Henry (III, King of England 1216-1272)

 Born  1207   Born At  Winchester Castle
 Died  16 Nov 1272   Buried At  Westminster Abbey
 Father  John (King of England 1199-1216)   Mother  Isabella (of Angouleme)
Preceded by  John (King of England 1199-1216) Succeeded by  Edward (I, King of England 1272-1307)
 Royal House   Plantagenet

Titles Include

King of England from 1216 to 1272; Duke of Normandy; Duke of Aquitaine

Too young to rule

enry became King of England in 1216 at the age of only ten after the death of his father King John and was crowned several later at the abbey of Gloucester. Being too young to rule, Henry was assisted by William Marshal and Hubert de Burgh. Marshal was a trusted knight who had already served under Henry II, King Richard and King John. Unfortunately for Henry, the country's loyalty was not as certain. In London and the south-east the French Dauphin Louis was in control and in the north, the barons were in control and opposed the new king. It was only the south-west and the Midlands that offered Henry any support. Battles at Lincoln and off the coast near Sandwich dealt with opposition from the Barons and the French, who were persuaded to leave the country. In 1219 after a long life dedicated to the English crown, William Marshal died and Hubert de Burgh took control.

French control

In 1232 after many years of being King, but without any real power, Henry decided to run the country for himself and was persuaded to remove Hubert de Burgh from power. His successor was the Bishop of Winchester Peter des Roches, a Frenchman. It was not long before the barons who had been advising Henry were replaced by French who moved to England to share in the Bishop's powerful position. The barons rose up against the King and his French advisors in 1233/4 and forced the expulsion of Peter des Roches and his Poitevin friends. In 1236 Henry married Eleanor of Provence, the younger sister of the Queen of France and their first son Edward was to become the next king of England.

Art and Architecture

Henry can be remembered for his interest in art and architecture and one of his greatest legacies is Westminster Abbey which he had rebuilt to house the body of Edward the Confessor. During his reign many Cathedrals and Castles were rebuilt and improved. This rebuilding work cost money and Henry's lack of control on spending was to be the biggest problem of his reign.

Poor finances

Henry was not a good soldier or leader and even though he attempted to regain some of the territories lost in his father's reign, nothing was achieved. Henry spent large sums of money trying to get the kingdom of Sicily for Edmund, his second son, but again nothing came of that apart from being massively in debt to the Pope. Bad weather in the years of 1256 and 1257 resulted in poor harvests and a starving country. The King was not able to do anything because of his poor financial situation.

Barons' revolt

In 1258 the Barons rose up against Henry in an attempt to regain some control over their own country. In June of 1258, a series of meetings between the Barons and the King led to an agreement in which the King and the Barons chose a council of fifteen men to advise the king. The most famous member of the Barons' party was Simon de Montfort who was married to the King's sister. The council unfortunately did agree amongst itself as the best course of action and the King really didn't intend to abide by the council anyway. A series of conflicts between Henry and the Barons took place until in 1265, Henry defeated Simon de Montfort at Evesham and the Barons' revolt was over. Henry's son Edward took charge of running the country after the revolt and became king when Henry died in 1272.

Family Tree Details
Father: John (King of England 1199-1216) (b.1167 - d.1216)
Mother: Isabella (of Angouleme)
Henry (III, King of England 1216-1272) (b.1207 - d.1272)
+Eleanor (of Provence) =Edward (I, King of England 1272-1307) (b.1239 - d.1307) | +Eleanor (of Castile) (b.1241 - d.1290) | | =Katherine (Daughter of Edward I) (b.1264 - ) | | =John (Son of Edward I) (b.1266 - d.1271) | | =Henry (Son of Edward I) (b.1268 - d.1274) | | =Eleanor (Daughter of Edward I) (b.1269 - d.1298) | | =Joan (of Acre) (b.1271 - ) | | =Alfonso (Son of Edward I) (b.1275 - ) | | =Margaret (b.1275 - d.1318) | | =Mary (Daughter of Edward I) (b.1279 - ) | | =Elizabeth (b.1282 - d.1316) | | =Edward (II, King of England 1307-1327) (b.1284 - d.1327) | | +Isabella (of France, Wife of Edward II) ( - d.1358) | | =Edward (III, King of England 1327-1377) (b.1312 - d.1377) | | | +Philippa (of Hainault) (b.1314 - d.1369) | | | =Edward (The Black Prince) (b.1330 - d.1376) | | | =Isabella (Daughter of Edward III) ( - d.1382) | | | =Joan (Daughter of Edward III) ( - d.1348) | | | =William (Son of Edward III) | | | =Lionel (of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence) (b.1338 - d.1368) | | | =John (of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster) ( - d.1399) | | | =Edmund (of Langley, Duke of York) ( - d.1402) | | | =Mary (Daughter of Edward III) ( - d.1362) | | | =Margaret (Daughter of Edward III) ( - d.1361) | | | =Thomas (of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester) ( - d.1397) | | =John (Earl of Cornwall) ( - d.1336) | | =Joan (Daughter of Edward II) | | | +David (II, King of the Scots 1329-1371) ( - d.1371) | | =Eleanor (Daughter of Edward II) | | +Reginald (Duke of Guelderland) | +Margaret (of France) ( - d.1317) | =Thomas (Earl of Norfolk) ( - d.1338) | =Edmund (Earl of Kent) ( - d.1330) | +Wake, Margaret ( - d.1349) | =Joan (of Kent) (b.1328 - d.1385) | +Edward (The Black Prince) (b.1330 - d.1376) | =Edward (of Angouleme) (b.1365 - d.1372) | =Richard (II, King of England 1377-1399) (b.1367 - d.1400) =Edmund (Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster) (b.1245 - d.1296) | +Fortibus, Aveline de | +Blanche (of Artois) | =Thomas (Earl of Lancaster) (b.1278 - ex.1322) | =Henry (Earl of lancaster) =Margaret ( - d.1275) | +Alexander (III, King of Scotland 1249-1286) ( - d.1286) | =Alexander (son of Alexander III) ( - d.1284) | =David (son of Alexander III) ( - d.1281) | =Margaret (daughter of Alexander III) | +Eric (King of Norway) | =Margaret (Maid of Norway) (b.1283 - d.1290) =Beatrice ( - d.1275)

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Partial Personal Timeline

1207 Oct  Birth of Henry III
 Henry, the future king of England, was born at Winchester Castle. 
1216 Oct 28  9yrsKing Henry III Crowned
 King John's eldest son Henry was crowned King Henry III at the abbey church of Gloucester by Peter des Roches the Bishop of Winchester. The Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal of England (William Marshal), was declared Regent.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
 Nov 12  Revision to the Magna Carta
 The Magna Carta was revised at King Henry's Council at Bristol. 
1217 May 20  10yrsBattle of Lincoln
 Henry III's supporters defeated the forces belonging to Prince Louis and the rebel barons that were besieging the castle at Lincoln.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
 Sep 12  Treaty of Kingston
 The defeat of the French fleet left Prince Louis without much hope of taking the English throne. William Marshall blockaded London from the sea and land and at Lambeth Louis accepted peace terms. Louis waived his claim to the throne of England and should have restored Normandy to Henry but did not. Louis was paid 10,000 marks to ensure he left the country as soon as possible. William Marshall pardoned all those who had supported Louis.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
1218   11yrsTreaty of Worcester
 A peace treaty signed by King Henry III of England and Llywelyn the Great of Wales. The treaty confirmed Llywelyn's ownership of lands in Wales. 
1220 - 1240 13yrsHenry III's improvements at the Tower
 Henry III made large alterations to the Tower of London including new curtain walls, an improved water filled ditch and a water gate so the King could enter the castle directly from the Thames.[1] 
 May  Coronation of Henry III
 At his coronation in Westminster Abbey, Henry was reminded of his duties at king to maintain peace, defend the rights of the crown and to dispense justice where required. Henry was only around thirteen years old. The day before the coronation Henry laid the foundation stone of a new Lady Chapel at the Abbey. 
1224 Qtr 1  17yrsHenry reclaims castles
 All those castles that had been taken from King John were claimed back by Henry. Henry did not want to have untrustworthy Barons in control of strong castles. Fawkes de Breaute, one of the castle occupiers refused to relinquish his castle(s) and started a short rebellion. Stephen Langton and Hubert de Burgh dealt with Fawkes and the castles were handed over. (Need to find out which castles) 
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