Charles (I, King of England and Scotland 1625-1649)

 Born  Nov 1600   Born At  
 Died  30 Jan 1649   Buried At  
 Father  James (VI of Scotland, 1567-1625, from 1603 James I of England)   Mother  Anne (of Denmark, Queen Consort of Scotland)
Father was James VI of Scotland who later became James I of England. Charles was the first person to succeed to both thrones of England and Scotland.


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Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1600 Nov 19  Charles (I) born
 Charles, the future king of England was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife in Scotland. 
1612 Nov 6  12yrsCharles becomes heir to the throne
 Charles' elder brother Henry died of typhoid making Charles heir to the English throne. Elizabeth was Charles' elder sister and her descendants would become future kings of England. 
1625 Mar 27  25yrsCharles I becomes King of England
 Charles became the first person to succeed to the crown of both England and Scotland. His father James was King of Scotland (James VI) from 1567 and later King of England (James I) from 1603. James was buried at Westminster Abbey. 
 May 11  Proxy marriage of Charles and Henrietta Maria
 Proxy wedding of Charles & Henrietta in Paris. 
 Jun  Charles' First Parliament
 Charles I called his first Parliament in June of 1625. His aim was to raise money for war against Spain although he did not tell Parliament what the money was for. Parliament refused to give the full amount and gave only limited funds. Parliament restricted Charles to collect 'Tonnage and Poundage' for only one year. Before this 'Tonnage and Poundage' was collected at any time. There were concerns over Charles' marriage to his Roman Catholic wife and favouritism shown to her religion. Further concerns related to the Duke of Buckingham and his influence over the King. Charles dissolved the Parliament in August without achieving his aims.
 Jun 13  Charles marries Henrietta Maria
 Charles marries Henrietta Maria de Bourbon in St Augustine's Church at Canterbury. 
 Dec 9  Treaty of the Hague
 A treaty signed by England and the Netherlands agreeing to pay Christian IV of Denmark a large sum of money to maintain his campaign in Germany as part of the Thirty Years War.[1] 
1626 Feb  26yrsCharles' Second Parliament
 Charles called his second Parliament again to raise funds for his military exploits. To improve his chances of success Charles gave appointments of County Sheriff to those who had previously opposed him. It was not possible for Sheriffs to be members of the Commons. Parliament was led by Sir John Eliot who criticised the King's and Buckingham's failed military expeditions. Charles dissolved Parliament again without getting his funds. 
 Feb 2  Charles crowned
 Charles I was crowned at Westminster Abbey. 
 Jun  French attendants dismissed
 Charles dismissed Henrietta's French entourage sending them back to France against the wishes of his wife. 6 out of 440 remained to look after her.[2] 
 Jun 15  Charles' second Parliament dissolved
 Charles dissolved Parliament after first arresting Sir John Eliot. The king was still short of money so he resorted to 'forced loans' from well-off people in the country. Those who did not pay were threatened with imprisonment without trial. Charles also forced people to give shelter and food to his soldiers.[1] 
1628 Mar  28yrsCharles' Third Parliament
 Charles called another Parliament intent on getting money for more military campaigns. He wanted to finance another attack on La Rochelle. Parliament refused to give any money unless the king agreed to terms set out in the 'Petition of Right'.
  • ending of forced loans
  • ending of enforced billeting of troops
  • no taxation with Parliamentary approval
  • end to imprisonment without cause shown
  • end to martial law
Charles agreed to the Petition and Parliament gave him the money he required.[1] 
 Jun 26  Parliament dissolved
 Although Parliament had agreed to give the King his money, it also pressed for the arrest of Buckingham. To protect Buckingham, Charles dissolved Parliament. 
1629 May 13  29yrsBirth of Charles's first child
 Henrietta gave birth to her first child, Charles James Stuart, but he died the same day. 
1630 May 29  30yrsCharles (II) born
 Charles (II), the future King of England was born at St. James's Palace in London. 
1631   31yrsBirth of Princess Mary
 Princess Mary, the first daughter of Charles I and Henrietta Maria was born.[2] 
1633 Oct 14  33yrsBirth of James (II, King of England and Scotland)
 James was the fourth child of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. 
1637 - 1642 37yrsCoins minted at Aberystwyth Castle
 Charles I gave Thomas Bushell permission to produce coins. He set up the mint inside Aberystwyth Castle. Bushell used locally mined Welsh silver. The mint was moved in 1642 because of the war.[3] 
1639 May  39yrsCharles advances on Scotland
 Charles I gathered an army and moved to the border of Scotland. He had sent the Marquis of Hamilton by sea to negotiate with the Scots while his army gathered. The Scots under the command of Alexander Leslie had prevented Hamilton landing in Scotland and the Scots marched south to meet the King.[4] 
 Jun 18  Treaty of Berwick
 The army Charles had put together was no match for the Scottish army under the command of Leslie and so the King signed the Treaty of Berwick. While the Scots returned home happy that they could deal with their own church affairs, Charles had no intensions of abiding by the terms of the treaty and used the treaty as a means of gaining time to plan his next move. [4] 
1640   40yrsCaerlaverock Castle captured
 Caerlaverock Castle was captured by Covenanters opposed to Kings Charles I. 
 Apr 13  The Short Parliament
 Charles I called Parliament to ask for taxes to raise money for war against the Scots. Parliament agreed to grant the King 'twelve subsidies' on the condition that 'ship money' was abolished. Ship money was a tax normally imposed at time of war to allow the King to build ships for the defence of the country, but Charles had imposed this tax in peace times without Parliament's consent which was illegal. John Pym stood up against the King and complained about how he was running the country. Charles grew impatient and dissolved Parliament on May 5, only three weeks after Parliament was called.[5] 
 Jul 8  Henry Stuart born
 The son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France was born on this day. 
 Sep 24  The Great Council called
 In light the serious Scottish invasion, Charles called a Great Council at York. The Great Council or 'Magnum Concilium' was a meeting of the King's tenants-in-chief and advisors. A Great Council had not been called for several hundred years. Although the meeting agreed to assist the King with a loan it preferred to negotiate with the Scots.[5] 
 Oct 26  The Treaty of Ripon
 The Treaty of Ripon, signed by Charles I, agreed to pay the Scots £850 a day while they held control of Durham and Northumberland.[5] 
 Nov 3  The Long Parliament
 Charles I was forced to call Parliament to raise money to pay for a continued war with the Scottish. Parliament was led by John Pym who opposed the King. Parliament agreed to give Charles some money in return for concessions. These included the removal of Charles' closest advisors, Archbishop Laud and Thomas Wentworth Viscount Strafford. Laud would be kept in the Tower of London while Strafford would be executed. 
1641 Feb  41yrsMarriage negotiations
 Charles I arranged the marriage between his eldest daughter, Mary Princess Royal, and William, the Prince of Orange.[5] 
 Mar 22  Trial of Earl Strafford begins
 Earl Strafford's trial commenced.[1] 
 May 12  Strafford Executed
 Earl Strafford was executed on Tower Hill.[1] 
 Oct  Irish Rebellion
 A rebellion of Irish Catholics in Ulster erupted. They attacked the Protestants who were living in the area. The rebellion targeted Dublin but was unable to take the city. 
 Nov 22  Grand Remonstrance
 Parliament passed the Grand Remonstrance, a list of grievances against King Charles. Parliament was unhappy with the King's advisors and wanted the King to allow Parliament to choose who should advise him.[1] 
 Dec 21  William Balfour dismissed
 Charles I dismissed Sir William Balfour from his position as Constable of the Tower of London because of his support for Parliament against the King.[1] 
1642 Jan 4  42yrsCharles attempts arrests
 Charles I, with a small band of soldiers, attempted to arrest key leaders of Parliament including John Pym. When Charles arrived at Westminster he found that the men had already left and had found sanctuary in the city of London. Charles had little support in the city and had little choice but to leave.[5] 
 Feb 13  Charles agrees to Bishops' Exclusion Bill
 Charles agreed to the Bill that forced the exclusion of Bishops from the House of Lords.[1] 
 Feb 23  The Queen looks for support
 Queen Henrietta Maria left the country via Dover looking for support for her husband from abroad. She took the Crown Jewels with her presumably to sell to raise money. 
 Mar  Earl of Warwick takes control of navy
 Parliament authorised Robert Rich, the Earl of Warwick to take control of the English Navy before King Charles did so.[5] 
 Apr 23  Charles refused entry to Hull
 The city of Hull had a large store of weapons and both Parliament and King Charles wanted to take control of it. Parliament had wanted the arms to be shipped to the Tower of London for, they said, use in Ireland against the rebels, but Charles refused. Charles sent his son Prince Rupert to Hull on the 22nd of April and he had been welcomed. When Charles arrived a day later the Governor of Hull, Sir John Hotham a supporter of Parliament, refused him entry fearful that the King would take the arms by force.[5] 
 Aug 22  Charles I raises standard at Nottingham Castle
 Charles I declared war by raising his standard at Nottingham Castle. 
 Sep  Prince Rupert at Leicester
 A sum of two thousand pounds was demanded by Prince Rupert from the people in Leicester to save their town from being robed. They only paid 500 pounds and complained to King Charles. The king was unhappy with the Princes' actions but the money was not handed back. [6] 
 Sep 13  Charles leaves Nottingham
 Charles left Nottingham Castle and marched his army towards Shrewsbury. 
 Sep 20  Charles reaches Shrewsbury
 By the end of September King Charles had reached Shrewsbury where he was warmly greeted.[7] 
 Oct 12  Charles leaves Shrewsbury
 Charles left Shrewsbury and headed south east in the general direction of London. The Earl of Essex learnt of Charles' movements some days later and moved to intercept the king.[7] 
 Oct 23  Battle of Edgehill
 Charles moved his army to the top of Edgehill overlooking a large plain and the village of Kineton near Warwick. The king had been alerted to Essex's army approaching and chosen the high ground the night before. The two armies were roughly equal is size, both having around 12 thousand men. The Royalist having more cavalry but less foot soldiers. The Royalist cavalry on the flanks came down the hill and attacked, driving back the flanks of the Parliamentarians. Meanwhile, in the centre of the field, the Parliamentarians were driving back the Royalists. After a day of fighting both sides fell back and camped on the field. The next day Essex began to withdraw his army to Warwick. Essex declared Edgehill a victory but this was a victory for the Royalists.[8] 
 Oct 27  Banbury captured by Royalists
 The Royalists led by Charles moved on Banbury. The town surrendered without a fight and the Prince Rupert took control of the nearby Broughton Castle.[8] 
 Oct 29  Charles makes Oxford his base
 Charles moved his army from Banbury to Oxford and made the town his base of operations.[8] 
 Nov 4  Prince Rupert attacks Windsor Castle
 In early November Charles took Reading while Prince Rupert was attacking Windsor Castle. Prince Rupert's efforts failed so he turned his attention south to Brentford dealing the Parliamentary forces a heavy blow. Charles' next objective was to take London but the Londoners put an army together. When the Londoners' army was reinforced with the army of the Earl of Essex there was a standoff. The Royalist and Parliamentary armies faced each other at Turnham Green but Charles was outnumbered and chose to withdraw. 
 Dec  Winter at Oxford
 Charles sent the winter at his base at Oxford.[7] 
1643 Feb 22  43yrsQueen Henrietta Maria returns
 The Queen returned from Holland, landing at Bridlington on the North Yorkshire coast. She brought with her supplies to assist her husband with his war efforts.[5] 
 Jul 13  Battle of Roundway Down
 Once Charles learnt that Hopton was being held at Devizes, he sent Wilmot to meet up with Prince Maurice and put together a Royalist army to free the town. The Royalists and Parliamentarians met at Roundway Down just north of Devizes. Wilmot was able to drive the Parliamentarians back towards the top of a steep slope where, as the Parliament army fell, many were killed. The slope is now known as Bloody Ditch.[9] 
 Aug  Corfe Castle rescued
 Corfe Castle was being besieged by Parliamentary forces. Inside the castle Lady Mary Banks with a small number of defenders had managed to hold the castle against much larger number of men outside. Lady Mary's husband, Sir John Banks, was elsewhere with King Charles at the time. Prince Maurice attacked and drove off the Parliamentary besiegers.[9] 
1644   44yrsCaernarvon Castle captured
 Since 1642 Caernarvon Castle had been held by Royalist forces for Charles I, but Parliamentarian forces attacked and captured the castle.[10] 
 May  Advance on Oxford
 William Waller and the Earl of Essex were advancing on Oxford where the King was staying. The King had to remove his men from Reading and Abingdon so that an army could be raised to meet the threat. The King left Oxford leaving a garrison to protect the city and fled to Worcester. Essex ignored the King and took his army south where Lyme Regis was under attack. Waller was left to pursue the King.[4] 
 Jun 29  Battle of Cropredy Bridge
 With the Earl of Essex out of the way and the Parliamentary forces divided, the King turned to face William Waller. The two armies met at Cropredy Bridge on the River Cherwell in Oxfordshire. The King's army defeated the badly organised Parliamentary forces.[4] 
 Sep 2  Royalist victory at Lostwithiel
 A Parliamentarian army controlled by the Earl of Essex surrendered to Charles I at Lostwithiel. Essex and some of his men managed to escape. Essex got to the coast and found a boat.[4] 
 Oct 27  Second battle of Newbury
 Charles I met Parliamentary forces led by the Earl of Manchester and William Waller at Newbury. A disjointed attack by Manchester and Waller on different fronts failed to defeat the Royalist army but it was enough to leave Charles' position in peril so the King retreated and during the night his army was able to evade Manchester's outposts and escape towards Wallingford.[4] 
 Nov 9  Charles returns to Donnington
 Charles I returned to Donnington Castle to get the guns he had left there. A battle could have been fought, one that the King was willing to take part it, but Manchester and the committee of generals declined because their forces were not in a fit state.[4] 
1645 Jun 14  45yrsBattle of Naseby
 Sir Thomas Fairfax and the New Model Army caught the King at Naseby Field in Northamptonshire. Cromwell joined Fairfax and the combined Parliamentary force consisted of some 14,000 men while the King and Prince Rupert had around half that number. The King had a better position on the battlefield and had more experienced soldiers while some of the Parliamentary men were raw conscripts. For the Parliamentarians, Skippon commanded the infantry, Cromwell commanded the Ironsides to the left and to the right Ireton commanded his men. Both Skippon and Ireton were injured in the battle. Ireton was captured but managed to escape. Cromwell's Ironsides routed the Royalist army and the battle was won. King Charles was defeated. King Charles and his cavalry escaped to Leicester but he left has baggage train behind unprotected. Large amounts of the King's and his supporters money was captured by the Parliamentarians along with the King's personal letters.[4] 
 Jun 18  Leicester Surrenders
 The Royalist defeat was complete when the King's men at Leicester surrendered to Fairfax and handed over their weapons and horses.[4] 
 Jul 10  Battle of Langport
 Fairfax went to the south west to deal with the Royalist Lord Goring and the western army. The two armies met at Langport in Somerset. Goring set a trap for Fairfax in the narrow lanes of the countryside with musketeers hidden in the hedges lining the lanes. He also had two cannons positioned to fire down the lane on the attackers. This did not stop the powerful New Model Army whose own guns silenced the Royalist cannons. The Royalist cavalry were forced back leaving the musketeers exposed and picked off by their Parliamentary opposites. The royalists set fire to Langport and began retreating to Bridgwater with the Parliamentarians in pursuit, led by Cromwell and his Ironsides.
 Aug 18  Montrose enters Glasgow
 Montrose entered Glasgow and a new Parliament was convened in the name of King Charles I. The Convenanting leaders escaped to Berwick.[4] 
 Sep 13  Battle of Philiphaugh
 After his successes in Scotland Montrose decided to go to England to assist the king. As he marched south he met a Parliamentarian army lead by Leslie. Montrose's forces had been greatly reduced as sections of his army had returned home with their spoils of war. Montrose was outnumbered and defeated. Montrose escaped. [4] 
 Sep 24  Battle of Rowton Heath
 King Charles had been staying at Raglan Castle but the fall of his support in the south west meant that he was not safe there. Charles decided to move north to meet Montrose who he believed was marching south from Scotland. Charles was unaware of Montrose's defeat at Philiphaugh on the 13th. Charles reached Chester which was held by the Royalists but under siege and entered the city. An attempt to free the city failed and Charles abandoned the city and headed for Newark.[4] 
1646 Apr  46yrsCharles escapes from Oxford
 The armies of Fairfax and Cromwell surrounded the city of Oxford where King Charles was besieged. Negotiations were held in an attempt to get a peaceful solution rather than lose men in a costly assault, but before the city surrendered Charles managed to escape in disguise. Charles hoped that the Scots would support his cause against Parliament. Charles had been using the French envoy, Jean de Montreuil, to communicate with the Scots.[4] 
 May 5  Charles' escape
 After leaving Oxford Charles travelled with two companions, Ashburnham, his groom, and Dr Hudson, a chaplain. They travelled in disguise with the fear of being caught and waited for news from Montreuil about the Scots. On the 5th of May Charles reached the home of Montreuil in Southwell where he met a Scottish negotiator. The negotiator demanded that the royalist garrison at Newark should surrender, the king must sign the Convenant and establish Presbytery in England and Wales and order Montrose to lay down his arms in Scotland. 
 May 9  Royalists at Newark surrender
 Charles agreed to some of the terms specified by the Scots and he ordered the royalist army at Newark surrendered. A few days later Charles ordered Montrose to disband his forces and to leave Scotland. The Scots then marched north with Charles as their prisoner to Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1647 Jan 28  47yrsCharles handed over to Parliament
 Charles would never submit to the demands for Presbyterianism and so the Scots left the King in the hands of Parliamentarian Commissoners, received the money they were owed by Parliament and marched out of Newcastle. [11] 
 Nov  Charles I held at Carisbrooke Castle
 Charles I took refuge at Carisbrooke but the castle later turned out to be his prison from where he attempted several times to escape but failed. 
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