Richard made Protector
Edward IV declared that Richard should be made Protector of England as the Prince of Wales was only twelve and too young to rule. Edward did not want the Queen and the Woodville family to have complete control of the country and by making Richard Protector, the King hoped to prevent civil war.
Edward IV dies, Edward V becomes king
Upon the death of the King Edward IV, his son Edward V became King of England. The nature of Edward IV's death is not known, but could have been caused by catching malaria in France or more likely due to excessive eating which he was known to often do according to a chronicler of the time. He died on April the 9th at the age of 41. Edward was buried at Windsor in the new chapel of St. George.
Woodvilles escort Edward V
The 4th of May had been set as the coronation date for Edward V, the new king. The Woodvilles wanted Edward crowned as soon as possible and they wanted Richard's role as Protector changed so that he didn't command so much power. The Woodvilles were concerned that with the death of Edward IV who had been their protector, old rivalries would resurface and their grip on power may fail. The King was at Ludlow and the Woodvilles escorted him to London via Northampton where it was agreed that they should meet Richard, the Duke of Gloucester. When Richard reached Northampton, he discovered that the Woodvilles had already left and were at Stony Stratford.
Richard captures the King
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Richard, assisted by the Duke of Buckingham rode to Stony Stratford where they met with the King under the pretence of offering their condolences for the death of his father. Instead, they captured King Edward and took him directly to London and safe keeping in the Tower. Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers was arrested and imprisoned at Sherriff Hutton Castle, near York.
Episode: Wars of the Roses
Lord Hastings had supported Richard against the Woodvilles and had hoped to gain some reward for his loyalty, but the Duke of Buckingham seemed more likely to be rewarded at his expense. Hastings' loyalties swayed towards the Woodvilles and when Richard found out, Hastings was arrested and executed.
Edward V declared illegitimate
To become king Richard had to remove Edward V. Richard declared that Edward IV was already married when he married Elizabeth Woodville which meant that the marriage to Elizabeth was invalid. This also meant that Edward V was born out of wedlock and not able to become king. At this time Richard also arranged that the King's brother was moved to the Tower of London from Westminster Abbey
where he had been looked after by his mother Elizabeth.
Duke of Gloucester nominated as King of England
After the children of Edward IV were declared illegitimate the Duke of Gloucester was nominated as the next King of England.
Earl Rivers is executed
Anthony Woodville was executed at Pontefract Castle.
Murder of Princes in the Tower
At some point the young king Edward V and his brother Richard disappeared. Whether they were murdered in the Tower of London and by whom is not known, but they were not seen of again. Later, in 1491, a man called Perkin Warbeck appeared in Ireland and claims were made that he was really Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, one of the princes.
Richard III is crowned King
Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was declared the true heir to the English throne after the marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville was deemed unlawful and their sons illegitimate. He and Anne Neville, his wife, were crowned at Westminster Abbey.
Richard goes on tour
By the end of July, Richard was travelling around the country meeting his new subjects.
Death of Louis XI
Louis XI had suffered from a series of strokes that had left him partially paralysed since 1480 and a further stroke in August of 1483 was the final one. He died a few days later. Louis had two daughters and a son. Before his death, Louis had declared that Charles, his son, should be the next King of France but because Charles was in poor health and had been given a poor education Louis specified that Anne, his eldest daughter, should act a regent until Charles was able to rule unaided.
Richard's son becomes Prince of Wales
A week of festivities preceded the investiture of Richard's son Edward.
- Episode: Wars of the Roses
- Edward (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483)
- Edward (V, King of England 1483)
- Richard (III, King of England 1483-1485)
- Woodville, Elizabeth
- Woodville, Anthony (Earl Rivers)
- Stafford, Henry (Duke of Buckingham)
- William (Lord Hastings)
- Richard (Duke of York, Prince in the Tower)
- Warbeck, Perkin
- Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England)
- Charles (VIII, King of France 1483-1498)
- Louis (XI, King of France 1461-1483)
- Edward (of Middleham, Prince of Wales)
- Ludlow Castle
- Tower of London
- Pontefract Castle
- Westminster Abbey