James (III, King of Scotland 1460-1488)

Died: 1488

1460 Apr 10  James III crowned at Kelso Abbey
 James III was crowned King of Scotland at Kelso Abbey. 
1468   Orkney pledged to Scotland
 The islands of Orkney were pledged to James III of Scotland in part payment of the dowry for the marriage of James to the daughter of King Christian I of Norway.
1473 Oct  Marriage agreement between England and Scotland
 James III of Scotland agreed that his new born son, James, should marry Edward IV's daughter Cecily. Cecily was only four and the agreement stated that the marriage should wait until both were old enough. Also, if either died before that time, a substitute would be found. This agreement brought peace between Scotland and England until October 1519. 
1488 Jun 11  Death of James III of Scotland
 James III king of Scotland was killed at or shortly after the battle of Sauchieburn. Several of his nobles had risen up against the king and James was forced to fight. The king's army was defeated. James fled the battle field but was killed or even murdered shortly afterwards. 

James (IV King of Scotland 1488-1513)

Born: 1473 Died: 1513

1473 Oct  Marriage agreement between England and Scotland
 James III of Scotland agreed that his new born son, James, should marry Edward IV's daughter Cecily. Cecily was only four and the agreement stated that the marriage should wait until both were old enough. Also, if either died before that time, a substitute would be found. This agreement brought peace between Scotland and England until October 1519. 
1488 Jun 24  James IV crowned King of Scotland
 Shortly after the death of his father, James IV was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey. 
1495 Nov  Perkin Warbeck in Scotland
 Warbeck arrived in Scotland near the end of November and was greeted by the Scottish king James IV. The king gave the pretender money and arranged a marriage to Lady Catherine Gordon, daughter of the earl of Huntley.[3] 
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1503 Jun  Henry VII escorts Margaret to Scotland
 Henry VII and his eldest daughter started their journey to Scotland where the arranged marriage between Margaret and the Scottish King James IV would take place. Margaret was only fourteen years old. 
 Aug 8  Marriage of James IV and Margaret
 The marriage of the 30 year old Scottish king to the 14 year old daughter of Henry VI, Margaret took place at Holyrood house in Edinburgh. 
1509   Building work at Urquhart Castle
 Urquhart Castle was given as a gift to the Grant family by King James IV of Scotland with the understanding that extensive building work was to be carried out. This included the construction of a new tower and supporting buildings so that the surrounding lands could be better protected. 
1513 Sep 9  Battle of Flodden
 James IV of Scotland's invasion of England came to an end at the Battle of Flodden where he was killed. The English were led by Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. Henry VIII was in France at the time. 

James (V, King of Scotland 1513-1542)

Born: 10 Apr 1512 Died: 14 Dec 1542

ames V was the son of James IV, king of Scotland, who died at the battle of Flodden in 1513. James V died at the end of 1542 supposedly due to the shock of his army's defeat by the English at Solway Moss. James V left a daughter. Mary, as heir to the Scottish throne.
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1513 Sep 21  James V crowned King of Scotland
 Shortly after the death of his father, James V was crowned King of Scotland at Stirling Castle. 
1542 Dec 8  Birth of Mary, Queen of Scots
 Mary Stuart was born at Linlithgow Palace in West Lothian, Scotland. She was the daughter of James V, king of Scotland and Mary of Guise, from France. James V died a week after Mary was born and she became Queen of Scotland. 
 Dec 14  Death of James V of Scotland
 The defeat of the Scottish army at Solway Moss a few weeks earlier is supposed to have shocked James V so much that he died. His daughter Mary was only a week or so old when he died and she became queen, known as Mary Queen of Scots. James Hamilton, Earl of Arran became regent of Scotland as Mary was too young to rule. 

Joan (of Kent)

Born: circa 1328 Died: 1385

oan was known as the 'Fair Maid of Kent' because of her beauty and her love affairs. Joan was the grandaughter of King Edward I and daughter of Edmund, the earl of Kent who was executed in 1330 for opposing Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer. After the death of her father the family were well looked after by Queen Philippa at court. It was here that Joan met Prince Edward the Queen's son. When Joan was older she was placed into the care of the Earl and Countess of Salisbury, William and Catherine Montagu, In a secret ceremony at the age of twelve Joan married Thomas Holland, a member of the Salibury household. After the marriage Holland left to fight abroad and while he was away the Earl and Countess arranged another marriage for Joan to their son William Montagu. While fighting abroad Holland became very wealthy and became a knight. When he returned to England it took several years of legal manouvering and agreement from the pope to get the marriage of Joan and Monagu nullified. Together Joan and Thomas Holland had several children, but in 1360 Thomas died. Edward, the Black Prince. was still unmarried at this time and the marriage between them was not without its problems. William Montagu was still alive and Joan and Edward were closely related. But permission was granted and the two were married in October 1361. Joan had several more children before the death of the Edward in 1376.
1348   Founding of the Order of the Garter
 King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood. Based on the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthur. The name of the order is supposed to have originated when Edward III picked up a garter that had been lost on the dance floor during a banquet. Edward tied the garter around his own leg telling all present not to pass judgement. The garter may have belonged to the beautiful Joan of Kent. Joan was later to marry Edward's son, the Black Prince. 
1361 Oct  Marriage of the Black Prince and Joan of Kent
 Edward, the black Prince married Joan of Kent at Westminster Abbey. 
1362 Jul  The Black Prince is given Gascony
 Edward III transferred control of Gascony to his eldest son, the Black Prince. Edward the Black Prince had just married Joan of Kent at Windsor and together they created a magnificent court in Bordeaux.

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
1378 Feb  Wycliffe again tried for heresy
 Again John Wycliffe was tried for heresy but this time he was supported by Joan of Kent the widow of Edward, the Black Prince. The trial ended when the citizens entered the courtroom to save him. 

Joanna (of Castile, The Mad)

oanna, the Mad (Juana La Loca) was the daughter and third child of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. She has been given the nickname of Mad due to her behaviour that was thought strange at the time. What her real illness was is unknown. Joanna married Philip the Handsome of Austria. Her son Philip became King of Spain after the death of her father Ferdinand.
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John (I, King of France 1316)

Born: 15 Nov 1316 Died: 20 Nov 1316

ohn was the son of King Louis X of France and Queen Clemence. King Louis died in May of 1316 before John was born leaving the boy heir to the French throne. Louis' brother Philippe of Poitiers returned to Paris when Louis died and had assumed the position of regent. When John was born Philippe's position of power was threatened. John only lived for five days and suspicion of murdering the child fell on Philippe's wife.

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Father: Louis (X, The Headstrong, King of France 1314-1316) ( - d.1316)
Mother: Clemence (of Hungary)
John (I, King of France 1316) (b.1316 - d.1316)

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1316   Philippe V becomes King of France
 Philippe, the brother of the previous King of France, became regent and then King of France.[4] 
 Nov 15  Birth of John I King of France
 As soon as he was born John became the King of France. His father, Louis X, had died several months before his birth. 
 Nov 20  Death of King John of France
 Only five days after his birth the King of France died. John's uncle Philippe, who had been acting as regent, became King of France. 

John (I, of Portugal)

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John (of Gloucester, Master)

Died: 1260

ohn of Gloucester was the King's Master Mason from 1253/4 until his death in 1260. This was during the reign of King Henry III. He succeeded Henry de Reyns to this important post. It seems he worked on Westminster Abbey, the Tower of London and the royal palace at Woodstock.
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John (of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford)

Born: 1389 Died: 1435

ohn, the Duke of Bedford was the son of King Henry IV. In 1405 the King granted John the lands of the disgraced Percy family including the castles of Alnwick, Prudhoe and Warkworth.

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Father: Henry (IV, King of England 1399-1413) (b.1367 - d.1413)
Mother: Bohun, Mary
John (of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford) (b.1389 - d.1435)
+Jacquetta (of Luxembourg) (b.1415 - d.1472)

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1416 Aug 15  Harfleur rescued
 An English fleet commanded by John Duke of Bedford attacked and defeated the French blockading the mouth of the Seine who were preventing supplies reaching the English held town of Harfleur. Bedford was the king's brother.

Episode: Henry V - The Hundred Years War  
1422 Sep 1  Henry VI becomes king
 Henry VI became king of England upon the death of his father. Henry was less than one year old when his father died and so England was governed by a number of protectors. These included Henry V's brothers, John Duke of Bedford and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, along with Henry Beaufort the bishop of Winchester. 
1429 Nov 6  Henry VI crowned King of England
 Although Henry was still too young to reign he was crowned as Henry VI, King of England in response to the Duke of Bedford's concerns over the events in France. Henry was crowned at Westminster Abbey.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
1435 Sep 14  Duke of Bedford dies
 John, Duke of Bedford, died in Rouen. Henry was still too young to rule and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, took over as regent until Henry was old enough to rule England unaided. Gloucester was not popular and was the cause of unrest with Parliament.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  

John (XXII, Pope)

Died: 1334

ope from 1316 to 1334. He was the longest reigning Avignon Popes. John faced several threats during his time in office, including the German King Lewis the Bavarian, who wanted to become Roman Emperor, and the expanse of power from Milan led by Matteo Visconti.
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Julius (II, Pope 1503-1513)

ulius II was the Pope from 1503 until 1513. Julius gave permission for the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Julius was also a member of the Holy League of countries against France in 1511.
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1505   Papal dispensation
 Pope Julius II gave permission for the marriage between Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. The legality of the marriage was in question because Catherine had been married to Henry's elder brother Arthur.