Select Century:  


Henry Yeveley dies.
Chapter House at Canterbury building work
York Minster East Window
Tower built at Carlisle
Jan A plot to kill the new King
Feb Death of Richard II
Aug Henry invades Scotland
Aug Glyndwr's revolt starts
Sep Glyndwr proclaimed Prince of Wales
Oct Henry fights back against Glyndwr
Oct 25 Death of Geoffrey Chaucer.


Hotspur takes control in North Wales
De heretico comburendo
Mar William Sawtrey is the first Lollard to be burned at the stake
Jun Hotspur resigns


Henry IV assembles an army
Mar Death of David Stewart
Jun 22 Battle of Pilleth
Sep 14 Battle of Homildon Hill


Revolt of the Percies
Prince Henry in command
Abergavenny attacked by Glyndwr
Llansteffan Castle attacked by Glyndwr
Kidwelly Castle attacked
Weobley Castle attacked
Jul 21 Battle of Shrewsbury
Aug Earl of Northumberland surrenders


Worcester Cathedral north and south cloisters
Harlech Castle siege
Cardiff sacked by Glyndwr
Aberystwyth falls to the Welsh
Bangor Cathedral burnt by rebels
Innocent VII becomes Pope
May Glyndwr's Parliament
Sep 27 Death of William of Wykeham


Feb Glyndwr's agreement
Spring Battles of Grosmont and Usk
Apr Scrope's revolt
May Scrope executed


Gregory XII becomes Pope
Mar James (I) captured by the English
Apr James I of Scotland
Apr Robert III dies


York Minster central tower
Prince Henry besieges Aberystwyth
Harlech Castle siege
The plague kills thousands


Feb Battle of Bramham Moor
Autumn Aberystwyth falls to Henry
Winter Henry IV very ill


Alexander V becomes Pope
Mar Harlech falls to the English


Founding of St. Andrews University.
John XXIII becomes Pope


Construction of the Guildhall in London
Sep 21 Birth of Richard of York


Jan Joan of Arc born

The reign of Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422)

Origins ...

More information about this person...


Mar 20 Henry IV dies
Apr 9 Henry V crowned
Autumn Sir John Oldcastle arrested
Dec Richard II's body moved


Alien Priories confiscated
Jan 9 Lollards arrested
Apr Parliament at Leicester
Summer Henry claims French territories


Moorgate built
Spring Preparations for war with France
Aug 1 Plot to overthrow the King
Aug 11 Henry sails for France
Aug 16 English fleets lands in Normandy
Sep 22 Harfleur falls to the English
Oct 8 The march to Calais
Oct 19 Henry crosses the Somme
Oct 25 The Battle of Agincourt
Nov Henry returns to England


Armagnac Fleet blockade Harfleur
Katla Volcano Eruption
Aug 15 Harfleur rescued


Martin V becomes Pope
Aug Henry V lands in Normandy
Dec 14 Sir John Oldcastle executed


Henry the Navigator starts sea exploration
Jan 19 Rouen surrenders to Henry


May 21 Treaty of Troyes
Jun 2 Henry marries


Feb 23 Queen Catherine crowned
Oct 6 Siege of Meaux begins
Dec 6 Birth of Henry (VI)


May Meaux falls to the English
Aug 31 Henry V dies

The reign of Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471)

Minority ...

More information about this person...

Sep 1 Henry VI becomes king
Oct 21 Charles VI of France dies


Canterbury South West Tower building work
Battle of Cravant in France
Clement VIII becomes the Antipope
Dec Treaty of London


Battle of Verneuil
Mar 28 Treaty of Durham
May James I crowned


Wells Cathedral North-west Tower
Benedict XIV becomes the Antipope
John VIII becomes Byzantine Emperor


London Bridge rebuilding work


Law preventing unauthorised marriage
Danger of passing beneath London Bridge
Oct 12 Siege of Orléans
Nov 22 Birth of Richard Neville, the Kingmaker


Marriage of Owen Tudor and Catherine of France
Marriage of Richard and Cecily
Feb 12 Battle of the Herrings
Feb 23 Joan begins her mission
Mar Joan visits Charles VII
Apr Joan is given an army
Apr 29 Joan reaches Orleans
May 8 Siege of Orleans is lifted
Jun 18 The Battle of Patay
Jul 17 Charles VII crowned at Rheims
Sep 8 Joan fails to take Paris
Nov 6 Henry VI crowned King of England


May 23 Joan of Arc is captured


Jan The trial of Joan of Arc
May 30 Joan of Arc burnt at the stake
Dec Henry VI crowned as King of France


York Minster south-west tower
Feb 9 Henry VI returns home


Licence to build Alnwick town walls
Construction of Greenwich Palace


Nov 24 London severe cold


Sep 14 Duke of Bedford dies
Sep 21 Treaty of Arras


Apr 13 The French retake Paris
May 1 Richard, Duke of York is appointed Lieutenant-general
Dec Severe Frosts


Eugenius IV becomes Pope
Jan 3 Catherine of France dies
Jan 14 London Bridge section collapse
Mar 25 James II becomes King of the Scots
Qtr 2 Owen Tudor is captured
Nov Henry VI rules unaided


Oxford University founded
Qtr 1 Owen Tudor escapes


Felix V becomes the last Antipope
Jul Owen Tudor is pardoned


Tattershall Castle brick tower construction
Herstmonceux Castle construction
Harfleur captured by the English
Construction of Caister Castle
Eton College, Cambridge founded
Katla Volcano Eruption
Summer Richard of York re-appointed Lieutentant-general


King's College, Cambridge founded
Summer Duke of York in Normandy


Calais relieved by Edmund Beaufort
Apr 28 Future Edward IV is born
Dec Henry VI's legal majority


Feb 1 St. Paul's struck by lightning
Apr Treaty of Tours
May 24 Betrothal of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou


Apr 23 Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou
May 30 Margaret of Anjou crowned
Jul French Embassy in London


Henry VI receives the Golden Rose


Edmund Beaufort appointed lieutenant of France
Nicholas V becomes Pope
Feb 23 Death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
Qtr 4 Richard, Duke of York, Lieutenant of Ireland


Constantine XI Dragases becomes Emperor


Richard Neville becomes Earl of Warwick
Mar Fougeres captured by the English
Jul French Armies in Normandy
Nov Siege of Rouen


Southwell Cathedral West window
Jan The Duke of Suffolk is sent to the Tower
Jan Murder at Portsmouth
Mar 15 Siege of Valognes
Apr 15 Battle of Formigny
May Revolt in Kent
May Death of William de la Pole
May 16 Bayeux surrendered to the French
Jun London ransacked by the rebels
Summer Matthew Gough made Captain of the Tower
Jul Jack Cade killed
Jul Surrender of Caen
Aug 1 Somerset arrives in London
Aug 12 Fall of Cherbourg to the French
Sep Richard returns from Ireland


Glasgow University founded
Support for Richard in Parliament
Birth of Christopher Columbus
Jun 30 Bordeaux falls to the French
Qtr 4 York starts an uprising


Feb The Duke of York marches on London
Mar The Duke of York surrenders
Oct 2 Richard (III) is born
Nov Edmund and Jasper created Earls


Turks established in Constantinople
Jul English defeated at Castillion
Aug The King's health suffers
Oct 13 Prince Edward of Lancaster is born
Nov Somerset sent to the Tower


Feb 17 Feast of the Pheasant
Mar 27 Richard, Duke of York made Protector
Apr 2 Earl of Salisbury becomes chancellor
Dec Henry's health returns


Edmund Tudor marries Margaret Beaufort
The Gutenberg Bible
Calixtus III becomes Pope
Feb Somerset released from the Tower
Mar Somerset back in command
May 21 The Yorkists are summoned
May 22 Battle of St. Albans
Jul Parliament held
Oct Henry VI becomes ill once more


Feb 25 Duke of York resigns as protector
Summer Edmund Tudor captured
Jun Halley's Comet
Nov Edmund Tudor dies
Dec Margaret Beaufort moved to Pembroke


French attack on Sandwich
Jan 28 Henry (VII) is born


Warwick fights several naval battles
Pius II becomes Pope
Mar 24 Loveday march


Jun 24 Great Council
Sep Warwick returns to England
Sep 23 Battle of Blore Heath
Oct 12 Battle of Ludford Bridge
Nov Parliament acts against the Yorkists


Jan 15 Yorkists capture Lancastrian fleet
Mar Warwick sails to Ireland
Apr 10 James III crowned at Kelso Abbey
May Warwick returns to Calais
Jun Yorkists take control of Kent
Summer Queen Margaret flees to Wales
Jun 26 Earls of March and Warwick land in England
Jul 2 Yorkists enter London
Jul 5 The Earls of Warwick and March leave London
Jul 10 Battle of Northampton
Jul 19 Garrison at Tower of London surrenders
Jul 30 Yorkists in power
Aug 3 James II accidentally killed
Sep Richard, Duke of York returns
Oct Duke of York claims throne
Dec 30 Battle of Wakefield


Feb 2 Battle of Mortimers Cross
Feb 17 Second Battle of St. Albans
Feb 27 Yorkists enter London

The reign of Edward (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483)


More information about this person...

Mar 4 Edward IV is proclaimed king
Mar 13 Edward leaves London
Mar 28 Battle of Ferrybridge
Mar 29 Battle of Towton
Jun 28 Edward IV is crowned
Jul Lancastrian Embassy in France
Jul 22 Death of Charles VII
Aug Edward on a royal tour
Aug 15 Louis XI crowned King of France
Sep Pembroke Castle captured
Oct Lancastrians lose castles in Wales
Nov Richard (III) becomes Duke of Gloucester
Nov Pembroke Castle in Yorkist hands


Prudhoe Castle granted to the Duke fo Clarence
Carreg Cennen demolished
Feb A plot to kill the king
Apr Queen Margaret sails to France
Jun 28 Queen Margaret and Louis XI
Oct 25 Queen Margaret invades
Nov 13 Queen Margaret retreats to Scotland
Dec Yorkists take back control of Northumbrian castles


Norwich third spire destroyed
Jan 6 Alnwick Castle surrenders to the Yorkists
Mar Northumbrian castles fall to Lancastrians
May Alnwick Castle in Lancastrian hands
Jul Queen Margaret returns to France
Jul Siege of Norham Castle
Oct Treaty with France
Dec Duke of Somerset rebels
Dec English Truce with Scotland


Paul II becomes Pope
Apr 25 Battle of Hedgeley Moor
May Edward secretly marries
May Battle of Hexham
Jun Truce with Scotland.
Jun Herbert becomes Constable of Harlech
Jun 23 Alnwick Castle Surrenders to Warwick
Sep 14 Council at Reading


May 26 Elizabeth crowned
Summer Henry VI captured


Feb 11 Birth of Edward IV's first daughter


Canterbury Lady Chapel Vault
Orkney pledged to Scotland
Summer Margaret marries Duke of Burgundy
Jul Jasper Tudor's invasion
Qtr 4 Warwick plots against the King


Qtr 1 Rebellion of Robin of Redesdale
Jun Edward advances against rebels
Jul Clarence marries Isabel Neville
Jul 18 Warwick returns from France
Jul 26 Battle of Edgecote
Jul 29 Edward is captured
Aug Woodville family members executed
Sep Riots and rebellions
Qtr 4 Richard appointed Constable of England


York Minster north-west tower
'Le Morte d'Arthur'
First printing press in France
Mar 12 Lincolnshire rebellion
Mar 20 Battle of Nibley Green
May Warwick and Clarence escape to France
Jul 22 Warwick and the Lancastrians
Jul 25 Betrothal of Prince Edward and Anne Neville
Jul 31 The plan to restore Henry VI
Sep 9 Warwick sails from France
Sep 13 Warwick lands in England
Oct 2 Edward flees to Burgundy
Oct 6 Henry restored as King
Qtr 4 Edward (V) is born
Qtr 4 Louis declares war on Burgundy
Dec 13 Marriage of Edward of Lancaster and Anne Neville


Sixtus IV becomes King of Denmark
Jan Support for Edward IV
Mar 14 Edward returns to England
Apr 4 Clarence rejoins his brothers
Apr 11 London opens its gates to Edward and the Yorkists
Apr 14 The Battle of Barnet
Apr 14 Queen Margaret lands at Weymouth
May London attacked by rebels
May 4 The Battle of Tewkesbury
May 21 The murder of Henry VI
Qtr 3 Richard becomes Lord of the North


Ludlow home for the two princes
Jul Richard marries Anne Neville


Oct Marriage agreement between England and Scotland
Dec Birth of Edward, Prince of Wales


William Caxton's first book
Jul Treaty of London


Jul Edward invades France
Aug Peace treaty signed


Caxton at Westminster
Aug Columbus and the pirates
Dec Edward prevents marriage


Work starts on St. George's Chapel
Edward buys Beaudesert Castle
Caxton prints the first book in England
Jun Clarence arrested


Jan 15 Marriage of Richard, duke of York
Feb 7 Clarence sentenced to death
Feb 18 Clarence executed


Bishopsgate rebuilt


Birth of Ferdinand Magellan


Dartmouth Castle construction
Caxton publishes first illustrated book in England
Jul Rheims Cathedral damaged by fire


Treaty of Arras
Aug 25 Death of Margaret of Anjou


Apr Richard made Protector

The reign of Edward (V, King of England 1483)

Edward V was the King of England for less than three months during 1483. He was the son of Edward IV, King of England and Elizabeth Woodville and was born in 1470 when his father was in exile and his mother was safe within Westminster Abbey. This was during the time of the Wars of the Roses when the Lancastrians and Yorkists were fighting for the English throne. His father returned from exile after his birth and reclaimed the English throne. The young prince was taken to Ludlow Castle where he spent most of his youth. He was joined there by his younger brother Richard. Edward V was only thirteen years old when his father died in April 1483 and was too young to rule unaided. His uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester (future Richard III) stepped in to assist Edward and his younger brother and transferred them to the Tower of London for safe keeping. ...

More information about this person...

Apr 9 Edward IV dies, Edward V becomes king
Apr 29 Woodvilles escort Edward V
Apr 30 Richard captures the King
Jun 13 Hastings executed
Jun 22 Edward V declared illegitimate
Jun 25 Duke of Gloucester nominated as King of England
Jun 25 Earl Rivers is executed

The reign of Richard (III, King of England 1483-1485)

Richard only reigned for two years, from 6th July 1483 until his death at the battle of Bosworth on 22nd August 1485. Richard was the thirteenth and last Plantagenet king and the last king to be killed in battle. We see Richard depicted as a hunch-back by Shakespeare but this deformity may be exaggerated. ...

More information about this person...

Jul Murder of Princes in the Tower
Jul 6 Richard III is crowned King
Aug Richard goes on tour
Aug 30 Death of Louis XI
Sep 7 Richard's son becomes Prince of Wales
Oct Buckingham's rebellion


Apr Prince Edward dies
Aug Innocent VIII becomes Pope
Sep Truce signed with the Scots
Dec Richard returns to London


Caxton publishes 'Morte d'Arthur'
Mar Death of Queen Anne
Aug 7 Henry Tudor arrives in England
Aug 15 Henry Tudor at Shrewsbury

The reign of Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509)

Henry Tudor ...

More information about this person...

Aug 22 Battle of Bosworth
Sep Earl of Warwick arrested
Oct 30 Henry Tudor is crowned.
Dec 15 Birth of Catherine of Aragon


Lovell revolt in England.
Jan 18 Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York
Sep Birth of Prince Arthur


May 24 Lambert Simnel crowned in Dublin
Jun 16 Battle of Stoke
Nov 25 Coronation of Elizabeth of York


Rounding of the Cape of Good Hope
Jun 11 Death of James III of Scotland
Jun 24 James IV crowned King of Scotland
Jul Battle of St. Aubin
Nov 25 Queen Elizabeth is crowned


Nov Birth of Margaret


Winchester Cathedral Lady Chapel


Jun 28 Henry (VIII) born
Qtr 4 Perkin Warbeck arrives in Cork


Alexander VI becomes Pope
Apr 17 Columbus signs agreement
Jun Death of Elizabeth Woodville
Aug 3 Columbus sets sail
Sep Columbus reaches the Canary Islands
Sep Columbus sails across the Atlantic
Oct 2 Henry VII lands at Calais
Oct 11 Land is spotted
Oct 12 Christopher Columbus 'discovers' America
Nov 3 Treaty of Etaples
Dec Columbus lands at Santo Domingo
Dec 24 Santa Maria runs aground


Canterbury central tower building work
Henry becomes Constable of Dover Castle
Jan The first Spanish New World settlement
Mar 4 Columbus returns
Apr Henry becomes Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
Sep 25 Columbus embarks on his second voyage
Oct 13 Columbus leaves the Canary Islands
Nov 3 Christopher Columbus discovers Dominica
Nov 4 Columbus finds cannibals
Nov 11 More new islands named by Columbus
Nov 14 Columbus discovers Santa Cruz
Nov 19 Columbus discovers Puerto Rico
Nov 27 Back to Navidad


Aberdeen University founded
Treaty of Tordesillas
Jan 2 Columbus creates a new settlement
Feb Partial return to Spain
Mar 12 Search for gold
Apr 24 Columbus heads for Cuba
May Jamaica Explored
Jun Southern coast of Cuba explored
Sep Henry becomes Lieutenant of Ireland
Oct Henry enters the Order of the Bath
Dec Henry enters the Order of the Garter


Feb Charles crowned King of Naples
Mar 31 Holy League (League of Venice)
Jul 3 Perkin Warbeck's attempted invasion
Nov Perkin Warbeck in Scotland


A new Spanish colony at Santo Domingo
Mar Columbus returns to Spain
Mar 5 Henry VII and John Cabot
Jun 11 Columbus lands at Cadiz


Perkin Warbeck captured at Beaulieu
May 2 John Cabot sets sail for Asia
Jun Cabot discovers Newfoundland
Aug 6 Cabot returns from voyage
Dec Sheen Palace burns down
Dec Vasco de Gama rounds Cape of Good Hope


Apr 7 Death of Charles VIII of France
May Cabot disappears on voyage
May 30 Columbus begins his third voyage
Jun The doldrums
Jul 31 The island of Trinidad is discovered
Aug The Gulf of Paria
Aug Columbus finds a continent
Qtr 3 Rebellion of Roldan
Aug 31 Columbus lands at Santo Domingo
Sep Agreement with Roldan


Construction at Bath Abbey
Alonso de Ojeda names Venezuela
Nov Perkin Warbeck executed

TimeRef UK Castles Mobile App for Android Phone

This Android Phone app allows you to find castles thar are near you. Currently the app includes only English and Welsh castles.

View Details in Google Play Store

View Instructions





Virtual Reconstructions

Transport yourself back up to a thousand years and explore historical buildings as they may have appeared in the past.

Explore a Motte and Bailey Castle

Explore a Hall Keep

Explore a Stone Keep

Explore a Medieval Church

Talk to medieval villager

Select Century: