales.

Nov  -  Richard (III) becomes Duke of Gloucester 
Richard (III) was give the title of Duke of Gloucester.

Nov  -  Pembroke Castle in Yorkist hands 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
William Herbert was given the castle at Pembroke in recognition of his assistance to Edward IV. Herbert was made the guardian of the future Henry VII who was living at the castle.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Prudhoe Castle granted to the Duke fo Clarence 
Both Prudhoe Castle and Warkworth Castle were granted by King Edward IV to his brother George Duke of Clarence.

Carreg Cennen demolished 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Carreg Cennen Castle was captured from the Lancastrians by the Yorkists. To prevent it from being used as a castle again 500 men were employed to take it apart. The castle has remained a ruin ever since.

Feb  -  A plot to kill the king 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
A Lancastrian plot to kill King Edward IV was uncovered early in the year. Edward was planning to go north to deal with the Scots and the plotters planned to follow him north and kill him. One of the leaders was the 12th Earl of Oxford, John de Vere. Both the Earl and his eldest son where executed for treason.

Apr  -  Queen Margaret sails to France 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
In an attempt to raise support for the Lancastrian cause, Queen Margaret sailed from Scotland to Brittany. She hoped she could get support from the French King, Louis XI.

Jun 28  -  Queen Margaret and Louis XI 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Queen Margaret of England and Louis XI of France sign a treaty. Margaret promised that Calais would be his if he helped her return Henry to the throne.

Oct 25  -  Queen Margaret invades 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Queen Margaret landed near Bamburgh Castle on the Northumbrian coast with a small army. The main castles in the area, Alnwick, Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh surrendered to the Queen.

Nov 13  -  Queen Margaret retreats to Scotland 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward acted quickly to Queen Margaret's arrival in the north. He raised a large army that marched towards Northumbria. Queen Margaret did not have the resources and local support required to fight Edward and so she decided to seek refuge in Scotland. A garrison of soldiers were left at the three Northumbrian castles.

Dec  -  Yorkists take back control of Northumbrian castles 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Earl of Warwick was put in charge of capturing the castles from the Lancastrian garrisons. Edward had to stay at Durham to recover from a bout of the measles. The castles were not attacked but cut off from supplies to starve the soldiers out. Just before the new year the Lancastrian soldiers surrendered and the Yorkists took control of Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh Castles. Warwick used the castle at Warkworth as his base while he monitored the seiges at the other castles. The seige of Alnwick Castle continued into January.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Norwich third spire destroyed 
Lightning once again hit the wooden and lead spire at Norwich Cathedral causing a fire that spread to the roof. After this disaster stone was used in the roof to provide vaulting and used in the new spire to replace the wood.

Jan 6  -  Alnwick Castle surrenders to the Yorkists 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Lancastrians inside Alnwick Castle were short of supplies so an army from Scotland under the control of George Douglas, the 4th Earl of Angus marched down to assist. When the Scottish army arrived at the castle, the Yorkists who were beseiging the castle withdrew allowing many of those inside to escape. Douglas did not attack the Yorkists but turned with the rescued men back to Scotland. The Yorkists returned to the castle and those Lancastrians that had not been able to escape surrendered.

Mar  -  Northumbrian castles fall to Lancastrians 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Sir Ralph Percy, the constable in charge of Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh castles, defected and allowed the Lancastrians to take control. Alnwick Castle fell to the Lancastrians shortly afterwards.

May  -  Alnwick Castle in Lancastrian hands 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Alnwick Castle was captured by the Lancastrians.

Jul  -  Queen Margaret returns to France 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Warwick took an army north to deal with the new threat from Queen Margaret. The Lancastrians had laid seige to Norham Castle on the Scottish border. Under the control of the Earl of Warwick, the Yorkists again proved too powerful for the Lancastrians and with her invasion plans in ruin Margaret decided to return to France. She took Prince Edward with her.

Jul  -  Siege of Norham Castle 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Queen Margaret, Henry VI and Scottish support besieged the castle at Norham. King Edward failed to react to the problem and it was left to the Earls of Warwick and Northumberland to come to the castle's rescue. Henry, Margaret and the Scots fled.

Oct  -  Treaty with France 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward IV agreed a peace treaty with France in which both sides promising not to assist each others enemies. This was a disaster for the Lancastrians who had hoped that they could get French assistance against the English king.

Dec  -  Duke of Somerset rebels 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset and Lancastrian supporters rebelled against Edward and used Bamburgh Castle as a base.

Dec  -  English Truce with Scotland 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward IV agreed a truce with Scotland who had lost interest in fighting for the Lancastrians and Queen Margaret. The truce was signed at York and Edward spent Christmas in the city.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Paul II becomes Pope  (More...)

Apr 25  -  Battle of Hedgeley Moor 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Battle of Hedgeley Moor took place a few miles from Alnwick. Lord Montague was attempting to meet Scottish envoys and escort then back to York for peace talks. The Lancastrians wanted to put an end to these plans and attacked Montague's army. Lancastrians involved in the battle were Somerset, Roos, Hungerford, , Sir Ralph Percy, Sir Richard Tunstall and Sir Thomas Finderne. Percy was killed in the battle. The Yorkist army was too strong for the Lancastrians and won the day.

May  -  Edward secretly marries 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward married Elizabeth Woodville (Wydville) secretly during a hunting trip. The hunting trip that may have been arranged as a cover. Edward is supposed to have had a reputation as a lady's man and had many lovers. To Edward, Elizabeth could have been just another lover, but Elizabeth may have wanted more and persuaded Edward to marry her. The marriage took place in secret and was kept quiet until the spring of 1465. One problem with the marriage was that Elizabeth was the widow of Henry V's brother John, a Lancastrian and her family were Lancastrian supporters. The other problem was that Warwick had contacted the French king Louis XI and had been trying to arrange a marriage for Edward to a French princess. Edward's act upset Warwick's plans.

May  -  Battle of Hexham 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Nevilles defeated the last of the Lancastrian forces near Hexham and executed the rebels including Henry Beaufort the Duke of Somerset. In recognition of their contribution to the security of his reign Edward IV gave John Neville, Lord Montagu, the title of Earl of Northumberland and George Neville became the Archbishop of York.

Jun  -  Truce with Scotland. 
Anglo-Scots truce signed at York.

Jun  -  Herbert becomes Constable of Harlech 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
William Herbert was given the title of Constable of Harlech Castle by Edward IV and told to capture the castle from the Lancatrians. But the castle was strongly fortified and a lengthy seige began.

Jun 23  -  Alnwick Castle Surrenders to Warwick 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
After the Lancastrians were defeated at the Battle of Hexham their power in Northumberland was at an end. The Earl of Warwick accepted the surrender of Alnwick Castle on June 23rd. Dunstanburgh Castle surrendered shortly afterwards. The seige at Bamburgh Castle was brought to an end with the use of cannons, tthe first castle to fall in such a way.

Sep 14  -  Council at Reading 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Great Council at Reading Abbey; Edward IV announced his marriage and (29.9 - Michaelmas) Elizabeth recognised as Queen.



May 26  -  Elizabeth crowned 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Elizabeth Woodville was finally crowned Queen at Westminster Abbey.

Summer  -  Henry VI captured 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Henry had been helped by Lancastrian supporters in the north but was finally captured at Waddington Hall. He was taken to London and put in the Tower.



Feb 11  -  Birth of Edward IV's first daughter 
First daughter, Elizabeth, born to Edward IV and Elizabeth; a second daughter, Mary, was born 11.8.1467.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Canterbury Lady Chapel Vault 
Canterbury Lady Chapel Vault built.

Orkney pledged to Scotland 
The islands of Orkney were pledged to James III of Scotland in part payment of the dowry for the marriage of James to the daughter of King Christian I of Norway.

Summer  -  Margaret marries Duke of Burgundy 
Edward arranged for his sister Margaret to marry Charles the Duke of Burgundy. Burgundy had for some time been a supporter of the Yorkists and this marriage strengthened the bond. For Warwick, this was a disaster. Warwick had been attempting to make an alliance with France and that was not about to happen.

Jul  -  Jasper Tudor's invasion 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
King Louis provider Jasper Tudor, the Earl of Pembroke, with three ships and fifty soldiers to invade Wales. The small invasion force planned to gain support against Edward IV and help the Lancastrian garrison trapped at Harlech Castle. The castle was surrounded by the English so Pembroke attacked and occupied Denbigh gaining many supporters. Lord Herbert was dispatched to deal with the threat and defeated Pembroke who managed to escape.

Qtr 4  -  Warwick plots against the King 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Warwick was unhappy with the marriage of Edward and Elizabeth Woodville and he began to plan how overthrow the king. Warwick's plans centred around Edward's brother George, the Duke of Clarence. If George was to marry Warwick's daughter Isabel and become king, Warwick would be back in a position of power.



Qtr 1  -  Rebellion of Robin of Redesdale  
Episode: Wars of the Roses
A rebellion began early in the year started by a mysterious person calling himself Robin of Redesdale. The motivation for the uprising against the king was his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville and the influence the Woodvilles were having. The rebels were supported by the Earl of Warwick.

Jun  -  Edward advances against rebels 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward and the Duke of Gloucester took a small army in search of the rebels in the North.

Jul  -  Clarence marries Isabel Neville 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Warwick and the Duke of Clarence travelled to France where Clarence was married to Warwick's fifteen year old daughter Isabel. The ceremony was conducted by Warwick's brother George Neville the Archbishop of York.

Jul 18  -  Warwick returns from France 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Richard Neville, the Earl of Warwick returned from France to England with an army, passing through Canterbury and London. His plan was to take the army north and join up with the Rebels led by Robin of Redesdale.

Jul 26  -  Battle of Edgecote 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward's army was insufficient to deal with the rebels alone and he had moved them to Nottingham to wait for a larger army to join them led by Sir William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke. Pembroke's army was attacked and defeated by a combined rebel army led by Robin of Redesdale and the Earl of Warwick who had returned from France. The battle took place at Edgecote near Banbury. Sir William Herbert and his brother Richard were captured and executed.

Jul 29  -  Edward is captured 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
After the defeat of William Herbert at Edgecote, Edward was left without a strong enough army to deal with the Earl of Warwick. Either Edward's army deserted him, or he dispersed his army on purpose, the outcome was the same. Edward was captured.

Aug  -  Woodville family members executed 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
While Edward was imprisoned, Warwick captured the Queen's father (Earl Rivers) and one of her brothers and had them executed at Warwick Castle.

Sep  -  Riots and rebellions 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
With the king in custody there began a series of riots around the country protesting against the Earl of Warwick. Warwick did not have the backing of Parliament and in the end had little choice but to let Edward go free and return to rule the country.

Qtr 4  -  Richard appointed Constable of England 
Richard (III) was given the role of Constable of England and was given Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
York Minster north-west tower 
Building work on the north-west tower of York Minster until 1474.

'Le Morte d'Arthur' 
The book about the legend of King Arthur called 'Le Morte d'Arthur' was written by Sir Thomas Mallory.

First printing press in France 
The first printing press was operating in France in the Sorbonne, the university in Paris.

Mar 12  -  Lincolnshire rebellion 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
A rebellion had begun in Lincolnshire early in the year and had been mostly been dealt with by Edward, but Sir Robert (Welles ?) had escaped capture and was still on the run. Edward finally caught up with Sir Robert near Stamford in Lincolnshire. In the battle known as Empingham (or Lose-Coat), Sir Robert was captured and confessed that the rebellion had been master-minded by the Earl of Warwick and the Duke of Clarence.

Mar 20  -  Battle of Nibley Green 
The private battle in 1469 or 1470 was fought between William Berkeley and Thomas Talbot Lord Lisle over the inheritance of the Berkeley estate. The original dispute arose some fifty years earlier when Thomas Berkeley died and his inheritance was disputed by his daughter and nephew James Berkeley. William Berkeley, the son of James, won the battle leaving Lord Lisle dead on the battlefield.

May  -  Warwick and Clarence escape to France 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
After their treachery had been uncovered, the Earl of Warwick and Duke of Clarence fled to France. Warwick's plan was to get help from the French King. They took a ship with their immediate relatives and followers from either Exeter or Dartmouth. Isabella, Warwick's daughter, gave birth on the ship to a son, but he died shortly afterwards.

Jul 22  -  Warwick and the Lancastrians 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Louis XI, the French King devised a plan to remove Edward IV from the English throne. Louis persuaded the Earl of Warwick (a Yorkist) and Margaret of Anjou the exiled wife of Henry VI (a Lancastrian) to combine forces and attempt to over through Edward. Warwick and Margaret met on 22 July at Anger Cathedral to put their differences aside and to agree on a course of action.

Jul 25  -  Betrothal of Prince Edward and Anne Neville 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The betrothal of Prince Edward and Anne Neville formed part of the agreement between Queen Margaret and the Kingmaker to put King Henry VI back on the English throne. The act taking place at the Cathedral of Angers,

Jul 31  -  The plan to restore Henry VI 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Warwick promised to restore Henry VI to the English throne, and he betrothed his youngest daughter Anne to Margaret's son Edward, the Prince of Wales.

Sep 9  -  Warwick sails from France 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
With an army and over fifty ships provided by King Louis, the Earl of Warwick set sail from France to England.

Sep 13  -  Warwick lands in England 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Earl of Warwick landed at Dartmouth in Devon accompanied by the Lancastrian Earl of Oxford and Jasper Tudor, the half-brother of Henry VI. Edward was in the north at the time of Warwick's return and was turned upon by John Neville, Warwick's brother. Although John Neville had accepted Edward as King, Edward had removed John's title of Earl of Northumberland earlier in the year and given it to the Percys. John Neville advanced on Edward's position with a force much larger.

Oct 2  -  Edward flees to Burgundy 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Warwick did not need to fight the King. Edward was outnumbered and was almost captured by John Neville at Doncaster. Along with his brother Richard and a small party of followers, Edward travelled to Lynn in Norfolk where he sailed to Burgundy and refuge.

Oct 6  -  Henry restored as King 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Warwick and Clarence entered London and Henry VI was released from the Tower of London. Henry was crowned King of England for the second time.

Qtr 4  -  Edward (V) is born 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
King Edward IV's wife Elizabeth gave birth to her first son. Elizabeth had taken refuge at Westminster Abbey after King Henry VI had been restored to the throne by the Earl of Warwick and King Edward had fled to Burgundy. The baby was named Edward and would be heir to the English throne.

Qtr 4  -  Louis declares war on Burgundy 
Edward IV had taken refuge with his brother-in-law Charles, the Duke of Burgundy. Louis of France declared war on Burgundy forcing the Duke to support Edward in his attempt to reclaim the English throne.

Dec 13  -  Marriage of Edward of Lancaster and Anne Neville 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The marriage between Edward of Lancaster, the son of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, to Anne Neville, the daughter of Richard Neville the Kingmaker was a marriage to cement the agreement that Richard and Margaret would support each other and try to get Henry VI back on the English throne. The marriage took place in France at the Chateau d'Amboise where Margaret and Edward were exiled.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Sixtus IV becomes King of Denmark  (More...)

Jan  -  Support for Edward IV 
Edward IV and Charles of Burgundy met at Aire where an agreement was reached on support for Edward's return to his throne.

Mar 14  -  Edward returns to England 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
With a small combined force of English and Burgundians, Edward landed on the Yorkshire coast. His fleet had been hit and scattered by a storm off the coast of Norfolk. Luckily for Edward he wasn't attacked even though Lord Montagu, the Earl of Northumberland, was close by. As he marched south, Edward gained supporters and his army grew.

Apr 4  -  Clarence rejoins his brothers 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
George, Duke of Clarence deserted the Earl of Warwick and joined his brothers Edward and Richard. Importantly for the Yorkist cause, he brought with him a sizable army.

Apr 11  -  London opens its gates to Edward and the Yorkists 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Earl of Warwick was in Coventry and apparently unwilling to confront Edward, so Edward and Richard marched south to London. London was under the control of Warwick's brother, George Neville the Archbishop of York, but the Londoners were Yorkists and they welcomed the return of their true king. Once inside the city Edward had the Archbishop arrested and along with King Henry VI put in the Tower of London.

Apr 14  -  The Battle of Barnet 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Earl of Warwick had left Coventry to confront Edward. The armies met at Barnet just north of London in thick fog. The two battle lines overlapped and Warwick's Lancastrian men commanded by the Earl of Oxford were able to get around the Yorkists commanded by Lord Hastings. Hastings' men fled back to London with Oxford's men in hot pursuit. On the other side of the battle the Yorkists, led by Richard, were outflanking the Lancastrians and took the advantage pushing their enemy back. When Oxford's men returned to the battle they were mistakenly fired upon by their fellow Lancastrians and fled. By early evening Lord Montagu and the Earl of Warwick were dead. The Lancastrians were defeated.

Apr 14  -  Queen Margaret lands at Weymouth 
Queen Margaret (wife of Henry VI) and her son Edward the prince of Wales landed at Weymouth on the very same day as the battle of Barnet. Their intention was to assist the Earl of Warwick, but she arrived too late. Determined to avenge the Barnet defeat, the Queen and her army marched north towards Wales and men she could count on to join her army. Edward had thought of this and to cut the Queen off from Wales, had taken control of the bridges across the River Severn.

May  -  London attacked by rebels 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
A group of men from Kent attacked London but left the city before the victorious Edward returned after the battle of Tewkesbury.

May 4  -  The Battle of Tewkesbury 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
The Yorkists led by King Edward IV and his brother Richard Duke of Gloucester met the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury. Richard was able to outflank the Lancastrians led by Edmund Beaufort, the self-proclaimed Duke of Somerset. Once Somerset's men had been dealt with, Richard attacked the rear of the Lancastrian line which broke apart and fled. Many of the Lancastrian leaders were caught and killed including Edward the Prince of Wales. Margaret of Anjou was also captured.

May 21  -  The murder of Henry VI 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward arrived back in London and that night Henry VI was murdered at the Tower of London.

Qtr 3  -  Richard becomes Lord of the North 
Richard (III) was given the task of bringing the north of the country under control. The conflicts between the Lancastrians and Yorkists over the previous few years had left the northern counties without any effective rulers resulting in lawlessness and unopposed Scottish raids. Richard was given the lands that the Earl of Warwick had previously possessed and he made his base at Middleham Castle.




Events occurring at some time during this year 
Ludlow home for the two princes 
The young Prince of Wales and his brother lived at Ludlow Castle.

Jul  -  Richard marries Anne Neville 
Richard III married Anne the widow of Edward Prince of Wales who died in 1471 at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Anne was the daughter of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick the 'Kingmaker', and had grown up with Richard III at Middleham Castle when he had been placed their for his education. Marrying Anne gave Richard III rights to the Earl of Warwick's northern estates.


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Oct  -  Marriage agreement between England and Scotland 
James III of Scotland agreed that his new born son, James, should marry Edward IV's daughter Cecily. Cecily was only four and the agreement stated that the marriage should wait until both were old enough. Also, if either died before that time, a substitute would be found. This agreement brought peace between Scotland and England until October 1519.

Dec  -  Birth of Edward, Prince of Wales 
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Edward, the son of Richard III and Anne Neville was born at Middleham Castle.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
William Caxton's first book 
Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye was the first book William Caxton published in Englsih. A translation of a French romance. He was in Bruges at the time where he was learning the process of printing.

Jul  -  Treaty of London 
Treaty of London between Edward IV and Charles the Bold of Burgundy against France.