Edward (The Black Prince)

 Born  15 Jun 1330   Born At  
 Died  8 Jun 1376   Buried At  
 Father  Edward (III, King of England 1327-1377)   Mother  Philippa (of Hainault)
Edward, the Black Prince, was the eldest son of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault. The Black Prince would never become king himself as he died before his father but his son would become the next king of England as Richard II. The prince was born at the royal palace of Woodstock in June of 1330. He was given the title of Earl of Chester and was bestowed with the traditional title of Prince of Wales when he was 12 years old. When his father created the Order of the Garter in 1348 at Windsor Castle the prince was included as one of the founding knights. Edward took part in the Hundred Years War when he invaded French lands. His method of attack was known as a chevauchée which involved destroying villages, towns and farming land of the French King to reduce the taxes that the king could raise. It also caused panic and an exodus of refugees. Edward's most important achievement was his defeat and capture of the French King at the Battle of Poitiers in 1355. More detailed information can be found in the timeline below.

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YearMonthAgeEvent
1329 Jun  Edward agrees to do homage to Philippe
 Edward III agreed to do homage to Philippe of Valois for the lands he held in Aquitaine. Edward did not place his hands between Philippe's, a sign of total loyalty which would have been hard to go against, as Edward was unhappy about Philippe's claim to the French throne. Edward was hoping diplomatic endeavours would help his position and wanted Philippe's daughter Joan to marry his first son Edward the Black Prince. [1] 
1330 Jun 15  Edward (the Black Prince) is born
 Edward was born at the royal manor of Woodstock.[2] 
1333 Mar 18  3yrsEarl of Chester
 Edward (the Black Prince) was given the title Earl of Chester on this day.[2] 
1337   7yrs1st Duke of Cornwall
 Edward, the Black Prince, was given the title Duke of Cornwall by his father Edward III. The estate was created at this time is order to provide an annual income for the Prince and for future eldest sons of the monarch.[3] 
1342 Oct  12yrsEdward and Brittany
 Edward sailed to Brittany to assist English troops already there. They were supporting Jean de Montfort's claim to be the Duke of Brittany. Philippe, king of France, disputed this claim and supported his own contender to the title. Edward left his eldest son in charge of England while he was away.[2]

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
1343 May 12  13yrsThe Black Prince becomes Prince of Wales
 Edward, the Black Prince, was bestowed with the title of Prince of Wales by his father Edward III at a ceremony at Westminster.[2] 
1348   18yrsFounding of the Order of the Garter
 King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood. Based on the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthur. The name of the order is supposed to have originated when Edward III picked up a garter that had been lost on the dance floor during a banquet. Edward tied the garter around his own leg telling all present not to pass judgement. The garter may have belonged to the beautiful Joan of Kent. Joan was later to marry Edward's son, the Black Prince. 
 Apr 23  Creation of the Order of the Garter
 On St. George's Day at Windsor Castle, the Order of the Garter was created. The initial Knights of the Order were: The King (Edward III); the Prince of Wales (The Black Prince); Henry, Earl (afterwards Duke) of Lancaster; Thomas Beauchamp, 3rd Earl of Warwick; the Captal of Buch; Ralph, Lord Stafford; Motacute, Earl of Salisbury; Sir Roger Mortimer; Sir John (afterward Lord) Lisle; Sir Bartholomew (afterwards Lord) Burghershe; Sir John Beauchamp; Lord Mohun; Sir Hugh Courtenay; Sir Thomas Holland; Lord Grey; Sir Richard FitzSimon; Sir Myles Stapleton; Sir Thomas Wales; Sir Hugh Wrottesley; Sir Neel Loryng; Sir John Chandos; Sir James Audley; Sir Otho Holland; Sir Henry Eam; Sir Sanchete d'Ambrichecourt; and Sir Walter Paveley.[4] 
1350 Aug  20yrsEdward III attacks the Spanish fleet
 The Spanish fleet was returning from Sluys where it had stayed over winter. Edward had taken his time and prepared an English fleet that could attack the Spanish boats as they came back down the English Channel. The two fleets met off the south coast near Winchelsea. Fierce hand-to-hand fighting took place as the ships, using grappling hooks, came together. Both Edward III and his son the Black Prince took part in the battle and defeated the Spanish.[2] 
1355 Oct  25yrsThe Black Prince starts his chevauchée
 Edward the Black Prince set out from Bordeaux at the start of a chevauchée into lands held by King John of France. Chevauchée was a medieval term for a process destroying the towns, villages and land of an enemy lord in an attempt to reduce the wealth that the lord could extract and put to use in going to war. It also caused panic in the local population and an exodus of refugees.[2] 
1356 Sep 17  26yrsEnglish and French armies meet
 On Saturday 17th of September while the Black Prince was moving his army to English owned city of Bordeaux the English and French armies finally came across each other near Poitiers. Edward moved his army into a defensive position protected by hedges on three sides and a narrow lane on the fourth. 
 Sep 18  Papal mission
 On the Sunday a Cardinal attempted to get the English prince and French king to agree a truce, but the two leaders used the Sunday to rest their troops and prepare for the battle ahead. 
 Sep 19  Battle of Poitiers
 On Monday the 19th of September the battle of Poitiers took place. Even though the English army was outnumbered the Black Prince used superior tactics in the battle and defeated the French without suffering many losses. John, the French King, was captured along with many other French nobles and taken to Bordeaux.

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
1357 Mar  27yrsTruce with France
 On behalf of the King of England, Edward, the Black Prince arranged a two year truce with John, the King of France at Bordeaux. 
 Apr  John brought to England
 The Black Prince with the French king and many other prisoners began the journey from France to England. Once back in England these nobles were ransomed for large amounts of money. 
1358 Apr 23  28yrsA Splendid Tournament at Windsor
 To celebrate St. George's day Edward III held a large tournament at Windsor Castle. Edward, the Black Prince, oversaw the proceedings in which kings and nobles from all over Europe were given safe passage to take part in. 
1360 May  30yrsTreaty of Bretigny
 The treaty of Bretigny brought a period of peace for nine years during the Hundred Years War. The treaty was arranged between the Black Prince and the dauphin (later Charles V of France) before being approved by Edward III of England and King John of France. As part of the treaty Edward was given control of the areas of Gascony, Calais and Ponthieu as long as he agreed to give up his claim for the French throne. King John, currently being held hostage in England, was to be released on condition of a payment of 3 million gold crowns to by paid in instalments.

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
1361 Oct  31yrsMarriage of the Black Prince and Joan of Kent
 Edward, the black Prince married Joan of Kent at Westminster Abbey. 
1362 Jul  32yrsThe Black Prince is given Gascony
 Edward III transferred control of Gascony to his eldest son, the Black Prince. Edward the Black Prince had just married Joan of Kent at Windsor and together they created a magnificent court in Bordeaux.

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
1363   33yrsConstruction of the Chantry Chapel at Canterbury
 The Black Prince organised the construction of the Chantry Chapel at Canterbury Cathedral and he expressed the wish to be buried there. 
1367 Apr 3  37yrsBattle of Nájera in Spain
 Edward the Black Prince went to assist Peter the Cruel, King of Castile, who had been driven from his throne by Henry Trastamara. With a combined army of English, Gascons, Navarrese and Castilians the Black Prince won a battle to put Peter back on the thrown. The victory at Nájera also brought the Castilian fleet under control which had been fighting on the side of the French when Trastamara was in power. Peter was later overthrown and the fleet again started fighting on the French side.

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
1370 Aug  40yrsThe French reclaim Limoges
 French forces led by the Duke of Berry retook the town of Limoges.[2] 
 Sep 18  Limoges falls to the Black Prince
 Edward, the Black Prince, used miners to undermine the section of the town that did not surrender to the English. The walls were brought down and those who had not surrendered were executed. This included women and children.[2] 
1376 Jun  46yrsDeath of the Black Prince
 Heir to the English throne, the Black Prince died. His son Richard would become the next king of England as Richard II. 
1377 Jun 21  Edward III Dies
 Edward III, the King of England died in June 1377. One year earlier Edward's eldest son and heir to the throne, Edward the Black Prince died. Richard, the son of the Black Prince, was proclaimed heir to the throne. King Edward was ill for some time before his death, and John of Gaunt another of Edward's sons took the affairs of the nation under his control. Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey in a tomb designed by Henry Yevele.[5]

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
 Jun 23  Richard II becomes king
 Richard, the son of Edward the Black Prince, and grandson of Edward III, became king. 
1397   Wilton Diptych painted
 A series of miniature images painted on the side of the Black Prince's tomb in Canterbury Cathedral. 
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