Richard (III, King of England 1483-1485)

 Born  2 Oct 1452   Born At  Fotheringay Castle
 Died  22 Aug 1485   Buried At  Greyfriars Abbey
 Father  Richard (Duke of York)   Mother  Neville, Cecily (Duchess of York)
Preceded by  Edward (V, King of England 1483) Succeeded by  Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509)
 Royal House   York

Titles Include

King of England from 1483; Duke of Gloucester

ichard only reigned for two years, from 6th July 1483 until his death at the battle of Bosworth on 22nd August 1485. Richard was the thirteenth and last Plantagenet king and the last king to be killed in battle. We see Richard depicted as a hunch-back by Shakespeare but this deformity may be exaggerated.

Origins

Richard was born at Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire on 2nd October 1452. His father was Richard, Duke of York (died 1460) and his mother was Cecily Neville. Richard was their fourth son and last surviving child. Richard was born during the Wars of the Roses and along with George an elder brother, was moved from one safe location to another as the fortunes of their father changed. At the end of June 1461, Richard's eldest brother Edward became king of England as Edward IV and later that year Richard was given the title of Duke of Gloucester and made a member of the Order of the Garter. Richard's brother George was given the title Duke of Clarence.

Schooling

It was normal in medieval times for the sons of kings to be taught in the homes of other members of the nobility. Richard's schooling was entrusted to Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick (the 'Kingmaker') and Richard spent several years at Middleham Castle in Yorkshire learning the noble arts of hunting and jousting. Richard shared his time at Middleham with Francis Lovell, a knight who would support Richard in the future, and the daughters of the Kingmaker Isabel and Anne. Isabel would marry George, Richard's brother, and Anne would eventually marry Richard and become Queen of England. Extra notes supplied by Dorothy Davies

A much maligned and misunderstood king, thanks to Tudor slander after his untimely death at Bosworth on the 22nd August 1485 and later thanks to Shakespeare who took the Tudor slander and created a villain that has persisted as a stereotype for hundreds of years.

The truth is that Richard of Gloucester was not a hunchback, the portraits were over painted to make him look that way. He did not murder his brother the Duke of Clarence, that was a private execution carried out on the orders of their brother Edward IV. At the time of Clarence's death Richard was back in the North, in the territory he controlled and ruled on behalf of his brother the king. He did not murder his son or his wife, they both died of natural diseases. He was made Lord Protector of the new king Edward V when his brother Edward died by direct bequest in Edward's will.

He did not usurp the throne. He was petitioned by parliament to take the throne after the revelation of the pre-contract of marriage which rendered the Princes illegitimate and unable to hold the position. The Titulus Regis, written at that time and later ordered to be hunted down and destroyed by order of Henry Tudor, proclaimed his right to be king.

During his short reign Richard III introduced the bail system which we follow today, he standardised weights and measures across the kingdom, he abolished benevolences, abolished the purchasing of high office, you had to get there by merit or not at all, and established English as the language of law so that the common people would understand what was being said. He endowed many collegiates and was an intensely pious and devoted man.

His part in the 'death of the Princes' is something which haunts his reputation to this day but the blame for the Princes' disappearance can be laid at the door of several people, not least of whom was Henry, Duke of Buckingham, who later turned traitor to Richard and was executed after his uprising failed.

Bosworth was a disaster waiting to happen, as the Stanleys and others stood back and let the battle go as it would, without joining in. Any good book on the battle will show that Richard III should have won, the Tudor should have been despatched and if all had gone according to plan, that is precisely what would have happened. Unfortunately the turncoats had the day and Richard was killed. It has been said he had nothing to live for at that time anyway, having lost all that mattered to him, his brother Edward to whom he was devoted, his wife and his son, both of whom he adored.

For more information, read 1485: The Psychology of a Battle by Michael K Jones, The Life and Times of Richard III by Anthony Cheetham, The Mystery of the Princes by Audrey Williamson for a start.

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Partial Personal Timeline

YearMonthAgeEvent
1452 Oct 2  Richard (III) is born
 Richard, the future King of England, was born in Fotheringay Castle in Northamptonshire. His father was Richard Duke of York and his mother was Cecily Neville. Richard was their fourth son. 
1461 Mar 13  9yrsEdward leaves London
 Edward IV with a large army left London to march north and face the Lancastrians. Richard and George, the young sons of the late Duke of York were put on a ship and sent to Burgundy where they would be safe from Lancastrian hands.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jun 28  Edward IV is crowned
 The Yorkists were in control after the battle of Towton and Richard and George were brought back to England where they were made Knights of the Order of the Bath. Edward took part in the crown-wearing ceremonies at Westminster Abbey and became King of England. Shortly afterwards his younger brother George was given the title of Duke of Clarence.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Nov  Richard (III) becomes Duke of Gloucester
 Richard (III) was give the title of Duke of Gloucester. 
1469 Jun  17yrsEdward advances against rebels
 Edward and the Duke of Gloucester took a small army in search of the rebels in the North.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Qtr 4  Richard appointed Constable of England
 Richard (III) was given the role of Constable of England and was given Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire.[1] 
1470 Oct 2  18yrsEdward flees to Burgundy
 Warwick did not need to fight the King. Edward was outnumbered and was almost captured by John Neville at Doncaster. Along with his brother Richard and a small party of followers, Edward travelled to Lynn in Norfolk where he sailed to Burgundy and refuge.[1]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1471 Apr 4  19yrsClarence rejoins his brothers
 George, Duke of Clarence deserted the Earl of Warwick and joined his brothers Edward and Richard. Importantly for the Yorkist cause, he brought with him a sizable army.[1]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Apr 11  London opens its gates to Edward and the Yorkists
 The Earl of Warwick was in Coventry and apparently unwilling to confront Edward, so Edward and Richard marched south to London. London was under the control of Warwick's brother, George Neville the Archbishop of York, but the Londoners were Yorkists and they welcomed the return of their true king. Once inside the city Edward had the Archbishop arrested and along with King Henry VI put in the Tower of London.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
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