|Born||11 July 1274||Born At|
|Died||7 July 1329||Buried At|
|Father||Bruce, Robert (Earl of Carrick, 6th Lord of Annandale)||Mother||Marjorie (of Carrick)|
Event Location Map (click image to view)
Family Tree Details
Bruce, Robert (the Bruce, I, King of the Scots 1306-1329) (b.1274 - d.1329)
+Isabella (Wife of Robert I of Scotland) | =Marjorie (Daughter of Robert I, the Bruce) ( - d.1316) | +Walter (6th High Steward) ( - d.1325) | =Robert (II, King of the Scots 1371-1390) (b.1316 - d.1390) | +Mure, Elizabeth | | =Robert (III, King of Scotland 1390-1406) ( - d.1406) | | =Stewart, Robert (Duke of Albany) (b.1340 - d.1420) | +Ross, Euphemia +Elizabeth (2nd wife of Robert I of Scotland) =David (II, King of the Scots 1329-1371) (b.1324 - d.1371) | +Joan (of the Tower) (b.1321 - d.1362) =Margaret (Daughter of Robert I, the Bruce) =Matilda (Daughter of Robert I, the Bruce)
Robert the Bruce, the future King of Scotland, was born at Turnberry Castle, Ayreshire on the west coast of Scotland.
King Edward I met the claimants for the Scottish crown at Norham. There were three main claimants to the throne all of whom were descended from David Earl of Huntingdon, the brother of William the Lion who died in 1214. The three men were John Balliol, Robert Bruce and John Hastings. The decision was delayed until the following year to allow all the facts to be taken into account.
Robert Bruce captured Urquhart Castle and placed it in the care of Sir Thomas Ranpolph, the Earl of Moray.
Robert Bruce was formally recognised as King of Scotland by the Scottish parliament at St. Andrews.
The conflict within England gave Robert Bruce the opportunity to attack towns and forts in the north of England. He was commonly paid large sums of money by the towns' people to leave them alone. In this way he was able to raise enough money to buy better weapons for his army.
Gaveston's return to England forced the Archbishop of Canterbury to honour his threat of excommunication and the Earls to prepare for civil war against the king. Edward and Gaveston travelled to Scotland to seek help from Robert the Bruce but were not welcome.
Using stealth and surprise tactics Robert Bruce's army recaptured Perth, Dundee, Edinburgh and Roxburgh from English occupation.
To prevent Scottish castles falling into English hands, Robert Bruce ordered that the castles at Roxburgh, Linlithgow and Edinburgh should be destroyed.
The last Scottish town to be held in English hands had been captured by Robert the Bruce. The loss of Berwick brought Edward and Lancaster together. Their common goal was to recapture the town and together with the Earl of Pembroke and Surrey they marched north.
Robert the Bruce drew up the Declaration of Arbroath which defined Scotland's sovereignty and Robert's right to be King. This was sent to the Pope in the hope that he would lift the excommunication order under which Robert was being held for the death of John Comyn in 1306.
The two year truce that had been agreed after the failed siege by the English at Berwick expired and Robert the Bruce invaded the north of England.
In response to Robert the Bruce's attacks in the north of England, Edward called for an army and took them into Scotland. The Scots were prepared for the English and had burnt land and supplies in front of Edward's army making it difficult for the English to survive.
After returning from Scotland, Edward and Queen Isabella rested at Rievaulx Abbey in Yorkshire. The Scots were still nearby and met the English army led by the Earl of Richmond near Old Byland. The Scots defeated the English army and Edward had to flee to escape capture. Isabella too escaped.
Edward and Robert the Bruce began negotiations for a peaceful settlement of their differences. There were difficulties because Robert claimed the title of King of Scotland but Edward initially refused this because he had inherited the title from his father Edward I. The execution of the Earl of Carlisle had led to the start of negotiations. Carlisle had approached Robert with the intention of preparing the ground for peace talks but had not informed the king of his intentions. His actions were discovered and the king assumed his actions were treasonable. Carlisle was executed as a traitor.
The birth of David (II), the future king of Scotland to Robert I and Elizabeth de Burgh.
In the Treaty of Northampton England recognised the Declaration of Arbroath drawn up by Robert the Bruce in 1320. Scotland was accepted as an independent country under the rule of Robert.
King Robert the first of Scotland died and was followed by David the second. David was only 5 years old and so Edward Balliol claimed his right to the throne being the son of John who was king of Scotland from 1292 to 1296.
Selection of references used:
Explore the White Tower
Explore all four floors of the White Tower at the Tower of London using the Unity 3d game engine.
A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?