Hamilton, James (2nd earl of Arran)

Died: Jan 1575

ames Hamilton was descended from James I and James II of Scotland. Arran became regent of Scotland when James V of Scotland died in 1542. James V's daughter Mary became Queen of Scotland but she was only a few days old so the earl took control of Scotland.
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1542 Dec 14  Death of James V of Scotland
 The defeat of the Scottish army at Solway Moss a few weeks earlier is supposed to have shocked James V so much that he died. His daughter Mary was only a week or so old when he died and she became queen, known as Mary Queen of Scots. James Hamilton, Earl of Arran became regent of Scotland as Mary was too young to rule. 
1548 Qtr 1  Queen Mary moved to Dumbarton Castle
 To comply with the agreement to marry Mary to the French Dauphin, the young queen was moved from Inchmahome Priory to Dumbarton Castle on the banks of the River Clyde on the west of Scotland. It was here that she waited before sailing to France.[1] 
 Aug 13  Queen Mary arrives in France
 Queen Mary arrived in France. Four girls all also called Mary and coming from noble families were chosen to accompany the Queen. Known as the 'Four Maries' the girls were Mary Beaton, Mary Fleming, Mary Livingston and Mary Seton. They landed, possibly, at Roscoff on the north-west coast of France.[1] 
1558 Apr 19  Betrothal of Mary and Dauphin Francis
 An agreement was reached between the Scottish commissioners and the French king Henry II for the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots and Francis, the Dauphin of France. The terms of the agreement allowed the Scots to maintain their traditional rights and would become united with France when Francis became King of France. It was also agreed that if Mary died without having children the Scottish throne would go to the Earl of Arran.[2] 

Hardrada, Harold (King of Norway 1047-1066)

Died: 25 Sep 1066

arold (or Harald) Hardrada (or Hardraada), also known as Harald Sigurdsson, became King of Norway in 1047 when Magnus of Norway died and remained King until his death at Stamford Bridge in 1066. Harald fought along side his half-brother of King Olaf Haraldson of Norway at the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030. King Olaf was killed but Harald escaped into exile.During his time away from Norway Harald became a mercenary for the Byzantine empire and saw action across Europe. In 1045 after becoming very wealthy and with a small army he returned to Norway to claim the throne. Norway had been ruled by Harald's nephew Magnus since 1035 and the two came to an agreement to rule the country together. This only lasted a couple of years as Magnus died in 1047 and Harald became the one King of Norway.

Harold invaded Britain in September of 1066. His forces had been added to by Tostig the exiled Earl of Northumbria. They sailed into the Humber and attacked Yorkshire. At the battle of Gate Fulford Harold and Tostig defeated Edwin, Earl of Mercia and Morcar (Tostig's brother and now Earl of Northumbria). A few days later at the battle of Stamford Bridge King Harold defeated Harold Hardrada and Tostig who were both killed.

1030   Battle of Stiklestad
 A battle fought for the throne of Norway. King Olaf Haraldson was killed at the battle and Harald Haradrada, his step-brother, escaped and went into exile. 
1045   Harald Hardrada returns to Norway
 After many years in exile Harald Hardrada returned to Norway to claim the Norwegian throne. His nephew Magnus was King of Norway and it was agreed that they should share the country's rule. 
1047   Magnus of Norway dies
 Magnus, King of Norway and Denmark, died in this year. Magnus had stated that Harold Hardrada should become King of Norway after his death. 
1066 Sep 20  Battle of Gate Fulford
 Harold Hardrada's forces invaded and started ravaging the countryside as they made their way to York. English forces led by Earl Edwin and Earl Morcar battled with Harold Hardrada at Gate Fulford, but the English were severely beaten. Following this defeat Harold, King of England, was forced to march his army away from the south coast where they were preparing to defend against William the Conqueror's invasion to deal with the invasion in the north.

Episode: Norman Invasion  
 Sep 25  Stamford Bridge Battle
 King Harold II defeated the invasion threat from Harold Hardrada, King of Norway and his own brother Tostig, both of whom were killed. This stretched his forces to the limit as they quickly had to march south to defend against William of Normandy's invasion at Hastings.

Episode: Norman Invasion  

Henry (II, King of France 1547-1559)

Died: Jun 1559

Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1558   A secret agreement is signed
 Henry II drew up some extra conditions for the marriage of his son to Mary Stuart. The princess was too young to understand the implications of them and signed in good faith. The secret conditions gave Henry II and his heirs a claim to the Scottish throne and England as well through Mary's claim. They also secured a payment from the Scottish revenue and a clause prevented Mary from trying to reverse the agreement in future.[3] 
 Apr 19  Betrothal of Mary and Dauphin Francis
 An agreement was reached between the Scottish commissioners and the French king Henry II for the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots and Francis, the Dauphin of France. The terms of the agreement allowed the Scots to maintain their traditional rights and would become united with France when Francis became King of France. It was also agreed that if Mary died without having children the Scottish throne would go to the Earl of Arran.[2] 
1559 Jul 10  Henry II killed after a tournament accident
 Henry II, the French king, was accidentally injured during a tournament celebrating a wedding. He was taking part in a joust and the tip of a lance went into his eye. Infection set it and he died a short time afterwards. Henry II succeeded by his son Francis II, the husband of Mary Stuart.[2] 

Henry (Lord Darnley)

Born: 1546 Died: 1567

randson of Margaret Tudor, the daughter of Henry VII, King of England. Lord Darnley married Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots even though they were closely related sharing the same grandmother.
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1565 Jul 29  Mary Stuart marries Lord Darnley
 Mary, Queen of Scots, married Henry Lord Darnley in the chapel at Holyrood House. Henry then became King of Scotland but in title only as Mary still held all the power of the monarch. 
1566 Jun 19  Birth of the James the future King of England
 James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. He was born at Edinbugh Castle. 
1567 Feb 10  Murder of Lord Darnley
 Henry, Lord Darnley, was murdered as he tried to escape from his attackers as they laid gunpowder in his house. His house was destroyed in the explosion. The culprit was thought to be the Earl of Bothwell who was then very close to Queen Mary and it may have been the Queen herself who ordered the killing.[1] 

Henry (of Blois, Bishop of Winchester)

Died: 8 Aug 1171

enry was the third son of Stephen, count of Blois, and Adela the daughter of William the Conqueror. In 1126 Henry became the abbot at Glastonbury Abbey and shortly afterwards in 1129 became the Bishop of Winchester. Henry was a great architect and spent much of his time on building projects including many parts of Glastonbury Abbey.

Family Tree Details
Father: Stephen (count of Blois)
Mother: Adela (Daughter of William the Conqueror) ( - d.1137)
Henry (of Blois, Bishop of Winchester) ( - d.1171)

View Graphical Family Tree

1126   Henry of Blois at Glastonbury
 Henry I brought his nephew, Henry of Blois, from Normandy to take the position of abbot at Glastonbury Abbey.[4] 
1155   Farnham Castle demolished
 Orders were given to destroy the central tower at Farnham Castle. The castle belonged to Henry, Bishop of Winchester who was the brother of King Stephen. 
1171 Aug 6  Henry II returns to England
 Henry II returned to England and visited Henry of Blois, the bishop of Winchester who was dying. He also met with Lord Rhys, the important south Wales prince. A series of meetings took place during 1171 and 1172 where an agreement was reached whereby Lord Rhys could keep his land and was given the title justiciar of south Wales.[5] 
 Aug 8  Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, dies
 Henry of Blois died.[6] 

Henry (of Grosmont, Duke of Lancaster)

Born: 1300 Died: 1361

enry worked for Edward III as a soldier and diplomat during the early years of the Hundred Years War. He had inherited his wealth from his father, the Earl of Lancaster. In France Henry increased his income by obtaining a licence to mint coins and through a monopoly over salt in Poitou. He was made a Duke in 1351. When he died he had no male heir and his wealth went to his daughter, Blanche. Blanche married John of Gaunt, a son of Edward III.
1351   Henry of Gosmont becomes Duke of Lancaster
 Edward III makes Henry the Duke of Lancaster. 

Henry (Son of Edward I)

Born: 1268 Died: Oct 1274

ied at the age of six.

Family Tree Details
Father: Edward (I, King of England 1272-1307) (b.1239 - d.1307)
Mother: Eleanor (of Castile) (b.1241 - d.1290)
Henry (Son of Edward I) (b.1268 - d.1274)

View Graphical Family Tree

No Items

Henry ('the Young King')

Born: 1155 Died: 1183

he second son of Henry II, king of England.
1155 Feb 28  Henry the Young King is born
 Eleanor gave birth to Henry at Bermondsey Palace in London.[7] 
1158 Aug  Henry II proposes a marriage
 Henry travelled to France to meet the French King and propose a marriage between his son Henry and Louis' daughter Margaret. This was accepted but the actual betrothal did not occur until November of 1160. 
1172 Aug 28  The Young King is crowned
 At a ceremony at Winchester Cathedral Henry, the Young King, and his wife Margaret were both crowned.[5] 
1174 Aug  Siege of Rouen
 From the middle of July King Louis of France, Henry the Young King and Philip the count of Flanders had surrounded the city of Rouen. The city had held out against the war engines. Henry II arrived at Rouen in the middle of August to rescue the city. The besiegers were fearful that Henry II would invade France and the siege was lifted.[5]

Episode: Rebellion against Henry II  
 Oct 11  Henry II reaches a peace agreement
 After a year and a half of rebellion against him, Henry II achieved peace agreements with Louis the French king and his own three sons. (Treaty of Falaise?)[5]

Episode: Rebellion against Henry II  
1183 Jun  The Young King dies
 Henry II's son Henry, crowned as the Young King, died of dysentery and Richard became heir to the English throne.[8] 

Henry (V of Germany)

Family Tree Details


No Items

Hepburn, James (Earl of Bothwell)

Died: Apr 1578

ames Hepburn, the earl of Bothwell, married Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots in 1567. It was shortly after the marriage that Mary had to abdicate giving up the Scotish throne.
No Items

Herbert, William (Earl of Pembroke)

Executed: 1469

illiam Herbert was the son of William ap Thomas, both of whom owned Raglan Castle. William Herbert, like his father came into wealth by taking an active role in supporting the Kings of their time. William Herbert supported King Edward IV during the Wars of the Roses and was to become Earl of Pembroke in recognition of his achievements. He was knighted in 1452, fought with Edward at Mortimer's Cross and after the victory was made chief justice of south Wales as well as Baron Herbert of Raglan. In 1462 he became a knight of the garter, and in 1467 chief justice of north Wales. It was at Raglan and into the care of William Herbert and his wife that the welfare of Henry (VII) the future King of England was placed. William and his brother Richard were captured at the battle of Edgecote and executed.
1461 Sep  Pembroke Castle captured
 Pembroke Castle was captured by William Herbert. The young Henry Tudor was found in the castle where he had been hiding.[9]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Nov  Pembroke Castle in Yorkist hands
 William Herbert was given the castle at Pembroke in recognition of his assistance to Edward IV. Herbert was made the guardian of the future Henry VII who was living at the castle.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1464 Jun  Herbert becomes Constable of Harlech
 William Herbert was given the title of Constable of Harlech Castle by Edward IV and told to capture the castle from the Lancatrians. But the castle was strongly fortified and a lengthy seige began. [10]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1469 Jul 26  Battle of Edgecote
 Edward's army was insufficient to deal with the rebels alone and he had moved them to Nottingham to wait for a larger army to join them led by Sir William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke. Pembroke's army was attacked and defeated by a combined rebel army led by Robin of Redesdale and the Earl of Warwick who had returned from France. The battle took place at Edgecote near Banbury. Sir William Herbert and his brother Richard were captured and executed.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

Hereward (The Wake)

ereward was involved in a rebellion against William the Conqueror between 1070 and 1071. After sacking the abbey at Peterborough, Hereward found refuge on the Isle of Ely where he was joined by Morcar, the Earl of Northumbria. In 1071 William attacked and put down the rebellion.
1070 Jun  Hereward the Wake sacks Peterborough Abbey
 As part of a revolt against the new Norman invaders, Hereward the Wake sacks the abbey at Peterborough.

Episode: Norman Conquest  
1071   William puts down the revolt
 The rebels Hereward the Wake and Morcar on the Isle of Ely were attacked and defeated by William the Conqueror.

Episode: Norman Conquest  

Herland, Hugh

Died: circa 1411

ugh Herland was a master carpenter during the last half of the fourteenth century and the reign of Richard II. Together with Henry Yevele, the master mason, Herland was instrumental in the construction of important buildings of the time. His work includes the roof of Westminster Hall.
No Items


erleva and Duke Robert I of Normandy were the parents of William the Conqueror but were not married. Herleva married Herluin de Conteville after the death of Robert I and had two sons, Odo and Robert who were to become Bishop of Bayeux and Count of Montain respectively. Herleva died some time after 1050 and was buried at the abbey of Grestain founded by Herluin near the Seine.

Family Tree Details
+Robert (I, Duke of Normandy 1027-35) ( - d.1035) | =William (I, the Conqueror, King of England 1066-1087) (b.1028 - d.1087) | +Matilda (of Flander) ( - d.1083) | =Robert (II, Duke of Normandy 1087-1106) ( - d.1134) | | +Sybilla (of Conversano) | | =Clito, William ( - d.1128) | =Richard (Son of William the Conqueror) ( - d.1081) | =William (II, Rufus, King of England 1087-1100) (b.1057 - d.1100) | =Henry (I, King of England 1100-1135) (b.1068 - d.1135) | | +Matilda Edith (of Scotland) | | | =William (Adelin) (b.1103 - d.1120) | | | =Matilda (Daughter of Henry I) (b.1102 - d.1167) | | | +Geoffrey (Plantagenet, 'The Fair', Count of Anjou) ( - d.1151) | | | | =Henry (II, King of England 1154-1189) (b.1133 - d.1189) | | | | =Geoffrey (VI of Anjou) | | | | =William (Count of Paitin) (b.1136 - d.1164) | | | +Henry (V of Germany) | | +Adeliza (of Louvain) ( - d.1151) | | +Corbet, Sybilla (Lady of Alcester) | | =Sybilla (of Normandy) (b.1092 - d.1122) | | +Alexander (I, King of Scotland 1107-1124) (b.1077 - d.1124) | =Cecilia (Daughter of William the Conqueror) | =Constance (Daughter of William the Conqueror) (b.1066 - d.1090) | =Adela (Daughter of William the Conqueror) ( - d.1137) | +Stephen (count of Blois) | =Theobald (V) | =Stephen (of Blois, king of England 1135-1154) (b.1100 - d.1154) | | +Matilda (of Boulogne) ( - d.1152) | | =Baldwin (of Boulogne) (b.1126 - d.1135) | | =Eustace (IV, Count of Boulogne) ( - d.1153) | =Henry (of Blois, Bishop of Winchester) ( - d.1171) +Herluin (de Conteville) =Odo (Bishop of Bayeux) (b.1035 - d.1097) =Robert (Count of Mortain) (b.1031 - d.1095)
Mistresses are shown in italic

View Graphical Family Tree

No Items

Herluin (de Conteville)

erluin was a lord of moderate income and some land on the south side of the river Seine. Some time after Robert I Duke of Normandy and Herleva had William I (the Conqueror), Herluin became married to Herleva. This may have been a marriage of convenience to provide for Herleva. Herleva and Hurluin's son Odo was made bishop of Bayeux and after 1066 he ruled England when William was in Normandy.

Family Tree Details


No Items

Howard, Catherine

Executed: 13 Feb 1542

atherine Howard was the fifth wife of Henry VIII. Catherine had been a lady-in-waiting to Anne of Cleves and had come to the attention of Henry. She was much younger than Henry who was now almost fifty and had gained a lot of weight. The marriage took place only weeks after Henry's marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled in July of 1540. Catherine soon tired of the king and began a series of affairs with men nearer her age. Two of these were Thomas Culpeper and Francis Dereham. Word of the adultery finally reached Henry who at first refused to believe the news. Catherine and her lovers were arrested and found guilty of treason. Catherine was executed on the 13th of February 1542.
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1540 Jul 28  Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard
 Just weeks after the marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled Henry married Catherine Howard.

Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives  
1542 Feb 13  Catherine Howard executed
 Found guilty of adultery and therefore treason, Catherine Howard was sentenced to death and was executed on Tower Green within the Tower of London.

Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives  

Humphrey (Duke of Gloucester)

Died: 23 Feb 1447

umphrey, Duke of Gloucester, was the son of Henry IV, king of England and the brother of Henry V, king of England. In 1422 Henry V died leaving a son as heir to the English throne. Also called Henry, the young boy was less than a year old. Humphrey and his older brother John, Duke of Bedford were selected as regents to the young king to rule England until the boy was old enough to rule himself. The Duke of Bedford went to France where the English controlled the northern areas while Humphrey governed in England. Gloucester was Unpopular in England and within Parliament.

Family Tree Details
Father: Henry (IV, King of England 1399-1413) (b.1367 - d.1413)
Mother: Bohun, Mary
Humphrey (Duke of Gloucester) ( - d.1447)

View Graphical Family Tree

1422 Sep 1  Henry VI becomes king
 Henry VI became king of England upon the death of his father. Henry was less than one year old when his father died and so England was governed by a number of protectors. These included Henry V's brothers, John Duke of Bedford and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, along with Henry Beaufort the bishop of Winchester. 
1435 Sep 14  Duke of Bedford dies
 John, Duke of Bedford, died in Rouen. Henry was still too young to rule and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, took over as regent until Henry was old enough to rule England unaided. Gloucester was not popular and was the cause of unrest with Parliament.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
1447 Feb 23  Death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
 A parliament was held at Bury St. Edmunds where the Duke of Gloucester was accused of treason and arrested. It was said that he was planning an uprising against the king. The accusations were made falsely by the Duke of Suffolk. Gloucester died only days after his arrest.