Ferdinand (II, King of Aragon 1479-1516)

Born: 1452 Died: 1516

erdinand was the King of Aragon from 1479 when his father died until his own death in 1516. He was also known as Ferdinand V of Castile through his marriage to Isabella of Castile. As members of the Holy League, Ferdinand and Henry VII cemented their alliances with the marriage of Ferdinand's daughter, Catherine of Aragon, to Henry's eldest son, and heir to the English throne, Arthur. Ferdinand and Isabella reunited Spain in 1492 when they brought the Reconquista to an end by capturing Granada and expelling the Moors from the country. Under Ferdinand tolerance of non-Christian religions was stopped and when the Jews refused to convert to Christianity they were forced to leave Spain. No money was spared when it came to exploration and this allowed Christopher Columbus to sail west to discover the New World. Isabella died in 1504 and Ferdinand died in 1516.
YearMonthEvent
1492 Apr 17  Columbus signs agreement
 Christopher Columbus signed an agreement with Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Spain, He specified that he should be given ten percent of any materials that he found on his explorations, for example spices, gems, gold and silver. He also specified that he would fund one eighth of the expedition if in return he received an eighth of the profits. He also wanted to be made Viceroy of all lands that he discovered.[1]

Episode: The Great Explorers  
1495 Mar 31  Holy League (League of Venice)
 At Venice it was decided to put a force together to remove King Charles of France from Italy. It was signed by the Pope, Ferdinand of Aragon, Maximilian the Holy Roman Emperor, the Ruler of Milan and also had the backing of Venice itself.[2] 
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1505   Papal dispensation
 Pope Julius II gave permission for the marriage between Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. The legality of the marriage was in question because Catherine had been married to Henry's elder brother Arthur. 

Fitz Osbern, William (Earl of Hereford)

Died: 1071

illiam Fitz Osbern, a Norman, came into power after the conquest in 1066 and is closely associated with William the Conqueror. Fitzobern became Earl of Hereford in 1067 and to strengthen his position over the Anglo-Saxons built many castles, including Clifford, Chepstow, Ewyas Harold, Monmouth and Wigmore. He died in 1071. He is also known as lord of Breteuil.
 
YearMonthEvent
1067   Odo becomes William's deputy
 Odo,the Bishop or Bayeux, became William the Conqueror's deputy in England and was assisted by William Fitz Osbern until Osbern's death in 1071. Odo also became the Earl of Kent and his wealth and land became considerable. 
1070   Building work at Chepstow
 William Fitz Osbern built the hall at Chepstow Castle.[3]

Episode: Norman Conquest  

FitzJohn, Payn

Died: 1137

ayn FitzJohn was an important Norman lord during the reign of King Henry I of England. Payn's family originally came from Normandy but he spent most of his time in the Welsh Marches, an area of land between England and Wales. The Welsh Marches were controlled by the Marcher Lords who ruled mostly independently from the English King. Payn married a wealthy hieress and through the marriage took ownership of Ludlow Castle. He gave generously to religious houses in the area. In 1137 while supporting King Stephen claim to the English throne Payn was killed. Payn died without a direct male heir but he had two daughters. King Stephen arranged a marriage bewteen Payn's eldest daughter and the King's son-in-law Roger of Gloucester through a treaty in 1137.
 
YearMonthEvent
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Flambard, Ranulf

anulf was a household chaplain of William Rufus with big ambitions. He became an important advisor to William, organising tax collections and military matters. He took control of the country when William was away. Ranulf became the Bishop of Durham in 1099 but took advantage of his position. When Henry I came to the throne he arrested Flambard to signal to the English people that he would put an end to Rufus' old ways. Flambard was sent to the Tower of London but managed to escape and flee to Normandy. In Normandy Flambard sided with Robert of Normandy against Henry I and organised a invasion plan. The plan failed but luckily for Flambard Henry accepted him back as Bishop of Durham possibly recognising the man's organisational abilities.
 
YearMonthEvent
1099   Flambard is made Bishop of Durham
 Ranulf Flambard is made the Bishop of Durham by William Rufus. 
1101 Jul  The Treaty of Alton
 Robert Duke of Normandy landed at Portsmouth with an army and marched up to Alton on the way to London. Here he and Henry signed a treaty where Robert gave up his claim to the throne of England in return for 3,000 marks a year. The treaty also ensured that Robert's supporters would not be punished. 

Francis (I, King of France 1515-1547)

Died: 1547

ore details to follow. See timeline below.
 
YearMonthEvent
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1515 Jan 1  Death of Louis XII
 Louis XII died at the age of 52 leaving Mary a widow. His nephew, Francis, became the next king of France. 
1518 Oct  Treaty of London (Universal Peace)
 A treaty was signed in London between the major European countries, England, France, Burgundy and many more. For Cardinal Wolsey this treaty was a plan to produce a peaceful Europe. The treaty stated that the countries must not attack one another and if they did the other countries would come to the aid of those being attacked. Within the treaty was the agreement that Henry's 2 year old daughter Mary would marry the French dauphin. 
1520 Jun 7  Field of the Cloth of Gold
 Meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I of France somewhere between Guines and Ardres near Calais. The meeting included a series of tournaments and jousts. The extravagant nature of the event giving the meeting its name. 
1521 Nov  Treaty of Bruges
 This treaty was conducted in secrecy at Bruges between Charles V and Thomas Wolsey. In the terms of the treaty Wolsey promised Charles that Henry VIII would join him in a joint campaign against France and Francis I. The meeting was held in secret because England was supposed to be a mediator in the dispute between Charles and Francis. The joint attacks of France would have to wait until March or May of 1523. 
1547 Mar 31  Death of Francis I
 Francis I, the King of France, died at Rambouillet Castle. He was succeeded by his son Henry.[4] 

Fulk (I, the Red, Count of Anjou)

Born: circa 870 Died: 942

ulk was the son of Ingeldar who was a legendary soldier who took control of an area in the Loire valley, now in France. Fulk became the first count of Anjou. He was succeeded by his son also called Fulk and known as Fulk the Good.
 
YearMonthEvent
942   Death of Fulk the Red
 Fulk I, count of Anjou, also known as Fulk the Red, died. He was succeeded by his son, also called Fulk. 

Fulk (II, the Good, Count of Anjou)

Died: 960

ulk the Good was the son of Fulk the Red, first count of Anjou. Under his leadership the region prospered. He had several children and was succeeded by his son Geoffrey who was a legendary soldier.
 
YearMonthEvent
942   Death of Fulk the Red
 Fulk I, count of Anjou, also known as Fulk the Red, died. He was succeeded by his son, also called Fulk. 

Fulk (Nerra, the Black, count of Anjou)

Died: 1040

ulk was the son of Geoffrey Greymantle (Greygown). He became count of Anjou as a teenager in 987 after the death of his father. Fulk was both a fanatical pilgrim and a tyrant. On the one hand he travelled to the holy land three or four times in his life and had built the abbey of Beaulieu-les-Loches, but on the other had his wife burnt at the stake for adultery. Fulk was a fierce warrior both defending his lands and attacking those that opposed him.
 
YearMonthEvent
992   Battle of Conquereuil
 Fulk Nerra defeated the count of Brittany at the battle of Conquereuil.[5] 

Fulk Rechin (count of Anjou)

Born: 1043 Died: 1109

ulk Rechin was the nephew of Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou. The count had no children so arranged for his lands to be divided between his nephews Geoffrey the Bearded and Fulk Rechin. Fulk received the area of Touraine and Geoffrey received the areas of Anjou and Saintonge, an area on the west coast of France. The brothers Geoffrey and Fulk began to fight amongst themselves and in 1066 Fulk captured Geoffrey and imprisoned him. Fulk became count of Anjou from 1068.

 
YearMonthEvent
1066   Fulk Rechin defeats Geoffrey the Bearded
 Fulk Rechin was at war with his brother Geoffrey. They were fighting over the lands of Anjou and Touraine which had been left to them by their uncle Geoffrey Martel, the count of Anjou. Fulk captured Geoffrey the Bearded and captured Anjou later taking the title of count.[5]