Bruce, Robert (the Bruce, I, King of the Scots 1306-1329)

 Born  11 Jul 1274   Born At  
 Died  7 Jul 1329   Buried At  
 Father  Bruce, Robert (Earl of Carrick, 6th Lord of Annandale)   Mother  Marjorie (of Carrick)
Robert I of Scotland was a member of the Bruce family. A certain amount of confusion can occur when reading about the Bruce family because the elder son in each generation is commonly called Robert. When Edward I, king of England, had taken control of Scotland in 1296 Robert swore loyalty to the English king. A year later Robert supported William Walace's rebellion against the English in Scotland. The rebellion failed when the Scots were defeated at the battle of Falkirk. Edward and Robert put aside their differences and Robert was made one of several regents to control the affairs of Scotland. One of the other regents was John Comyn but during an argument in Grayfriars Church Dumfries Robert stabbed and killed Comyn.

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YearMonthAgeEvent
1274 Jul 11  Birth of Robert the Bruce
 Robert the Bruce, the future King of Scotland, was born at Turnberry Castle, Ayreshire on the west coast of Scotland. [1] 
1291 May 10  17yrsEdward I meets Scottish Claimants
 Edward I met the claimants for the Scottish crown at Norham. There were three main claimants to the throne all of whom were descended from David Earl of Huntingdon, the brother of William the Lion who died in 1214. The three men were John Balliol, Robert Bruce and John Hastings. The decision was delayed until the following year to allow all the facts to be taken into account.[2]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
1306 Feb 10  32yrsJohn Comyn murdered by Robert Bruce
 Robert Bruce murdered John Comyn.

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
 Mar 25  Robert Bruce is crowned Robert I of Scotland
 Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland At Scone Abbey.

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
1308   34yrsBruce takes Urquhart Castle
 Robert Bruce captured Urquhart Castle and placed it in the care of Sir Thomas Ranpolph, the Earl of Moray.[3]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1309   35yrsRobert Bruce recognised as King
 Robert Bruce was formally recognised as King of Scotland by the Scottish parliament at St. Andrews.[4]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1311   37yrsBruce attacks the north
 The conflict within England gave Robert Bruce the opportunity to attack towns and forts in the north of England. He was commonly paid large sums of money by the towns' people to leave them alone. In this way he was able to raise enough money to buy better weapons for his army.[4]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1312 Qtr 1  38yrsEdward looks to Scotland for help
 Gaveston's return to England forced the Archbishop of Canterbury to honour his threat of excommunication and the Earls to prepare for civil war against the king. Edward and Gaveston travelled to Scotland to seek help from Robert the Bruce but were not welcome.[4]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1313   39yrsThe Scots regain ground
 Using stealth and surprise tactics Robert Bruce's army recaptured Perth, Dundee, Edinburgh and Roxburgh from English occupation.[4]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1314   40yrsBruce orders destruction of castles
 To prevent Scottish castles falling into English hands, Robert Bruce ordered that the castles at Roxburgh, Linlithgow and Edinburgh should be destroyed.[5]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1319 Jun  45yrsEdward marches to free Berwick
 The last Scottish town to be held in English hands had been captured by Robert the Bruce. The loss of Berwick brought Edward and Lancaster together. Their common goal was to recapture the town and together with the Earl of Pembroke and Surrey they marched north.[4]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1320 Apr  46yrsDeclaration of Arbroath
 Robert the Bruce drew up the Declaration of Arbroath which defined Scotland's sovereignty and Robert's right to be King. This was sent to the Pope in the hope that he would lift the excommunication order under which Robert was still held for the death of John Comyn in 1306.

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1322 Jul  48yrsThe Scots invade
 The two year truce that had been agreed after the failed siege by the English at Berwick expired and Robert the Bruce invaded the north of England.[4]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
 Aug  Edward advances into Scotland
 In response to Robert the Bruce's attacks in the north of England, Edward called for an army and took them into Scotland. The Scots were prepared for the English and had burnt land and supplies in front of Edward's army making it difficult for the English to survive.[4]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
 Oct  Edward almost captured
 After returning from Scotland, Edward and Queen Isabella rested at Rievaulx Abbey in Yorkshire. The Scots were still nearby and met the English army led by the Earl of Richmond near Old Byland. The Scots defeated the English army and Edward had to flee to escape capture. Isabella too escaped.[4]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1323 Mar  49yrsPeace negotiations
 Edward and Robert the Bruce began negotiations for a peaceful settlement of their differences. There were difficulties because Robert claimed the title of King of Scotland but Edward initially refused this because he had inherited the title from his father Edward I. The execution of the Earl of Carlisle had led to the start of negotiations. Carlisle had approached Robert with the intention of preparing the ground for peace talks but had not informed the king of his intentions. His actions were discovered and the king assumed his actions were treasonable. Carlisle was executed as a traitor.[4]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1324 Mar 5  50yrsDavid (II) born
 The birth of David (II), the future king of Scotland to Robert I and Elizabeth de Burgh. 
1328 May  54yrsTreaty of Northampton
 England recognised the Declaration of Arbroath drawn up by Robert the Bruce in 1320. Scotland was accepted as an independent country under the rule of Robert. 
1329 Jun 7  55yrsDavid II becomes king of Scotland
 Robert I (the Bruce) of Scotland died and was followed by David (II). David was only 5 years old and so Edward Balliol claimed his right to the throne being the son of John who was king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296.[6] 

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