Hamilton, James (2nd earl of Arran)
Died: January 1575
James V of Scotland died. It is thought that the shock of the defeat of the Scottish army at Solway Moss a few weeks earlier led to his death. His daughter Mary was only a week or so old when he died and she became queen, known as Mary Queen of Scots. James Hamilton, Earl of Arran became regent of Scotland as Mary was too young to rule.
To comply with the agreement to marry Mary Stuart to the French Dauphin, the young queen was moved from Inchmahome Priory to Dumbarton Castle on the banks of the River Clyde on the west of Scotland. It was here that she waited before sailing to France.
Queen Mary arrived in France. Four girls all also called Mary and coming from noble families were chosen to accompany the Queen. Known as the 'Four Maries' the girls were Mary Beaton, Mary Fleming, Mary Livingston and Mary Seton. They landed, possibly, at Roscoff on the north-west coast of France.
An agreement was reached between the Scottish commissioners and the French king Henry II for the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots and Francis, the Dauphin of France. The terms of the agreement allowed the Scots to maintain their traditional rights and would become united with France when Francis became King of France. It was also agreed that if Mary died without having children the Scottish throne would go to the Earl of Arran.
Henry (Lord Darnley)
Born: 1546 Died: 1567
Mary, Queen of Scots, married Henry Lord Darnley in the chapel at Holyrood House. Henry then became King of Scotland but in title only as Mary still held all the power of the monarch.
James the son of Mary Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart Lord Darnley was born at Edinbugh Castle.
Henry, Lord Darnley, was murdered as he tried to escape from his attackers as they laid gunpowder in his house. His house was destroyed in the explosion. The culprit was thought to be the Earl of Bothwell who was then very close to Queen Mary and it may have been the Queen herself who ordered the killing.
Family Tree Details
Henry (Lord Darnley) (b.1546 - d.1567)
+Mary (Stuart, Queen of Scotland) (b.1542 - d.1587) =James (VI of Scotland, 1567-1625, from 1603 James I of England) (b.1566 - d.1625) +Anne (of Denmark, Queen Consort of Scotland) (b.1574 - d.1619) =Henry Frederick (Prince of Wales) (b.1594 - d.1612) =Elizabeth (Queen Consort of Bohemia) (b.1596 - d.1662) | +Frederick (V Elector Palatine) (b.1596 - d.1632) | =Rupert (Prince, count Palatine of the Rhine) (b.1619 - d.1682) | =Maurice (Prince of the Rhine) (b.1621 - d.1652) =Charles (I, King of England and Scotland 1625-1649) (b.1600 - d.1649) +Henrietta Maria (Queen of England) =Charles (II, King of England 1660-1685) (b.1630 - d.1685) =Mary (Princess Royal, Daughter of Charles I) (b.1631 - d.1660) =James (II, King of England, VII of Scotland) (b.1633 - d.1701) =Elizabeth (Princess) (b.1635 - )
Henry (of Blois, Bishop of Winchester)
Died: 8 August 1171
Henry I brought his nephew, Henry of Blois, from Normandy to take the position of abbot at Glastonbury Abbey.
Orders were given to destroy the central tower at Farnham Castle. The castle belonged to Henry, Bishop of Winchester who was the brother of King Stephen.
King Henry II returned to England and visited Henry of Blois, the bishop of Winchester who was dying. He also met with Lord Rhys, the important south Wales prince. A series of meetings took place during 1171 and 1172 where an agreement was reached whereby Lord Rhys could keep his land and was given the title justiciar of south Wales.
Henry of Blois died.
Family Tree Details
Henry (of Blois, Bishop of Winchester) ( - d.1171)
Henry (of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster)
Born: 1300 Died: 1361
Edward III makes Henry of Grosmont the Duke of Lancaster.
Henry (Son of Edward I)
Born: 1268 Died: October 1274
Family Tree Details
Henry (Son of Edward I) (b.1268 - d.1274)
Henry ('the Young King')
Born: 1155 Died: 1183
Eleanor gave birth to Henry at Bermondsey Palace in London.
King Henry II travelled to France to meet Louis VII the French King and propose a marriage between his son Henry and Louis' daughter Margaret. This was accepted but the actual betrothal did not occur until November of 1160. Louis' children were all female, two by Eleanor of Aquitaine and the third, Margaret, by Constance , the daughter of Alfonso VIII, king of Castile. Henry was only three years old and Margaret was less than a year old.
At a betrothal ceremony between Henry the Young King and Margaret, King Henry II accepted the dowry of the Vexin castles as agreed with King Louis of France.
At a ceremony at Winchester Cathedral Henry, the Young King, and his wife Margaret were both crowned.
From the middle of July King Louis of France, Henry the Young King and Philip the count of Flanders had surrounded the city of Rouen. The city held out against the war engines long enough for Henry II to arrive in the middle of August to stage a rescue. The besiegers were fearful that Henry II would invade France and the siege was lifted.
After a year and a half of rebellion against him, Henry II achieved peace agreements with Louis VII the French king and his own three sons. (Treaty of Falaise?)
Henry II's son Henry, crowned as the Young King, died of dysentery and Richard became heir to the English throne.
Family Tree Details
Henry ('the Young King') (b.1155 - d.1183)
+Margaret (Young Queen of England) (b.1158 - d.1197)
Henry (V of Germany)
Herbert, William (Earl of Pembroke)
Pembroke Castle was captured by William Herbert. The young Henry Tudor was found in the castle where he had been hiding.
William Herbert was given the castle at Pembroke in recognition of his assistance to Edward IV. Herbert was made the guardian of the future Henry VII who was living at the castle.
William Herbert was given the title of Constable of Harlech Castle by Edward IV and told to capture the castle from the Lancatrians. But the castle was strongly fortified and a lengthy seige began.
Edward's army was insufficient to deal with the rebels alone and he had moved them to Nottingham to wait for a larger army to join them led by Sir William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke. Pembroke's army was attacked and defeated by a combined rebel army led by Robin of Redesdale and the Earl of Warwick who had returned from France. The battle took place at Edgecote near Banbury. Sir William Herbert and his brother Richard were captured and executed.
Hereward (The Wake)
As part of a revolt against the new Norman invaders, Hereward the Wake sacked the abbey at Peterborough.
The rebels Hereward the Wake and Morcar on the Isle of Ely were attacked and defeated by William the Conqueror.
Died: circa 1411
Herluin (de Conteville)
Executed: 13 February 1542
Just weeks after the marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled Henry VIII married Catherine Howard his fifth wife.
Catherine Howard was executed on Tower Green within the Tower of London. She had been found guilty of adultery and therefore treason and sentenced to death.
Humphrey (Duke of Gloucester)
Died: 23 February 1447
Henry VI became king of England upon the death of his father. Henry was less than one year old when his father died and so England was governed by a number of protectors. These included Henry V's brothers, John Duke of Bedford and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, along with Henry Beaufort the bishop of Winchester.
John, Duke of Bedford, died in Rouen. Henry was still too young to rule and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, took over as regent until Henry was old enough to rule England unaided. Gloucester was not popular and was the cause of unrest with Parliament.
A parliament was held at Bury St. Edmunds where the Duke of Gloucester was accused of treason and arrested. It was said that he was planning an uprising against the king. The accusations were made falsely by the Duke of Suffolk. Gloucester died only days after his arrest.
Family Tree Details
Humphrey (Duke of Gloucester) ( - d.1447)
Selection of references used:
Explore the White Tower
Explore all four floors of the White Tower at the Tower of London using the Unity 3d game engine.
A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?