Matilda (Daughter of Henry I)

 Born  1102   Born At  
 Died  10 Sep 1167   Buried At  
 Father  Henry (I, King of England 1100-1135)   Mother  Matilda Edith (of Scotland)
atilda was the daughter of Henry I, King of England and was to become the mother of Henry II, King of England. Matilda is also known by the name Maud. At the age of eight Matilda was married to Emperor Henry V of Germany, but he died in 1125 and Matilda was brought back to England by her father Henry. Henry then arranged the marriage of Matilda to Geoffrey Plantagenet, the fourteen year old heir of Anjou and Maine. Matilda and Geoffrey were married in 1128 in St. Julien's Cathedral Le Mans in the province of Maine (France). This was the seat of power of the Counts of Anjou.

The Disaster of the White Ship

In 1120 Matilda's elder brother William Adelin and heir to the English throne died returning from Normandy when his ship, called the White Ship, hit rocks and sank. As Henry I had no other children, Matilda was declared heir to the English throne. Henry made the Barons swear allegiance to Matilda and made them swear that they should crown her as Queen upon his death. One of these barons was Stephen of Blois, Henry's nephew.

Stephen becomes King of England

When Henry died in December of 1135 Stephen saw his chance to take the English throne for himself and came to England to take control. Stephen was supported by many of the English Barons who did not want a woman to rule their country and also by his brother the Bishop of Winchester. Back in Normandy, Matilda and Geoffrey were planning to take back the throne that should have been theirs.

Civil War

The civil war between Stephen and Matilda began in 1136 when Matilda's half brother Robert, Earl of Gloucester, rebelled against Stephen. Matilda arrived in England in 1139 and after a series of battles Stephen was captured in 1141 at the Battle of Lincoln.

Matilda fails to become Queen of England

After the success at Lincoln Matilda was temporarily elected Queen, but as she entered London for her coronation angry Londoners opposed to her mistreatment of them ran her out of the city. At this point Stephen's wife arrived from France with an army and at Winchester captured the Earl of Gloucester. Matilda managed to escape to the south-west of the country where she had more support. Stephen's imprisonment was ended when he was exchanged for the Earl of Gloucester.

Matilda leaves England

In 1147 the Earl died and Matilda, now without her chief supporter, left England for Normandy. Back in Normandy she planned her son's attempts to win back the English throne. Her son was to become Henry II, King of England.

Family Tree Details
Father: Henry (I, King of England 1100-1135) (b.1068 - d.1135)
Mother: Matilda Edith (of Scotland)
Matilda (Daughter of Henry I) (b.1102 - d.1167)
+Geoffrey (Plantagenet, 'The Fair', Count of Anjou) ( - d.1151) | =Henry (II, King of England 1154-1189) (b.1133 - d.1189) | | +Eleanor (of Aquitaine) (b.1122 - d.1204) | | | =William (b.1153 - d.1156) | | | =Henry ('the Young King') (b.1155 - d.1183) | | | | +Margaret (Young Queen of England) (b.1158 - d.1197) | | | =Matilda (b.1156 - d.1189) | | | | +Henry (Duke of Saxony) | | | | =Otto (IV, Roman Emperor) (b.1182 - d.1218) | | | =Richard (I, King of England 1189-1199) (b.1157 - d.1199) | | | | +Berengaria (of Navarre, Queen of England) (b.1165 - d.1230) | | | =Geoffrey (Duke of Brittany) (b.1158 - d.1186) | | | | +Constance (of Brittany) | | | | =Eleanor (Fair Maid of Brittany) ( - d.1241) | | | | =Arthur (of Brittany) (b.1187 - d.1204) | | | =Eleanor (of England) (b.1162 - d.1214) | | | | +Alfonso (VIII, King of Castile) (b.1155 - d.1214) | | | | =Blanche (of Castile) (b.1188 - d.1252) | | | | +Louis (VIII, The Lion, King of France 1223-1226) ( - d.1226) | | | | =LOUIS (IX, King of France, St. Louis) ( - d.1270) | | | =Joan (of England, Queen of Sicily) (b.1165 - d.1199) | | | | +William (II, King of Sicily) | | | | +Raymond (VI, Count of Toulouse) | | | | =Raymond (VII, Count of Toulouse) | | | =John (King of England 1199-1216) (b.1167 - d.1216) | | | +Isabella of Gloucester ( - d.1217) | | | +Isabella (of Angouleme) | | | =Henry (III, King of England 1216-1272) (b.1207 - d.1272) | | | | +Eleanor (of Provence) | | | | =Edward (I, King of England 1272-1307) (b.1239 - d.1307) | | | | =Edmund (Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster) (b.1245 - d.1296) | | | | =Margaret ( - d.1275) | | | | =Beatrice ( - d.1275) | | | =Richard (Earl of Cornwall) (b.1209 - d.1272) | | | =Joan (Daughter of King John) (b.1210 - d.1238) | | | | +Alexander (II, King of Scotland 1198-1249) (b.1198 - d.1249) | | | =Isabelle (b.1214 - d.1241) | | | =Eleanor (Daughter of King John) (b.1215 - d.1275) | | | +Marshal, William (the younger) | | | +Montfort, Simon de ( - d.1265) | | | =Montfort, Henry de ( - d.1265) | | +Illegitimate | | =Plantagenet, Geoffrey (Archbishop of York) | | =Longsword, William | =Geoffrey (VI of Anjou) | =William (Count of Paitin) (b.1136 - d.1164) +Henry (V of Germany)

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Partial Personal Timeline

YearMonthAgeEvent
1114 Jan  12yrsMatilda marries an Emperor
 Matilda, the daughter of Henry I is married to Emperor Henry V. 
1127   25yrsMarriage agreement
 King Henry of England arranged the marriage of his daughter Matilda to Geoffrey, the son of Fulk of Anjou. This was done to ensure an alliance between England and Anjou and to prevent Fulk allying himself with Louis VI of France. A previous marriage proposal between's Henry's son William and and Fulk's daughter came to nothing when William was drowned during a sea crossing from Normandy to England in 1120. Matilda had been married to Henry V of Germany, but he died in 1125 and Matilda had returned to England.[1] 
1128 May 22  26yrsMatilda marries Geoffrey Plantagenet
 Henry I arranged a marriage between his daughter Matilda and the son of Fulk V of Anjou, Geoffrey Plantagenet. He had previously arranged a marriage between his son William Adelin to Fulk's daughter also called Matilda, but William had died when the 'White Ship' sank returning the Prince from Normandy. Geoffrey and Matilda were married in St. Julien's Cathedral in Le Mans, Maine (France).

Episode: Stephen's succession to the throne  
1138   36yrsStart of Civil War
 Robert, the Earl of Gloucester and half brother to Matilda (daughter of Henry I) rebels against King Stephen, supporting Matilda's claim to the throne of England.

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
   Arundel Castle siege
 Matilda was given refuge by William de Albini at Arundel Castle. King Stephen built siege works around the castle in response but was unable to break the castle's defences. Matilda escaped but was later captured.[2]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
   Ludlow castle siege
 Ludlow Castle was captured on behalf of Matilda in 1138 and King Stephen besieged the castle in an attempt to regain it. During the siege the King bravely saved Prince Henry of Scotland from being injured by a grappling hook thrown from the castle.[3]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
 May  Robert sides with Matilda
 Robert, the Earl of Gloucester announces that he will assist Matilda, his step-sister in her claim for the English throne.[4]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
1139   37yrsLeeds Castle siege
 King Stephen besieged Leeds Castle which was being held against him by supporters of Matilda. The castle fell to the King and he took control of it.[5]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
 Sep 30  Matilda arrives in England
 Matilda arrives in England to further her attempts to take the throne from king Stephen. She was assisted by Robert of Gloucester, the illegitimate son of Henry I, King of England and a chief supporter of his step-sister Matilda's claim to the English throne.

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
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