ne of the barons who during the reign
of Stephen took advantage of the chaos to pillage and cause as much destruction as possible to further his own power and wealth. Mandeville had inherited the position of Constable
of the Tower of London. When Stephen became king in 1135, Mandeville swore allegiance to the new king and was rewarded with the Earldom of Essex. During the first few years of Stephen's reign, Mandeville travelled with Stephen helping him put down revolts against the king. When Matilda took control of London in 1140, Mandeville was quick to change to her side to protect his interests. When king Stephen again took back control in 1141 again he changed sides, but his changing loyalties eventually led to his arrest and banishment. It was from 1141 until his death in 1144 that he became an outlaw.