Robert the Bruce


1306 Mar 25 Robert Bruce is crowned Robert I of Scotland
   Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland At Scone Abbey.
1307 May 10 Battle of Loudoun Hill
   The English were defeated by the Scots at the battle of Loudoun Hill led by Robert I of Scotland.
1308 Bruce takes Urquhart Castle
   Robert Bruce captured Urquhart Castle and placed it in the care of Sir Thomas Ranpolph, the Earl of Moray.
1309 Robert Bruce recognised as King
   Robert Bruce was formally recognised as King of Scotland by the Scottish parliament at St. Andrews.
1311 Bruce attacks the north
   The conflict within England gave Robert Bruce the opportunity to attack towns and forts in the north of England. He was commonly paid large sums of money by the towns' people to leave them alone. In this way he was able to raise enough money to buy better weapons for his army.
1313 The Scots regain ground
   Using stealth and surprise tactics Robert Bruce's army recaptured Perth, Dundee, Edinburgh and Roxburgh from English occupation.
Jun Stirling Castle Siege
   Stirling castle was still under the control of English forces but was under siege from the Scots led by Edward Bruce. Bruce and the English commander, Sir Philippe de Mowbray, came to an agreement that if English forces had not reached the castle by midsummer 1314, Mowbray would surrender the castle to the Scots. Bruce even let Mowbray leave the castle to inform the English king of the agreement.
Dec 23 Edward prepares for invasion
   The king call upon the earls to provide men and arms and to meet at Berwick on the 10th of June 1314 to attack the Scots.
1314 Bruce orders destruction of castles
   To prevent Scottish castles falling into English hands, Robert Bruce ordered that the castles at Roxburgh, Linlithgow and Edinburgh should be destroyed.
Jun 17 Edward leaves Berwick
   Edward II and his army left Berwick to march to Stirling Castle which they had to reach before midsummer's day if the castle were to be saved from falling back into the hands of the Scots.
Jun 24 Battle of Bannockburn
   Forces led by Edward II were defeated by Robert I at Bannockburn. Edward was trying to reach Stirling Castle to relieve the English forces there. This was an important battle for the Scots to win and helped them to make some gains of land in northern England even if the success was short-lived.
1319 Jun Edward marches to free Berwick
   The last Scottish town to be held in English hands had been captured by Robert the Bruce. The loss of Berwick brought Edward and Lancaster together. Their common goal was to recapture the town and together with the Earl of Pembroke and Surrey they marched north.
Sep 20 Battle of Myton
   While the best of the English army were at Berwick, a Scottish army led by Sir James Douglas invaded Yorkshire. With an untrained army the Archbishop of York, William Melton, tried to fight off the Scots but was defeated at Myton-in-Swalesdale. With the Scots threatening their lands in the north the earls, with Edward at Berwick, abandoned the siege and returned to their homes. Queen Isabella who was in York at the time managed to escape to safety at Nottingham.
1320 Apr Declaration of Arbroath
   Robert the Bruce drew up the Declaration of Arbroath which defined Scotland's sovereignty and Robert's right to be King. This was sent to the Pope in the hope that he would lift the excommunication order under which Robert was still held for the death of John Comyn in 1306.
1322 Jul The Scots invade
   The two year truce that had been agreed after the failed siege by the English at Berwick expired and Robert the Bruce invaded the north of England.
Aug Edward advances into Scotland
   In response to Robert the Bruce's attacks in the north of England, Edward called for an army and took them into Scotland. The Scots were prepared for the English and had burnt land and supplies in front of Edward's army making it difficult for the English to survive.
Oct Edward almost captured
   After returning from Scotland, Edward and Queen Isabella rested at Rievaulx Abbey in Yorkshire. The Scots were still nearby and met the English army led by the Earl of Richmond near Old Byland. The Scots defeated the English army and Edward had to flee to escape capture. Isabella too escaped.
1323 Mar Peace negotiations
   Edward and Robert the Bruce began negotiations for a peaceful settlement of their differences. There were difficulties because Robert claimed the title of King of Scotland but Edward initially refused this because he had inherited the title from his father Edward I. The execution of the Earl of Carlisle had led to the start of negotiations. Carlisle had approached Robert with the intention of preparing the ground for peace talks but had not informed the king of his intentions. His actions were discovered and the king assumed his actions were treasonable. Carlisle was executed as a traitor.
May Treaty signed
   A thirteen year peace was signed at York between Scotland and England.

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