After the death of his father, Pepin the Short, Charlemagne was given the title King of the Franks at Noyon. He jointly held the position with his brother Carloman who was crowned on the same day.
Charlemange and his brother Carloman had ruled jointly over the Frankish kingdom since the death of their father. When Carloman died in 771, Charelmagne took control of the whole kingdom.
Carloman (II, King of France 879-884)
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Carloman (II, King of France 879-884) ( - d.884)
Catherine (of France)
Died: 3 January 1438
In the Treaty of Troyes King Charles VI of France agreed that after his death King Henry V of England and his heirs would become the rulers of France. It was also agreed that the French king's daughter, Catherine of Valois would marry Henry.
The marriage of King Henry V and Catherine, the daughter of Charles VI king of France, took place and sealed the Treaty of Troyes.
Queen Catherine and her young son landed at Harfleaur. From there she travelled to Rouen and then to Vincennes where she met her husband King Henry V. Together they travelled on to Paris. It was around this time that the King's health was failing.
It is believed that Owen Tudor and Catherine were secretly married in this year or just before.
Catherine died in this year after retiring to Bermondsey Abbey. Some reports say she died whilst giving birth, but this is probably wrong.
After the death of Catherine of France Owen Tudor was summonsed by Henry VI. Owen was unsure of Henry's motives and wanted some guarantee that he would be able to leave unharmed. That guarantee was given and Owen went to London. Still cautious, Owen used the safety of Westminster to investigate the King's reasons for his summons and when he was relatively happy visited the King. Owen was charged with certain crimes but was cleared and allowed to leave. On his return to Wales Owen was arrested and imprisoned in Newgate gaol.
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Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438)
+Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422) (b.1387 - d.1422) | =Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471) (b.1421 - d.1471) | +Margaret (of Anjou) (b.1429 - d.1482) | =Edward (of Lancaster, Prince of Wales) (b.1453 - d.1471) | +Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England) (b.1456 - d.1485) +Tudor, Owen (b.1400 - d.1461) =Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) | +Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509) | =Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) | +Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) | =Arthur (Prince of Wales) (b.1486 - d.1502) | =Margaret (Tudor, Daughter of Henry VII) (b.1489 - d.1541) | =Henry (VIII, King of England 1509-1547) (b.1491 - d.1547) | =Mary (Tudor, Queen of France) (b.1495 - d.1533) =Tudor, Jasper (Earl of Pembroke) (b.1431 - d.1496) =Thomas (Westminster Monk)
Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV)
Born: 1469 Died: 1507
King James III of Scotland agreed that his new born son, James, should marry Edward IV's daughter Cecily. Cecily was only four and the agreement stated that the marriage should wait until both were old enough. Also, if either died before that time, a substitute would be found. This agreement brought peace between Scotland and England until October 1519.
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Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV) (b.1469 - d.1507)
Champart, Robert (of Jumieges, Archbishop of Canterbury)
After a long exile at the Norman court Edward the Confessor returned to England. Harthacanute had no wife or heir so had invited Edward to return as Edward had the right to claim the English throne. Edward's right to the throne was not certain and so he enlisted the help of Earl Godwin, who agreed to give his assistance if Edward married his daughter Edith. Edward was accompanied by Robert Champart, the Abbot of Jumieges who would become one of Edwards key councellors.
Late in 1050, Eadsige, the archbishop of Canterbury died. The monks of Canterbury favoured Aelric, one of their fellow monks to become the next archbishop and Earl Godwin was approached to help push his appointment through. But King Edward appointed his favourite councellor Robert of Jumieges to the post instead.
Stigand, the Bishop of Winchester, mediated in the conflicts between the Godwines and Edward the Confessor. The Norman Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert of Jumieges, fled the country with other bishops who had been appointed by Edward. Stigand assumed the title of Archbishop of Canterbury. Robert of Jumieges appealed to Pope Leo IX and Stigand was excommunicated.
Charles (Count of Valois, Anjou and Maine)
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Charles (The Rash, Ruler of Burgundy)
King Edward IV had taken refuge with his brother-in-law Charles, the Duke of Burgundy. Louis of France declared war on Burgundy forcing the Duke to support Edward in his attempt to reclaim the English throne.
King Edward IV and Charles of Burgundy met at Aire where an agreement was reached on support for Edward's return to the English throne.
The plans of King Edward IV to unseat the King of France led to his invasion of France with a force of 10,000 men. He had been promised assistance from the Dukes of Brittany and Burgundy, and the King of Aragon. Unfortunately the Burgundian army did not turn up due to another conflict and Edward was left without sufficient men to proceed.
Charles (V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519-58) and I, King of Spain (1516-56))
Born: 1500 Died: 1558
The Treaty of London or Universal Peace was signed in London between the major European countries, England, France, Burgundy and many more. For Cardinal Wolsey this treaty was a plan to produce a peaceful Europe. The treaty stated that the countries must not attack one another and if they did the other countries would come to the aid of those being attacked. Within the treaty was the agreement that Mary, the 2 year-old daughter of King Henry VIII, would marry the French dauphin.
The Treaty of Bruges was conducted in secrecy at Bruges between King Charles V, the Holy Roman Emporer, and Thomas Wolsey. In the terms of the treaty Wolsey promised Charles that King Henry VIII would join him in a joint campaign against France and Francis I. The meeting was held in secret because England was supposed to be a mediator in the dispute between Charles and Francis. The joint attacks of France would have to wait until March or May of 1523.
Emporer Charles V visited England and during his stay took part in a ceremony at Windsor Castle to become a member of the Order of the Garter.
Henry waged war against Charles V, the Holy Roman Emporer and captured the three bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun.
Philip II of Spain left England and travelled back to Brussels to see his father Charles. Charles was suffering from premature aging due to his excessive lifestytle and was preparing to abdicate from his duties as King of Spain and retire.
This treaty signed by Henry II brought peace with Charles V. France came out well in the deal as the three bishoprics, Metz, Toul and Verdun remained in their possession.
Charles (V, King of France 1364 - 1380)
Born: January 1338 Died: September 1380
The Treaty of Bretigny brought a period of peace for nine years during the Hundred Years War. The treaty was arranged between the Black Prince and the dauphin the future King Charles V of France before being approved by King Edward III of England and King John of France. As part of the treaty Edward was given control of the areas of Gascony, Calais and Ponthieu as long as he agreed to give up his claim for the French throne. King John of France, currently being held hostage in England, was to be released on condition of a payment of 3 million gold crowns to be paid in instalments.
Charles became king of France after the death of his father John and was crowned at Rheims Cathedral.
Charles V, King of France, died and was succeeded by his son Charles as King Charles VI, of France.
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Charles (V, King of France 1364 - 1380) (b.1338 - d.1380)
+Joan (of Bourbon) =Charles (VI, King of France 1380-1422) (b.1338 - d.1422) +Isabeau (of Bavaria) (b.1370 - d.1435) =Isabella (of France, Wife of Richard II) (b.1389 - d.1409) | +Richard (II, King of England 1377-1399) (b.1367 - d.1400) =Charles (VII, King of France 1422-1461) (b.1403 - d.1461) | +Marie (of Anjou) | =Louis (XI, King of France 1461-1483) =Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438) +Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422) (b.1387 - d.1422) | =Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471) (b.1421 - d.1471) +Tudor, Owen (b.1400 - d.1461) =Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) =Tudor, Jasper (Earl of Pembroke) (b.1431 - d.1496) =Thomas (Westminster Monk)
Charnay, Geoffrey de
Clifford, John (9th Lord Clifford)
Died: 28 March 1461
This small battle occurred just before the larger battle of Towton. The Lancastrians were defeated and John Clifford, Lord Clifford was killed.
Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered as he prayed in the church of Saint-Donatien at Bruges. His murder came as a huge shock and, as he did not have a son to inherit his title, the murder started a period of conflict in the region. Several claiments came forward including William of Ypres, Thierry of Alsace and William Clito. William Clito's claim was backed by Louis VI.
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Clito, William ( - d.1128)
At Worcester Cathedral work progressed on the vaults of the nave and crossing, the west front, north porch and east cloister until 1395. The work was desiged by the master mason John Clyve.
Conrad (III, Emperor of Germany)
Born: 1093 Died: 1152
At the Diet of Speyer; the emperor Conrad III took the cross and secured the election of his son Henry as his successor in Germany. He was persuaded to take part in the crusade by the the Abbot of Clairvaux, St. Bernard.
The decision was made to attack Damascus. The armies were assembled in Acre. Present were Baldwin, the Patriarch Fulcher, Kings Louis and Conrad, Archbishops of Caesarea and Nazareth, Masters of the Knights Temple and Hospital.
Hostilities between the French and German leaders of the Second Crusade became such a problem that the German Emperor, Conrad III, abandoned the crusade and returned to Constantinople. The Second Crusade ended in failure.
Constance (of Castile)
Constantine (I, Ruler of the Scots 863 - 877)
Invaders from Scandinavia were a constant threat to the Scots and an invasion in 877 resulted in the death of the Scottish King, Constantine I. He was succeeded by his his brother Aed.
Constantine (II, King of the Scottish 900-942)
Constantine claimed the throne of Scotland when Donald II was killed in battle.
With the death of Sihtric, the Danish leader in the North of England, Athelstan was able to then drive out the Dane's sons. This left Athelstan the master of Northumbria. His attacks on the Welsh and the submission of Constantine the King of Scotland and Owen the King of Cumberland led to him becoming overlord.
Athelstan put together a large army and invaded Scotland destroying it as he advanced north.
The Dane Anlaff (possibly Sihtric's son), Owen of Cumberland and Constantine, King of the Scots sailed into the Humber to invade Northumbria. Athelstan's speed at raising his army that marched north put paid to any plans of invasion and a fierce battle occurred (Brunanburgh near Beverley ?) in which many Danish kings and earls were killed.
Constantine the Scottish king abdicated in 943 to retire to a monastery. Malcolm I became ruler of Scotland.
Cranmer, Thomas (Archbishop of Canterbury)
Born: 1489 Died: 1556
Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon was illegal and was annulled. The marriage between Henry and Anne Boleyn could then be formalised.
Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage between Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn was legal.
Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England at Westminster Abbey by the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer.
A short rebellion began and lasted a couple of weeks and was the prelude for a much larger rebellion known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. The Lincolnshire rebellion began in response to Henry VIII's unpopular policies, including the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Rebels also had grievances against Henry's unpopular advisers like Thomas Cranmer. The rebels consisted of both common people and land owners alike, but some land owners were forced to take part. The rebels reached Lincoln where they were assured Henry VIII would listen to their demands if they disbanded. Meanwhile Henry ordered that a army should be sent to Lincoln as kill the rebels. By the time that army, led by the Duke of Suffolk, reached Lincoln the rebels had dispersed.
A large rebellion began in north in Yorkshire following those in Lincolnshire. Known as The Pilgrimage of Grace this rebellion again protested against the unpopular policies and advisers of King Henry VIII. They wanted Henry to put a stop to the dissolution of the monasteries and the removal of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer and Henry's adviser Thomas Cromwell. The leader of the rebellion was Robert Aske, a lawyer and excellent organiser. Somewhere between 30,000 and 35,000 rebels were involved and they took control of Pontefract Castle which fell to them without any resistance.
Crinan (Abbot of Dunkeld)
Crinan, the Abbot of Dunkfeld, led an uprising against Macbeth in an attempt to put his grandson Malcolm (III) on the Scottish throne. Malcolm was living at the court of Edward the Confessor at the time. Crinian was killed and the uprising failed.
Selection of references used:
TimeRef UK Castles Mobile App for Android Phone
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A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?