Leofric (Bishop of Exeter)
The See of Devon and Cornwall had been located at Crediton in Devon but in 1050 Edward the Confessor moved the See to Exeter. This moved the cathedral from an obscure location to a more important one. Edward gave the new Bishopric to Leofric.
Leofric (Earl of Mercia)
King Canute died at Shaftesbury leaving the rule of the country in dispute between Harthacnut (the son of Emma) and Harold Harefoot (the son of Aelfgifu). The Earls of Northumbria and Mercia supported Harold's claim while Earl Godwine supported Harthacanute's. Canute's body was taken to Winchester to be buried. Harthacnut was in Denmark at the time of his father's death and was unable to travel to England because of invasion threats.
Earl Leofric builds a new Minster on the site of older religious buildings at Much Wenlock.
Leofric and his lady Godgifu found the Abbey on the site of Coventry Cathedral. Godgifu may have been the famous Lady Godiva who rode naked through the streets of Coventry to save the townsfolk from paying high taxes.
Lionel (of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence)
Born: 28 November 1338 Died: 7 October 1368
Queen Philippa gave birth to another son. The child was born in Antwerp.
Family Tree Details
Lionel (of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence) (b.1338 - d.1368)
+Elizabeth (de Burgh) ( - d.1363) | =Philippa (daughter of Lionel Duke of Clarence) | +Mortimer, Edmund (3rd Earl of March) ( - d.1381) | =Mortimer, Roger (4th Earl of March) (b.1374 - d.1398) | | +Holland, Eleanor (Wife of Roger, Earl of March) | | =Mortimer, Edmund (5th Earl of March) (b.1391 - d.1425) | | =Mortimer, Anne (daughter of Roger, Earl of March) | =Mortimer, Edmund ( - d.1409) | +Glyndwr, Katherine +Visconti, Violante
Longchamp, William (of Taranto)
While Richard I was away on Crusade, William Longchamp, the Bishop of Ely and Chancellor ordered the enlargement of the bailey surrounding the keep Tower in London. A new ditch and bank were constructed with a new section of curtain wall.
John began a campaign opposing William Longchamp who had been appointed administrator of England by Richard I while he was away on Crusade.
William Longchamp beseiged Lincoln Castle accusing its owner of corruption. In response, Prince John captured Nottingham and Tickhill castles from William. The sheriff of the castle escaped and found refuge at Prince John's court while his wife Nicolaa successfully held the castle against the seige.
John and William Longchamp met at Winchester to discuss their differences. Several senior bishops were appointed as arbitrators and at the end of the meeting both John and William agreed to follow the recommendations. Longchamp was to return Lincoln Castle to it's owner and accept limits to his powers. In return John was to surrender Nottingham and Tickhill Castles.
Geoffrey, the illegitimate son of Henry II and half-brother to Richard and John landed secretly at Dover. He had been consecrated as the new archbishop of York while in Tours and his return was banned by William Longchamp. Several days after he arrived he was arrested. Citing the Winchester treaty, John sought another meeting between himself and Longchamp. This was agreed and the two were to meet at Loddon bridge near Reading. Geoffrey was freed, but Longchamp decided to flee and headed to Dover Castle.
Bishop William Longchamp held the Tower of London against Prince John's supporters for only three days. The Bishop surrendered the Tower and escaped to continue his support for King Richard.
William Longchamp was captured when his disguise as a female merchant was seen through. John ordered that he should be expelled from the country.
Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire was founded by Ela, Countess of Salisbury, the widow of William Longespee, the son of Henry II.
Family Tree Details
Louis (II, the Stammerer)
King Louis II the Stammerer was crowned King of West Francia.
Louis (III, King of France 879-882)
A battle in which Louis III, King of France defeated the Vikings.
Family Tree Details
Louis (III, King of France 879-882) ( - d.882)
Louis (The Pious)
Charlemagne died due to an illness after living into his early seventies. He was buried in the basilica that he had built in Aachen. Charlemagne was succeeded by Louis the Pious who was his only surviving legitimate son.
Like his father Charlemagne, Louis was crowned by Pope Stephen IV at Reims Cathedral and proclaimed Emperor. He took control of his father's complete empire as he was the last suviving son.
To prevent problems with succession, Louis I, divided his lands between his three sons. Lothar, the eldest, became joint ruler of the empire, while Pepin, the second son, became ruler of Aquitaine, and Louis, the youngest, became ruler of Germany. Unfortunately, the plan to get the brothers to work together failed and it led to revolt and conflict.
Bernard, the king of Italy, and nephew of Louis I, rose up in revolt as he had been overlooked in the division of the empire. His army was weak in comparison to that of Louis and Bernard was captured, Louis could have have Bernard executed, but had him blinded instead. Even so, Bernard died several days later.
Louis' second wife, Judith, gave birth to Louis' fourth son, Charles, in 823. In the agreement set out in 817, Louis' lands were already divided into three for the elder sons. In Worms, Louis rewrote the agreement, dividing the lands into four so that Charles had his share. This led the elder sons to revolt against their father.
The rebellion of his three eldest sons resulted in Louis being removed from the Frankish throne. He was replaced by his eldest son Lothar. For several years Louis remained imprisoned in a monastery, but in 834, disagreements between his sons allowed him to escape and retake the throne.
Louis the Pious died leaving the Frankish Empire in a state of civil war due to the continuing disputes over land by his sons.
Louis (XII, King of France)
Died: 1 January 1515
Charles VIII of France died due to complications that occurred after banging his head on a low doorway as he walked through a dimly lit Amboise Castle. He was succeeded by Louis XII.
After his success at the battle of Novara Louis XII was able to take control of the city of Milan and it's surrounding area.
A peace treaty was negotiated by Thomas Wolsey with France. One of the terms was that Louis XII of France would marry Princess Mary, the younger sister of Henry VIII. Louis died only a few months later.
Wolsey negotiated a peace treaty between England and France whereby King Louis XII married the younger sister Mary of Henry VIII and had to pay Henry pension money owed to him under the treaty of Etaples. Peace should be maintained not less than a year after the first of them should die.
King Louis XII of France died at the age of 52 leaving Mary a widow. His nephew, Francis, became the next king of France.
Lucy, Richard de
Richard de Lucy was appointed the title of Constable at the Tower of London, an extremely important position, by King Stephen.
Lulach (Scottish King)
Macbeth was killed by Malcolm III, also known as Malcolm Canmore, who later became the King of Scotland. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach who was crowned at Scone.
Malcolm had killed Macbeth at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth's stepson Lulach was crowned king and reigned for four months until he too was killed at Strathbogie. Malcolm became King of the Scots and was crowned at Scone.
Selection of references used:
Explore the White Tower
Explore all four floors of the White Tower at the Tower of London using the Unity 3d game engine.
A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?