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Leif Ericsson lands on North American coast
Aethelred attacked Strathclyde and Isle of Man.


Danish raids


Another Danegeld paid
Nov Aethelred marries Emma
Nov 13 Massacre of St Brice's day


Wilton and its abbey attacked
Edward the Confessor is born
John XVII becomes Pope


Swein attacks Norfolk
John XVIII becomes Pope


Aelfheah becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Malcolm II becomes Kings of the Scots


Destruction of Walingford
Reading attacked by the Danes


A large fleet is ordered


Danes repeatedly attack England
Church of the Holy Sepulchre destroyed
Sergius IV becomes Pope


The Vikings murder Aelfheah


Danegeld paid
Benedict VIII is elected Pope


Lyfing becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Swein Fork-Beard and Canute attack England

The reign of Swein (Fork-Beard)

Swein Fork-Beard was the King of Denmark and King of England for a short period of time. Swein was also the father of Canute who also became King of England. In 988 Swein overthrew this father Harold Blue-Tooth Gormsson the King of Denmark. Swein led a large number of raids along the east and south coasts of England. England was a rich country and the Danes were able to attack villages and religious communities without too much resistance. Much of the time the English paid the Danes money to leave. This money is known as Danegeld. In 994, with a huge fleet of 94 ships, Swein sailed into the Thames estuary along with another Dane called Olaf Trygvasson by his side to plunder England. London put up a good defence and drove the Vikings back so Fork-Beard moved his forces south to attack the south-east coast and to plunder whatever he could find. Swein's attacks on England continued for ten years until 1013 when he invaded England with his son Canute and took control of the country. Aethelred along with his wife and sons were forced to flee to Normandy for their own safety. Swein was King of England for only a few months before he died in February of 1014. After Swein's death Canute left England and Aethelred returned from Normandy to reclaim the English throne. ...

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Autumn Emma and Edward leave England
Nov London surrenders to Swein


Aethelred goes into exile
Harald II becomes King of Denmark
London Bridge destroyed
Feb 3 Swein dies


Qtr 3 Canute returns to England


Murder of Uhtred

The reign of EDMUND (II Ironside, King of the English 1016)

Edmund II (Ironside) became King after the death of his father AEthelred II in London. He married Eldgyth in 1015. In 1016 Edmund fought off an invasion of London by Canute Sveinsson and as a reward the citizens of London proclaimed Edmund King. Unfortunately the Witan chose Canute as king and a peace agreement was formed between the two sides after several battles that had no real outcome. It was during these battles that Edmund received his title of Ironside. Edmund was given control of Wessex and Canute was allowed to control Mercia and Northumbria. Part of the agreement was that whoever died first should give their territory to the other. In November 1016 Edmund died and so Canute took total control. Did Canute have Edmund murdered? ...

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Apr Edmund II (Ironside) becomes King
Apr Canute attempts to take the throne
May Canute attacks London
Oct 18 Treaty between Canute and Edmund

The reign of Canute (King of England 1016-1035)

Denmark ...

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Nov 30 Canute becomes King of England


Jul Canute marries Emma
Dec Death of Eadric Streona


Large Danegeld paid
Harald II of Denmark dies


Canute takes Denmark


Aethelnoth becomes Archbishop of Canterbury


John XIX becomes Pope


Constantine VIII becomes the Byzantine emperor


Canute in Rome


Canute takes Norway
Birth of William, the future conqueror of England


Cottonian map of the world
Canute at Glastonbury Abbey
Battle of Stiklestad


Canute drives Scottish Kings into submission
Robert the Pious dies


Benedict IX becomes Pope


Robert Assists English and French Kings


Duncan becomes King of Scotland


Jul William the Conqueror becomes Duke of Normandy
Nov 12 Canute dies


Alfred is murdered by Godwine
Harold declared regent of England

The reign of HAROLD (Harefoot, King of England 1037-1040)

As regent ...

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Bishop John of York is canonised
Dec Harold Harefoot becomes king


Eadsige becomes Archbishop of Canterbury


A new minter at Much Wenlock
Mar 17 Harold Harefoot dies

The reign of HARTHACNUT (King of England 1040-1042)

Denmark ...

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Jun Harthacanute lands in England and becomes King
Aug 14 Duncan is killed by Macbeth


A year of storms and disease
Truce of God
Edward the Confessor returns to England


Magnus becomes King of Denmark

The reign of Edward (The Confessor, King of England 1042-1066)

Edward was a Saxon. His father was Aethelred (or Ethelred), the Unready and his mother was Emma, Aethelred's second wife. He had a brother called Alfred. Emma was the daughter of Richard, Duke of Normandy. ...

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Jun 8 Harthacanute dies and Edward the Confessor becomes King


Leofric founds Coventry Abbey
Stigand become bishop of Elmham
Easter Edward the Confessor crowned
Nov Edward confiscated Emma's land


Geoffrey Martel takes Tours and Touraine


Crinan killed during uprising
Harald Hardrada returns to Norway
Jan Edward marries


Severe winter
Clement II becomes Pope


Magnus of Norway dies
Stigand at Winchester


Aldred founds Monastery at Gloucester
Jul Damasus II was elected Pope


Sweyn exiled for murder
Leo IX becomes Pope
May 1 Earthquake in Midlands


Robert of Jumieges becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
See of Devon and Cornwall moved to Exeter
Sweyn pardoned
Macbeth visits Rome


Edward expels the Godwine family
Edward abolishes military tax


Mar Death of Queen Emma
May Godwines invade England
Summer Stigand becomes Archbishop of Canterbury


Edward the Exile invited to England
William marries Matilda
Apr Harold becomes Earl of Wessex
Dec 21 Strong winds


Battle of Mortemer
The Great East-West schism
Jul The Crab Nebula seen


Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad
Victor II becomes Pope
Tostig becomes Earl of Northumbria
Oct Hereford cathedral attacked
Oct 24 Rebellion of Aelfgar of Mercia


Bishop of Hereford
Jun Death of Leofgar, bishop of Hereford


Edward (the Exile) dies
The Battle of Varaville
Sweyn II Estridsen becomes King of Denmark
Stephen IX (or X) becomes Pope
Aug Macbeth is killed and Lulach becomes king


Gloucester Cathedral rebuilding starts
Nicholas II becomes Pope
Benedict X is elected the Antipope
Mar Malcolm III becomes King of the Scots


Henry, King of France, dies to be followed by Philippe


Honorius II becomes the Antipope
Alexander II becomes Pope
Invasion of Sicily


Sep 8 Wulfstan becomes bishop of Worcester
Dec Harold, earl Wessex, attacked Rhuddlan


Earl Harold invades Wales
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed
William invades and captures Maine


Mysterious meeting in Normandy


Lands from Pershore allocated to Westminster
Oct Morcar becomes Earl of Northumbria
Dec Dedication of Westminster Abbey


Fulk Rechin defeats Geoffrey the Bearded
Montacute Castle construction
Jan 4 Edward the Confessor dies
Jan 6 Harold II Godwinson is crowned King of England

The reign of HAROLD (II, Godwinson, King of England 1066)

Harold II was the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. He was killed in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings when William the Conqueror invaded England. Harold was the second son of Earl Godwin, Earl of Wessex, and his wife Gytha, The Godwin family rose to power in England under King Canute and in 1044 Harold became the Earl of East Anglia. This power was interupted by a dispute with Edward the Confessor in 1051 leading to the Godwin family fleeing the country. ...

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Apr Halley's Comet
May Tostig invades the south of England
Jun Dedication of Holy Trinity at Caen
Jul William's Invasion fleet gather in the estuary of the River Dives
Jul Harold prepares for William's invasion
Sep 12 St-Valery-Sur-Somme
Sep 20 Battle of Gate Fulford
Sep 25 Stamford Bridge Battle
Sep 27 William lands at Pevensey
Oct William moves to Hastings
Oct 1 Harold learns of William's arrival
Oct 6 Harold and his forces reach London
Oct 11 Harold leaves London
Oct 13 Harold reaches Caldbec Hill
Oct 14 Battle of Hastings
Nov William advances to London

The reign of William (I, the Conqueror, King of England 1066-1087)

Origins ...

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Dec 25 William the Conqueror becomes King of England


Odo becomes William's deputy
Chepstow Castle begun
A castle at Norwich is begun
Construction of Wallingford Castle
Construction of Winchester Castle
Arundel Castle granted to Roger de Montgomery
Mar William returns to Normandy


Warwick Castle built on William's orders
Northern English move to Scotland
Malcolm III marries Edgar's sister
Construction of Nottingham Castle
The Curfew Bell
Construction of Lincoln Castle
Construction of Cambridge Castle
Feb Exeter falls to William
Spring Construction begins on Exeter Castle
May 11 Matilda is crowned Queen
Sep Birth of Henry I


Danish fought off at Sandwich
York captured by the Danes
Construction of Worcester Castle
Apr 28 Death of Magnus II
Dec The North is devastated by the Normans


Lanfranc becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Castles at Chester and Stafford begun
Castle at Old Sarum
Malcolm raids Northern England
Building work at Chepstow
Dunfermline Abbey founded
Jun Hereward the Wake sacks Peterborough Abbey


Canterbury Cathedral rebuilt by Lanfranc
Byzantine army destroyed at Manzikert
Turks conquer Syria, Jerusalem and parts of Palestine
Ely castle ordered
William puts down the revolt
Dudley Castle Construction
Abbot of Abingdon imprisoned
Richmond Castle construction
Bangor Cathedral destroyed by the Normans
Construction of Oxford Castle


At Durham, another castle is ordered
Serlo takes over at Gloucester
Old Sarum Cathedral
Treaty of Abernethy
First Cathedral at Lincoln begun
Feb Council of Winchester
Jun William leads an army into Scotland


Edgar the Aetheling attempts to take the English throne
Gregory VII becomes Pope
Motte and Bailey Castle at Rhuddlan


Apr 28 Harold III becomes King of Denmark


Chichester founded as a see
Construction of Windsor Castle
Council of London
Chepstow Castle passes to the crown


Battle Abbey Consecrated
Earthquake in England


Rochester Cathedral building begins
St. Albans Cathedral building begins
Gundulf consecrated as Bishop of Rochester
Jul 14 The Bayeux Tapestry


Work starts on the White Tower
Bishops of East Anglia moved to Thetford
Osmond becomes Bishop at Old Sarum


Winchester Cathedral crypt
Constuction of Baynard's Castle


Ripon monastery destroyed by Normans
Hereford Cathedral new building
Colchester castle begun
Construction of Lewes Castles
Canute the Saint becomes King of Denmark
Clement III becomes the Antipope


Accession of Alexius Comnenus
William tours south Wales
Cardiff Castle construction
Death of Richard, William's son


Ely Cathedral building begins
Odo imprisoned


Worcester Cathedral building begins


Toledo recaptured from the Moors
Dec 25 Domesday Book


The Spanish are defeated at Zallaca
Stormy weather and disease
Oluf I Hunger becomes King of Denmark
Victor III becomes Pope
May 24 Election of Pope Victor III
Aug 1 Oath of Salisbury


St. Paul's Cathedral Burns down
William Rufus gives Manor of Tewkesbury
Castle Acre Priory founded
Sep 9 William the Conqueror Dies

The reign of William (II, Rufus, King of England 1087-1100)

Origins ...

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Sep 26 William II (Rufus) crowned at Westminster


Foundation of Bath Abbey
Earldom of Warwick created
Feb Revolt against William Rufus
Mar Urban becomes Pope
Spring Worcestershire Rebellion put down
Spring William Rufus calls for support
Apr Pevensey Castle siege
May William puts down the revolt


Serlo builds the crypt at Gloucester
May 24 Lanfranc dies
Aug 11 Earthquake


Lancaster Keep
Construction of Pembroke Castle
Construction of Caernavon Castle
Aug Death of Constance, William's daughter


Colchester Castle passes to Eudo
Violent storm hits London
May Malcolm III invades the North
Nov William Rufus renews agreement with Scots


Tewkesbury Abbey Founded
Collegiate church founded at Carlisle.
Carlisle Collegiate church founded
Work begins on Carlisle Cathedral
Old Sarum Cathedral completed and dedicated


Durham Cathedral begun
Anselm Becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Benedictines take over at Chester.
Cardigan Castle built
Construction of Carlisle Castle
Spring William Rufus seriously ill
Nov 13 Battle of Alnwick
Nov 13 Donald Bane becomes king of Scotland
Nov 16 Death of Margaret of Scotland


Battle Abbey reconsecrated
See of Norwich bought by Hebert de Losinga
May Duncan II becomes King of the Scots
Nov Donald III restored


Wulfstan dies
Robert Mowbray's Rebellion
Monastery at Chester founded
Erik I Ejegod becomes King of Denmark
Mar The Council of Piacenza
Nov 27 The Council of Clermont


Norwich Cathedral building begins
Building work on Alnwick castle begins
Canterbury Choir, East Transepts and Crypt building work.
William buys Normandy
Qtr 1 Peter the Hermit's (or People's) Crusade
Qtr 2 Crusaders cause trouble
Jul Peter reaches Byzantium
Aug The People's Crusades cross the Bosporus
Oct Raymond starts his crusade
Oct Hugh reaches Constantinople
Oct 21 The People's Crusaders massacred


Edgar Macmalcolm becomes king of the Scots
Anselm goes into exile
Construction of Westminster Hall
Apr Crusaders reach Constantinople
May Siege of Nicaea
Jul 1 Battle of Dorylaeum
Oct The Crusaders reach Antioch
Oct 4 Comet


Treaty with Magnus III of Norway
Abbey of Citeaux founded
Feb 13 London Bridge washed away
Jun 3 Antioch falls to the Crusaders
Jun 28 The Crusaders fight back


Nave at Durham constructed
Flambard is made Bishop of Durham
Paschal II becomes Pope
Jan The march to Jerusalem continues
Jun The Crusaders reach Jerusalem
Jul 15 Crusaders take Jerusalem
Aug 12 Battle of Ascalon

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