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Pinzon sails coast of Brazil
Apr 17 Louis XII enters Milan
Aug Francisco de Bobadilla
Oct Columbus returns in chains


Tournament at the Tower of London
Oct 2 Catherine of Aragon arrives
Nov 14 Prince Arthur marries Catherine of Aragon


Jan Prince Arthur moves to Ludlow
Apr Prince Arthur dies
May 9 Columbus starts his fourth voyage
May 25 Columbus leaves the Canary Islands
Jun 15 Columbus lands at Mantinino
Jun 29 Columbus predicts a hurricane
Jul 30 Columbus heads west
Aug Columbus explores the mainland coast
Sep Columbus at Costa Rico
Oct Henry becomes Duke of Cornwall
Oct Veragua
Nov Columbus shelters from the storms
Nov 2 Columbus arrives at Portobelo


William Wareham becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
Construction of Henry VII Lady chapel
Jan Columbus founds a colony
Feb Elizabeth of York dies
Jun Henry VII escorts Margaret to Scotland
Jun Columbus is stranded for a year
Jun 23 Henry and Catherine's marriage arranged
Aug 8 Marriage of James IV and Margaret


Jan Mutiny in Jamaica
Feb 29 A Lunar Eclipse saves Columbus
Mar No rescue for Columbus
Jun 29 Columbus is rescued
Nov Death of Isabella of Castile
Nov 7 Columbus returns to Spain


Papal dispensation


May 20 Death of Columbus


Thomas Wolsey becomes royal chaplain
Carew Castle hosts a celebration
First printing press in Scotland


Sep 19 Earthquake


Thomas Wolsey becomes royal almoner
Norwich Cathedral fire
Building work at Urquhart Castle
Apr 21 Death of Henry VII

The reign of Henry (VIII, King of England 1509-1547)

Henry VIII was the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. He became heir to the English throne when his elder brother Arthur died in 1502. Henry had excellent schooling learning both French and Latin. He was skilled at music and later wrote pieces of music for his wives one of which was Greensleeves. He was very athletic and enjoyed jousting. Henry VII died in April of 1509 and Henry became king of England. Henry was only seventeen when he became king and, as he had never been brought up expecting to be king, was happy to leave the affairs of the country to several advisers. These included Warham the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Surrey who was the Lord Treasurer, Bishop Foxe and later Thomas Wolsey. Henry dismissed two advisers from his father's reign that had become unpopular with the English people. The two, Empson and Dudley, were found guilty of treason and were executed. Henry was crowned at Westminster Abbey on the 24th of June, 1509. Shortly before the coronation Henry married Catherine of Aragon, the first of his six wives. ...

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Jun 11 Henry marries Catherine of Aragon
Jun 24 The coronation of Henry VIII


Jan 1 Birth of Henry's first son
May 1 Joust at Greenwich


Holy League against France
Fire at the Tower of London
Fire damages Westminster Palace


Thomas Wolsey organises expedition to France
Juan Ponce de Leon discovers Florida
Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean
Jun Henry sails to France
Aug 16 Battle of the Spurs and fall of Therouanne
Sep Fall of Tournai
Sep 9 Battle of Flodden
Sep 21 James V crowned King of Scotland


Thomas Wolsey obtains the lease of Hampton
Feb 6 Wolsey become Bishop of Lincoln
Aug Louis XII marries Princess Mary
Aug English - French peace treaty
Sep Thomas Wolsey becomes archbishop of York


Jan 1 Death of Louis XII
Feb Princess Mary secretly marries
May 13 Mary and Suffolk marry
Sep 22 Birth of Anne of Cleves


Publication of 'Utopia'
Feb 18 Birth of Mary


A new crusade is proposed
Oct 31 Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses


Oct Treaty of London (Universal Peace)


Aug 10 Magellan leaves Seville
Sep 20 After taking on supplies Magellan's voyage begins


Jun 7 Field of the Cloth of Gold
Nov Magellan finds a route to the Pacific Ocean


Nov Treaty of Bruges


Sep Survivors of Magellan's voyage return


Wolsey founds Cardinal College Oxford


Henry VIII meets Anne Boleyn
May Wolsey sets up secret court
May 21 Birth of Philip II of Spain
Jun 22 Henry VIII declares his marriage invalid


Nov 29 Death of Wolsey


Aug Halley's Comet


Jan 25 Marriage to Anne Boleyn
Spring Act of Succession
May 23 Marriage to Catherine of Aragon declared illegal
May 28 Marriage to Anne Boleyn declared legal
Jun 1 Coronation of Anne Boleyn
Sep 7 Birth of Elizabeth to Anne Boleyn
Dec Princess Elizabeth moved to Hatfield


The Act of Supremacy
Jan Mary moved to Hatfield


Dissolution of the Monasteries
Jan Death of Catherine of Aragon
Jan 29 Anne Boleyn loses a son
May 2 Anne Boleyn arrested
May 19 Execution of Anne Boleyn
May 30 Henry marries Jane Seymour
Summer Netley Abbey surrenders to the King
Jul Elizabeth declare illegitimate
Oct 2 Lincolnshire Rebellion
Oct 21 Pilgrimage of Grace
Oct 27 Meeting with rebels
Dec Rebels list demands


Qtr 1 More uprisings
Summer Rebel leaders executed
Oct 12 Edward VI born at Hampton Court
Oct 24 Jane Seymour dies


Destruction of Thomas Becket's Relics


Construction of Pendennis and St. Mawes Castles
Waltham Abbey Dissolved
Jan Abbey at Gloucester surrenders
Jan 6 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves
Jul 9 Marriage to Anne of Cleves annulled
Jul 28 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard


Gloucester given Cathedral status


Feb 13 Catherine Howard executed
Aug Battle of Haddon Rig
Nov 24 Battle of Solway Moss
Dec 8 Birth of Mary, Queen of Scots
Dec 14 Death of James V of Scotland


Succession to the Crown Act
Jul Treaties of Greenwich
Jul 12 Marriage of Henry and Catherine Parr
Sep 9 Queen Mary's Coronation


Construction of Southsea Castle
Construction of Hurst Castle
May Burning of Edinburgh


Jul 19 Sinking of the Mary Rose


Yarmouth Castle Construction

The reign of Edward (VI, King of England 1547-1553)

Edward was the only surviving son of King Henry VIII of England and his third wife Jane Seymour. Edward was born at Hampton Court Palace on 12th October 1537. Jane Seymour died shortly after the birth of her son. Henry was pleased with the birth of a son who could succeed him after his death. After Jane's death Henry married Catherine Parr and it was Catherine who brought Henry's children together. Edward, Mary and Elizabeth lived under the same one roof for the first time. It was Catherine who recognised the need for Henry's children to have a good education and arranged for the best tutors to teach them. Edward's early years were filled with learning. ...

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Jan 28 Death of Henry VIII
Feb 20 Edward VI crowned
Mar 31 Death of Francis I
Apr Catherine Parr marries Thomas Seymour
Jul Capture of the castle at St. Andrews
Sep 10 Battle of Pinkie Cleugh


Qtr 1 Queen Mary moved to Dumbarton Castle
Jul The French arrive in Scotland
Aug 7 Mary Stuart leaves for France
Aug 13 Queen Mary arrives in France
Aug 20 Mary stays at Morlaix


Summer Kett's Rebelion


Mar Treaty of Boulogne


Expedition to find a north-east passage
Jun Change to Edward VI's will
Jul Mary gathers support
Jul 6 Death of Edward VI
Jul 10 Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen
Jul 17 Northumberland's final move

The reign of Mary (I, Queen of England 1553-1558, Bloody Mary, Mary Tudor)

Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon had several children but all of them died as infants except Mary Tudor. Mary was born on February 18, 1516. Henry was happy to have a healthy child but he would have preferred to have a boy to ensure the succession of the English throne to a male heir. As with many royal children marriage arrangements were made to secure political agreements between countries. Mary was no different and at the age of 2 an agreement was made with France that she would marry the French dauphin. When the relationship between Henry and Catherine of Aragon fell apart and their marriage was declared void Mary was send to live at Ludlow Castle away from her father and mother. Mary herself was declared illegitimate. Henry's second wife was Anne Boleyn and they had a daughter, Elizabeth. Anne wanted Mary removed from any line of succession and wanted her own daughter Elizabeth to be heir to the English throne. Naturally, Anne had no time for Mary and Mary was left isolated from her father. Jane Seymour was Henry's third wife and she tried to unite Henry and his daughters but it Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth and last wife, who managed to unite Henry and his three children Mary, Elizabeth and Edward under one roof. When Henry VIII died Mary's younger half-brother Edward became King of England as Edward VI. ...

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Aug 3 Mary arrives in London
Sep 8 Elizabeth attends mass
Oct 1 Mary Tudor crowned
Dec Elizabeth returns leaves court


Rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyatt
Jan 12 Queen Mary receives marriage embassy
Jan 26 Elizabeth summonsed to court
Feb 7 Wyatt arrested
Apr 11 Wyatt executed
Jul 20 Philip lands at Southampton
Jul 25 Marriage of Queen Mary and Philip II of Spain


Sep Philip leaves England


Jan 16 Philip of Spain becomes King


Jul 16 Death of Anne of Cleves
Dec The Lords of the Congregation


A secret agreement is signed
Apr 19 Betrothal of Mary and Dauphin Francis
Apr 24 Marriage and a secret agreement
Nov Elizabeth at London

The reign of Elizabeth (I, Queen of England 1558-1603)

Elizabeth was the only child of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace on the 7th of September 1533. Henry had wanted the child to be a boy to become heir to the English throne but was disappointed that Anne had given birth to a girl. The festivities planned to celebrate the birth were cancelled. Elizabeth had an elder half-sister called Mary who was the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, Henry's first wife. Mary had been declared illegitimate when the marriage between Henry and Catherine was annulled. There was a question of whether Elizabeth was illegitimate because of the timing of her birth and the marriage of Henry and Anne at the end of January, but also because the marriage between Henry and Catherine of Aragon had not been annulled until May. Elizabeth was less than 3 years old when Anne, her mother, was executed after being found guilty of treason and adultery. ...

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Nov 17 Queen Mary dies


Marriage proposal
Water mills built under London Bridge
Act of Supremacy
Jan 14 Coronation pageants
Jan 15 Coronation of Elizabeth
Jul 10 Henry II killed after a tournament accident
Sep 18 Coronation of Francis II, King of France


Dudley accused of murder
Jun Death of Mary of Guise
Dec Death of Francis II, King of France


Mary tours her kingdom
St. Paul's struck by lightning
Madrid becomes capital of Spain
Spring Bad weather defeats Eric
Spring Marriage proposal from Spain
Aug 14 Mary Stuart leaves France


Sep Treaty of Richmond
Oct Elizabeth ill with smallpox
Oct Fall of Huntley
Winter Le Havre occupied by the English


Summer Le Havre abandoned


Jul 29 Mary Stuart marries Lord Darnley


The Royal Exchange founded
Jun 19 Birth of the James the future King of England


Feb 10 Murder of Lord Darnley


Jul 15 Queen Mary taken to Bolton Castle


Feb Queen Mary moved to Tutbury


Aug Katla Volcano Eruption


Nov Throckmorton Plot


Jun Bond of Association
Nov Bond amended by the Queen


Jan Parry Plot


Apr 25 Birth of Oliver Cromwell

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