Leofric (Bishop of Exeter)
The See of Devon and Cornwall had been located at Crediton in Devon but in 1050 Edward the Confessor moved the See to Exeter. This moved the cathedral from an obscure location to a more important one. Edward gave the new Bishopric to Leofric.
Leofric (Earl of Mercia)
King Canute died at Shaftesbury leaving the rule of the country in dispute between Harthacnut (the son of Emma) and Harold Harefoot (the son of Aelfgifu). The Earls of Northumbria and Mercia supported Harold's claim while Earl Godwine supported Harthacanute's. Canute's body was taken to Winchester to be buried. Harthacnut was in Denmark at the time of his father's death and was unable to travel to England because of invasion threats.
Earl Leofric builds a new Minster on the site of older religious buildings at Much Wenlock.
Leofric and his lady Godgifu found the Abbey on the site of Coventry Cathedral. Godgifu may have been the famous Lady Godiva who rode naked through the streets of Coventry to save the townsfolk from paying high taxes.
Lionel (of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence)
Born: 28 November 1338 Died: 7 October 1368
Queen Philippa gave birth to another son. The child was born in Antwerp.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Edward (III, King of England 1327-1377) (b.1312 - d.1377)|
|Mother:||Philippa (of Hainault) (b.1314 - d.1369)|
Lionel (of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence) (b.1338 - d.1368)
+Elizabeth (de Burgh) ( - d.1363) | =Philippa (daughter of Lionel Duke of Clarence) | +Mortimer, Edmund (3rd Earl of March) ( - d.1381) | =Mortimer, Roger (4th Earl of March) (b.1374 - d.1398) | | +Holland, Eleanor (Wife of Roger, Earl of March) | | =Mortimer, Edmund (5th Earl of March) (b.1391 - d.1425) | | =Mortimer, Anne (daughter of Roger, Earl of March) | =Mortimer, Edmund ( - d.1409) | +Glyndwr, Katherine +Visconti, Violante
While Richard I was away on Crusade, William Longchamp, the Bishop of Ely and Chancellor ordered the enlargement of the bailey surrounding the keep Tower in London. A new ditch and bank were constructed with a new section of curtain wall.
John began a campaign opposing William Longchamp who had been appointed administrator of England by Richard I while he was away on Crusade.
Bishop William Longchamp held the Tower of London against Prince John's supporters for only three days. The Bishop surrendered the Tower and escaped to continue his support for King Richard.
Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire was founded by Ela, Countess of Salisbury, the widow of William Longespee, the son of Henry II.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Henry (II, King of England 1154-1189) (b.1133 - d.1189)|
Louis (II, the Stammerer)
King Louis II the Stammerer was crowned King of West Francia.
Louis (The Pious)
Charlemagne died due to an illness after living into his early seventies. He was buried in the basilica that he had built in Aachen. Charlemagne was succeeded by Louis the Pious who was his only surviving legitimate son.
Like his father Charlemagne, Louis was crowned by Pope Stephen IV at Reims Cathedral and proclaimed Emperor. He took control of his father's complete empire as he was the last suviving son.
To prevent problems with succession, Louis I, divided his lands between his three sons. Lothar, the eldest, became joint ruler of the empire, while Pepin, the second son, became ruler of Aquitaine, and Louis, the youngest, became ruler of Germany. Unfortunately, the plan to get the brothers to work together failed and it led to revolt and conflict.
Bernard, the king of Italy, and nephew of Louis I, rose up in revolt as he had been overlooked in the division of the empire. His army was weak in comparison to that of Louis and Bernard was captured, Louis could have have Bernard executed, but had him blinded instead. Even so, Bernard died several days later.
Louis' second wife, Judith, gave birth to Louis' fourth son, Charles, in 823. In the agreement set out in 817, Louis' lands were already divided into three for the elder sons. In Worms, Louis rewrote the agreement, dividing the lands into four so that Charles had his share. This led the elder sons to revolt against their father.
The rebellion of his three eldest sons resulted in Louis being removed from the Frankish throne. He was replaced by his eldest son Lothar. For several years Louis remained imprisoned in a monastery, but in 834, disagreements between his sons allowed him to escape and retake the throne.
Louis the Pious died leaving the Frankish Empire in a state of civil war due to the continuing disputes over land by his sons.
Louis (VI, The Fat, King of France 1108-1137)
Born: 1108 Died: 1137
Louis' most important act was the defeat of the joint attack from England and Emperor Henry V in 1124. Louis was saved by the fast action of the vassals who organised huge numbers of men to move against the threat. Emperor Henry V actually turned back before engaging the French.
Louis arranged the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to his son, the future Louis VII, in an attempt to increase the territories his family could own. The Duke of Aquitaine possessed a quarter of France. Louis died in 1137 shortly after arranging the marriage and was succeeded by his son Louis.
Louis VI, the Fat, became king of France, upon the death of his father Philippe I.
Louis VI of France, with the help of his vassals, mobilized a huge number of men to avert a joint invasion from England and the Emperor Henry V.
Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered as he prayed in the church of Saint-Donatien at Bruges. His murder came as a huge shock and, as he did not have a son to inherit his title, the murder started a period of conflict in the region. Several claiments came forward including William of Ypres, Thierry of Alsace and William Clito. William Clito's claim was backed by Louis VI.
Following the Capetian tradition of the French Kings, King Louis VI of France had his eldest son Philip of France crowned at Rheims Cathedral. Philip then became joint ruler of France.
King Stephen sailed to Normandy to confront Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou and the Angevins who were attacking the southern areas of Normandy. Although Stephen had some success he was not able to deal fully with the count. Stephen did come to an agreement with the French King Louis VI and Eustace, Stephen's son, paid homage to the French king for Normandy.
The French king died. He was succeeded by his son Louis VII.
King Louis VII was crowned king of France, a few months after the death of his father Louis VI.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Philippe (I, King of France 1060-1108) (b.1052 - d.1108)|
|Mother:||Bertha (of Frisia, Holland)|
Louis (VI, The Fat, King of France 1108-1137) (b.1108 - d.1137)
+Adelaide (of Savoy) ( - d.1154) =Louis (VII, The Young, King of France, 1137-1180) (b.1121 - d.1180) | +Eleanor (of Aquitaine) (b.1122 - d.1204) | | =Mary (of Champagne) (b.1145 - ) | | =Alice (Daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine) (b.1150 - ) | +Constance (of Castile) | | =Alys (Daughter of Louis VII) | | =Margaret (Young Queen of England) (b.1158 - d.1197) | | +Henry ('the Young King') (b.1155 - d.1183) | +Adela (of Champagne) (b.1145 - d.1206) | =Philippe (II Augustus, King of France 1180-1223) (b.1165 - d.1223) | +Isabella (of Hainault) ( - d.1190) | | =Louis (VIII, The Lion, King of France 1223-1226) ( - d.1226) | +Ingeborg (of Denmark) | +Agnes (of Meran) ( - d.1201) | =Philip (of Boulogne) ( - d.1235) =Philip (of France) (b.1116 - d.1131)
Louis (XII, King of France)
Died: 1 January 1515
Charles VIII of France died due to complications that occurred after banging his head on a low doorway as he walked through a dimly lit Amboise Castle. He was succeeded by Louis XII.
After his success at the battle of Novara Louis XII was able to take control of the city of Milan and it's surrounding area.
A peace treaty was negotiated by Thomas Wolsey with France. One of the terms was that Louis XII of France would marry Princess Mary, the younger sister of Henry VIII. Louis died only a few months later.
Wolsey negotiated a peace treaty between England and France whereby King Louis XII married the younger sister Mary of Henry VIII and had to pay Henry pension money owed to him under the treaty of Etaples. Peace should be maintained not less than a year after the first of them should die.
King Louis XII of France died at the age of 52 leaving Mary a widow. His nephew, Francis, became the next king of France.
Lucy, Richard de
Richard de Lucy was appointed the title of Constable at the Tower of London, an extremely important position, by King Stephen.
Lulach (Scottish King)
Macbeth was killed by Malcolm III, also known as Malcolm Canmore, who later became the King of Scotland. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach who was crowned at Scone.
Malcolm had killed Macbeth at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth's stepson Lulach was crowned king and reigned for four months until he too was killed at Strathbogie. Malcolm became King of the Scots and was crowned at Scone.
Selection of references used:
TimeRef UK Castles Mobile App for Android Phone
This Android app allows you to find castles thar are near you. Currently the app includes only English and Welsh castles.
Download the app from the Google Play Store
A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?