Innocent (III, Pope)
The Order of the Teutonic Knights is approved by Pope Innocent III.
Although the monks of Canterbury wanted their own sub-prior for the post of Archbishop and King John wanted John de Gray, Pope Innocent III chose Stephen Langton. Langton was originally from Lincolnshire but after teaching in Paris had moved to Rome where he had become a Cardinal. The monks of Canterbury accepted the Pope's decision and voted Langton in as the new Archbishop. King John did not agree.
Stephen Langton was chosen as Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Innocent III.
King John is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
In Northampton the Papal legate Pandulf served King John with his excommunication ordered by the Pope. For John this was a serious blow to his ability to rule the country as it absolved the King's subjects from their oaths of allegiance, gave the Barons reason to revolt and allowed the King of France to invade England to remove John from power.
Taking the advice of William Marshal John accepted the demands of the Pope and that Stephen Langton should become Archbishop. A peace mission was also sent to the Pope.
When King John agreed to meet Stephen Langton at Winchester he was absolved from excommunication.
Cardinal Nicholas De Romanis arrived in England to prepare for the settlement of the Interdict. John's punishment was to pay 100,000 marks to compensate the church for the losses he had caused it.
At St. Paul's Cathedral, in London, the Interdict was finally lifted.
Hoping to gain the support of the Pope against the Barons, John took the oath to go on Crusade.
Pope Innocent III sent a letter to the Barons asking them to halt their actions against King John.
Pope Innocent III annulled the Magna Carta freeing King John from its limitations. The Pope annulled the charter on the grounds that the King only signed it because he was forced to and that the document was illegal. The Pope was prepared to support John against the rebel barons because he wanted him to take a key role in a new crusade.
In a letter dated 13th September 1215, King John sought help from Pope Innocent III in his fight against the barons. In the letter, written while the King stayed at Dover Castle, John stated that he believed the defence of England was ultimately the responsibility of God and the Pope. Pope Innocent III agreed and declared that the Magna Carta should be annulled.
Pope Innocent III died on July 16 and two days later in Rome the cardinals elected Honorius III as the Pope.
Isabella (of Castile)
Born: 1451 Died: 1504
The eighteen-year-old Isabella, heir to the King of Castile married her cousin Ferdinand, the heir to the King of Aragon. Ferdinand was seventeen.
Christopher Columbus signed an agreement with Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Spain, He specified that he should be given ten percent of any materials that he found on his explorations, for example spices, gems, gold and silver. He also specified that he would fund one eighth of the expedition if in return he received an eighth of the profits. He also wanted to be made Viceroy of all lands that he discovered.
When Isabella of Castile died many of her children were also dead. The rule of Castile passed to Joanna her eldest surviving daughter. But Joanna's mental state was in question and Isabella had stated in her will that Ferdinand her husband would act a regent if Joanna was unable to rule.
Isabella (of Hainault)
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A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?