MacAlpin, Kenneth (I, Ruler of the Scots 843 - 858)

Died: Feb 858

enneth MacAlpin is tradionally regarded as the first ruler of the Scottish nation, known as Alba in the Gaelic language. He was the ruler of Dal Riata, an area of the west coast of Scotland, and the ruler of the Picts whose leaders he killed. His reign was marked by Viking raids and to prevent historic religious artefacts belonging to St. Columba at Iona being stolen he had them moved to Dunkeld. When he died he was succeeded by his brother Donald.
 
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Macbeth (Scottish King)

Died: 1057

hakespeare based his play on this Scottish King. Macbeth reigned from 1040 to 1057. He was killed by Malcolm, the son of Duncan I. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach.
 
YearMonthEvent
1040 Aug 14  Duncan is killed by Macbeth
 Macbeth killed Duncan I and became the King of Scotland. 
1045   Crinan killed during uprising
 Crinan, the Abbot of Dunkfeld, led an uprising against Macbeth in an attempt to put his grandson Malcolm (III) on the Scottish throne. Malcolm was living at the court of Edward the Confessor at the time. Crinian was killed and the uprising failed. 
1050   Macbeth visits Rome
 Macbeth took time to travel to Rome on a pilgrimage. Reports of his visit tell of him distributing large amounts of money. 
1057 Aug  Macbeth is killed and Lulach becomes king
 Macbeth was killed by Malcolm III (Malcolm Canmore) who later became the King of Scotland. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach who was crowned at Scone. 

Magellan, Ferdinand

ixteenth century explorer.
 
YearMonthEvent
1480   Birth of Ferdinand Magellan
 Magellan, the explorer, was born in northern Portugal in this year. The exact location is known. His father was Ruy de Magalhaes, and his mother was Alda de Mezquita. His parents may have held some position of importance and so Ferdinard attended the Court at Lisbon as a page.[1]

Episode: The Great Explorers  
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1519 Aug 10  Magellan leaves Seville
 Ferdinand Magellan set sail from Seville with five ships in search of a passageway to the south of South America in order to reach the Pacific Ocean and the Far East.

Episode: The Great Explorers  
 Sep 20  After taking on supplies Magellan's voyage begins
 During the five weeks after leaving Seville Magellan's fleet were anchored in the estuary of the Guadalquivir river south Seville. Here they had taken on the supplies they needed for the long voyage ahead.[1]

Episode: The Great Explorers  
1520 Nov  Magellan finds a route to the Pacific Ocean
 Ferdinand Magellan found a route from the Altantic Ocean through to the Pacific via a passage that is now called the Strait of Magellan. Magellan named the sea Mar Pacifico, or Peaceful Sea because of its calmness. 

Magnus (I, King of Norway)

Died: 1047

 
YearMonthEvent
1042 Jun 8  Harthacanute dies and Edward the Confessor becomes King
 Harthacanute collapsed while attending a party and died shortly afterwards. He died without an heir and so the crown reverted back to the Saxons and Edward the Confessor was crowned King of England at Easter of 1043 at Winchester. After the death of Harthacanute Magnus took control in Denmark.

Episode: Viking Invasions  
1043 Nov  Edward confiscated Emma's land
 Edward learnt that his mother Emma was plotting with Dane Magnus of Norway to take control of the English throne. Edward had no choice and stripped his mother of her land and treasure. Emma was allowed to stay in England until her death. 
1045   Harald Hardrada returns to Norway
 After many years in exile Harald Hardrada returned to Norway to claim the Norwegian throne. His nephew Magnus was King of Norway and it was agreed that they should share the country's rule. 
1047   Magnus of Norway dies
 Magnus, King of Norway and Denmark, died in this year. Magnus had stated that Harold Hardrada should become King of Norway after his death. 

Malcolm (II, Scottish King)

Died: 1034

ael Coluim mac Cinaeda or more commonly known as Malcolm II. Malcolm was the Scottish king from 1005 until 1034.

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Spouses/Issue

YearMonthEvent
1005   Malcolm II becomes Kings of the Scots
 Malcolm killed his cousin Kenneth III to become Malcolm II, King of the Scots. 
1034   Duncan becomes King of Scotland
 Already the ruler of Strathclyde Duncan killed his grandfather Malcolm II to become the King of Scotland. 

Malcolm (IV, Scottish King 1153-1165)

Born: 1142 Died: 9 Dec 1165

alcolm was the grandson of David I. He became king of Scotland in 1153 when David died. In 1157 Henry II claimed Northumbria and Cumbria back from the Scots. Henry had given these areas to Scotland when he had become king of England, but now he wanted them back. Malcolm was known as the 'Maiden' and did not marry, although it is thought he did have an illegitimate child. Malcolm died in his mid twenties and was succeeded by his brother William.

Family Tree Details
Father: Henry (Earl of Huntingdon) ( - d.1152)
Mother: Warenne, Ada de
Malcolm (IV, Scottish King 1153-1165) (b.1142 - d.1165)

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Father: Henry (Earl of Huntingdon) ( - d.1152)
Mother: Warenne, Ada de

YearMonthEvent
1153 Jun  Malcolm IV becomes King of the Scots
 After the death of David I Malcolm became king. He was crowned at Scone Abbey.[2] 
1157   Malcolm IV surrenders land to Henry
 The areas of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmoreland are surrendered by Malcolm IV, King of Scotland to Henry. The lands had been acquired by David I in 1135 at the Treaty of Durham. Henry took back control of Carlisle Castle from the Scots.[3] 
1161   Coupar Angus Abbey founded
 This Scottish Cistercian abbey was founded by Malcolm IV, King of Scotland. The monks that colonised it came from the abbey at Melrose.[4] 
1165 Dec  William I 'the Lion' becomes king of the Scots
 On the death of Malcolm IV his brother, William, became the king of the Scots. William was crowned at Scone. 

Mandeville, Geoffrey de (Earl of Essex)

Died: 1144

ne of the barons who during the reign of Stephen took advantage of the chaos to pillage and cause as much destruction as possible to further his own power and wealth. Mandeville had inherited the position of Constable of the Tower of London. When Stephen became king in 1135, Mandeville swore allegiance to the new king and was rewarded with the Earldom of Essex. During the first few years of Stephen's reign, Mandeville travelled with Stephen helping him put down revolts against the king. When Matilda took control of London in 1140, Mandeville was quick to change to her side to protect his interests. When king Stephen again took back control in 1141 again he changed sides, but his changing loyalties eventually led to his arrest and banishment. It was from 1141 until his death in 1144 that he became an outlaw.
 
YearMonthEvent
1141 Jun  Matilda enters London
 Matilda and her supporters entered London for her coronation. Her supporters included David I, king of the Scots. Geoffrey de Mandeville who controlled the Tower of London, abandoned his king as he saw Matilda had the upper hand. He joined her side and offered her the Tower of London. He did this to ensure he kept the Earldom of Essex which made him one of the most powerful barons of the time.

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
1142   Mandeville and Matilda
 Secret negotiations between Matilda and Mandeville take place.[5]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
1143 Sep  Mandeville is arrested
 King Stephen arrested Geoffrey de Mandeville at a meeting of the Royal Court. Mandeville had tried Stephen's patience with his disloyalty and the king did not want the Tower of London (which Mandeville controlled) fall into the hands of Matilda. Mandevilles castles and title of Earl of Essex were taken from him, and he became an outlaw.[5]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  

Margaret

Born: 1275 Died: 1318

aughter of Edward I.
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Margaret (daughter of Alexander III)

aughter of Alexander III, King of Scotland. Married King Eric of Norway and their daughter was Margaret, the 'Maid of Norway'.
YearMonthEvent
1266   Alexander III acquires the Hebrides
 Alexander, the King of the Scots exchanged his daughter in marriage to Eric, the King of Norway for the Hebrides.[2] 
1283 Apr  Birth of Margaret, Maid of Norway
 The birth of a daughter called Margaret to Eric, the young Norwegian King, and Margaret, the daughter of Alexander III. Margaret, the child's mother, died during childbirth. 

Margaret (of Denmark)

Born: 1456 Died: 1486

argaret was the daughter of the King of Denmark, Christian. A marriage was arranged between Margaret and King James III of Scotland as part of a peace treaty between the two countries over the ownership of the islands of Orkney and Shetland. The treaty was agreed and in July 1469, Margaret at the age of thirteen arrived in Scotland for the marriage.
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Margaret (Tudor, Daughter of Henry VII)

Born: 1489 Died: 1541

argaret Tudor was the daughter of Henry VII and married James IV of Scotland in August of 1503.

Family Tree Details
Father: Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509)
Mother: Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503)

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YearMonthEvent
1489 Nov  Birth of Margaret
 Henry VII's and Elizabeth's second child was born.[6] 
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1503 Jun  Henry VII escorts Margaret to Scotland
 Henry VII and his eldest daughter started their journey to Scotland where the arranged marriage between Margaret and the Scottish King James IV would take place. Margaret was only fourteen years old. 
 Aug 8  Marriage of James IV and Margaret
 The marriage of the 30 year old Scottish king to the 14 year old daughter of Henry VI, Margaret took place at Holyrood house in Edinburgh. 

Marshal, Richard (Earl of Pembroke)

Died: Apr 1234

on of William Marshal who became Earl of Pembroke when his elder brother died in 1231. Richard rebelled against Henry III and Peter de Roches (Bishop of Winchester) and Peter de Rivaux (Justiciar) who had taken control of the countries finances against the rules laid down by the Magna Carta. After a brief war, Richard was murdered in Ireland.
 
YearMonthEvent
1233   Earl of Pembroke's revolt
 Richard, Earl of Pembroke in alliance with Llywelyn of Wales join forces to fight Henry III. (Details required).[3] 

Marshal, William (the younger)

eed to find out about.

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Marshal, William (the younger)
+Eleanor (Daughter of King John) (b.1215 - d.1275)

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YearMonthEvent
1220   Llywelyn raids Pembrokeshire
 Llywelyn, the Prince of Wales, began raiding Pembrokeshire to retake land that he accused William Marshall, the younger, of stealing. This included Wiston Castle.[7] 
1222   William the younger retakes his castles
 Llywelyn, the Prince of Wales, had captured the castles at Carmarthen and Cardigan but both were recaptured by William Marshall, the younger.[7] 
1223   Cilgerran Castle recaptured
 William Marshall, the younger, recaptured the castle at Cilgerran from Llywelyn ap Iorwerth. 

Mary (of Champagne)

Born: 1145

ary (Marie) was the first of two daughters of King Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
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Mary (of Guelders)

Born: 1433 Died: 1463

ary of Guelders was the Queen consort of the Scottish King James II. She was born in the Netherlands and was the daughter of Arnold, the Duke of Guelders. Mary arrived in Scotland in 1449 and married James. Togther they had several children. The eldest surviving son would become James III of Scotland. James II died in 1460 and as their son was too young to rule, Mary assumed the role of regent. Mary's time as regent coincided with the English conflict between the Yorkists and Lancastrians known as the Wars of the Roses. At first Mary assisted the Lancastrians in the war and gave Queen Margaret a place of refuge and supplied men for the cause. But when Edward IV became King of England in 1461 her support for the Lancastrian's stopped. When Edward took an army into the borders of Scotland in 1462 Mary agreed a peace treaty with the English King. Mary died in 1463 at the age of twenty-nine or thirty. Her legacy includes a castle at Ravenscraig in Kirkcaldy and the Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity in Edinburgh where she is buried.
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Mary (of Guise)

Died: Jun 1560

ary of Guise of France married James V, king of Scotland. Mary gave birth to two sons, James and Arthur but they both died within a couple of years. Their third child was a girl who they called Mary and became Queen of Scots after James' death.
YearMonthEvent
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1542 Dec 8  Birth of Mary, Queen of Scots
 Mary Stuart was born at Linlithgow Palace in West Lothian, Scotland. She was the daughter of James V, king of Scotland and Mary of Guise, from France. James V died a week after Mary was born and she became Queen of Scotland. 
1547 Jul  Capture of the castle at St. Andrews
 After a lengthy siege failed to take the well defended castle at St. Andrews, Mary of Guise asked the French for help. The castle at St. Andrews was captured and the Protestant leaders and John Knox were taken into custody.[8] 
1548 Jul  The French arrive in Scotland
 The request of the Scottish Regent, Mary of Guise, for help to fight the English was answered by the arrival of a army of several thousand French. The assistance came on condition that her daughter Mary should marry the French Dauphin, Francis.[9] 
1557 Dec  The Lords of the Congregation
 A group of Scottish Lords signed a covenant promising to support the advancement 'the most blessed Word of God' and to push forward the Reformation in Scotland. This was a move against what they saw as the threat from France with that came from the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots to the French Dauphin. They called themselves the Lords of the Congregation.[9] 
1560 Jun  Death of Mary of Guise
 Mary Stuart's mother, Mary of Guise, died in Scotland leaving the country in a state of civil war.[10] 

Matthew (Count of Boulogne)

Died: 1173

atthew was the son of Thierry, Count of Flanders. He obtained his title by marrying the hieress of the County of Boulogne, Marie, who had become a nun. Marie was the daughter of King Stephen of England and his wife Matilda of Boulogne. Matthew took Marie to become his wife and they had several daughters, Marie returned to her religious life and the Count, retaining his title, remarried. Matthew was killed during the revolt in 1173 supporting the Young King against his father King Henry II of England. He was fataly injured by a crossbolt at the seige of Drincourt in Normandy.
 
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Michiel, Domenico (Doge of Venice)

Died: 1130

omenico Michiel (or Michele) became Doge of Venice in 1118 after the death of Odelafo Falier who was killed as Zara during a battle. When John II Comnenus became the emperor of Byzantine he scrapped the treaty signed in 1082 that had given the Venetians favourable trading rights. In return Doge Michiel took a fleet of ships and besieged the island of Corfu.
 
YearMonthEvent
1122 Aug  Venetians besiege Corfu
 In retaliation for the removal of their trading rights agreed in the treaty of 1082 by the emperor of Byzantine, John II, the Venetians led by Doge Michiel began a long siege of the island of Corfu.[11] 
1123 May  Egyptian navy destroyed off Ascalon
 The Venetian fleet arrived at Ascalon and instantly set about attacking the Egyptian fleet. The Egyptian fleet was totally destroyed or captured.[11]

Episode: The Crusaders in the Holy Land  

Montfort, Henry de

Died: 1265

enry de Montfort was the eldest son of Simon de Montfort and took part in the conflict with his father against King Henry III in the Second Barons' War. Henry was killed at the battle of Evesham along with his father.

Family Tree Details
Father: Montfort, Simon de ( - d.1265)
Mother: Eleanor (Daughter of King John) (b.1215 - d.1275)
Montfort, Henry de ( - d.1265)

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YearMonthEvent
1265   Hawaden Castle attacked by the Welsh
 Llywelyn attacked Hawarden Castle because Henry de Montfort had promised to hand the castle over to the Welsh but had failed to honour the agreement.[12] 

Montgomery, Roger de

oger de Montgomery was a powerful Norman baron who came across from Normandy with William the Conqueror. Montgomery built the castle at Arundel. William gave Montgomery control of the Welsh areas around Shrewsbury and the title Earl of Shrewsbury. Montgomery built a series of castles along the Welsh border and in the centre of Shrewsbury for its defence.
 
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Morcar (Earl of Northumbria)

orcar (Morkere) took part in the 1065 rebellion against the then Earl of Northumbria, Tostig and forced Tostig out. Morcar then became the Earl of Northumbria. At the battle of Gate Fulford in September of 1066 Morcar was beaten by the invading Harold Hardrada. After the Norman Invasion, Morcar accepted William as King, but later on joined Hereward the Wake's rebellion against the king on the Isle of Ely. Morcar was captured and imprisoned. He died in prison.
 
YearMonthEvent
1065 Oct  Morcar becomes Earl of Northumbria
 A rebellion against Tostig, Earl of Northumbria leads to Tostig fleeing to Flanders and Morcar becoming the new Earl.

Episode: Reasons for the Norman Invasion  
1071   William puts down the revolt
 The rebels Hereward the Wake and Morcar on the Isle of Ely were attacked and defeated by William the Conqueror.

Episode: Norman Conquest  

Mortimer, Anne (daughter of Roger, Earl of March)

Family Tree Details
Father: Mortimer, Roger (4th Earl of March) (b.1374 - d.1398)
Mother: Holland, Eleanor (Wife of Roger, Earl of March)

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Mortimer, Edmund

Died: Mar 1409

dmund was the youngest son of Edmund Mortimer, the 3rd Earl of March and Philippa Plantagenet.
YearMonthEvent
1402 Jun 22  Battle of Pilleth
 Edmund Mortimer's army met Owain Glyndwr at Pilleth near Whitton in central Wales. Mortimer's army was badly defeated and Mortimer was captured. Glyndwr offered to release Mortimer for a large ransom, but Henry IV refused to pay.

Episode: Glendowers Revolt  
 Sep 14  Battle of Homildon Hill
 The armies of the Percies and the Scots met at Homildon Hill near Wooler in Northumberland. The Scots were defeated and the Scots' leader the Earl of Douglas was captured. Henry IV wanted Douglas handed over but Hotspur refused. Hotspur was angry with the English king who had refused to pay a ransom for Edmund Mortimer who had been captured by Owain Glyndwr and who was a friend of Hotspur's.

Episode: Glendowers Revolt  
1405 Feb  Glyndwr's agreement
 Owain Glyndwr, Edmund Mortimer and the Earl of Northumberland combine forces and share the same goal of removing Henry IV. They agreed to divide England and Wales in three, Owain taking Wales and the west of England, the Earl to take the north of England and the north Midlands. Mortimer could have the rest.

Episode: Glendowers Revolt  
1409 Mar  Harlech falls to the English
 The Welsh in Harlech Castle surrender to the English and the revolt of Welsh comes to an end. Edmund Mortimer was killed.

Episode: Glendowers Revolt  

Mortimer, Edmund (5th Earl of March)

Born: 1391 Died: 1425

dmund was directly descended from Edward III via Lionel and when Richard II died became the true heir to the English throne but Henry IV took the throne for himself. During Henry's reign there were several revolts which planned to overthrow Henry and place Edmund on the throne.

Family Tree Details
Father: Mortimer, Roger (4th Earl of March) (b.1374 - d.1398)
Mother: Holland, Eleanor (Wife of Roger, Earl of March)
Mortimer, Edmund (5th Earl of March) (b.1391 - d.1425)

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YearMonthEvent
1403   Revolt of the Percies
 The Percies, led by the Earl of Northumberland and Hotspur announced their intent to revolt against Henry IV. They even promised to free the Scots they had captured at the battle of Homildon if the Scots assisted in the revolt. The plan was to join forces with Owain Glyndwr and support the claim of the young Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March to the English throne.

Episode: Glendowers Revolt  
1415 Aug 1  Plot to overthrow the King
 Led by Richard Earl of Cambridge, Henry's cousin, a plot to assassinate the King and replace him with the Earl of March who was the true heir to the throne was hatched. The revolt brought together all the old enemies of Henry including Lord Scrope (Archbishop Scrope's nephew) and the Lollards. The Earl of March whose loyalties were with the king informed Henry of the plot the night before and the rebels were arrested. Several were executed.

Episode: Henry V - The Hundred Years War  

Mowbray, Robert

obert Mowbray was a Norman Baron who rose up in rebellion against William Rufus several times. He joined the rebellion in 1088 led by Odo, bishop of Bayeux, attacking Bath. In 1095 Mowbray attacked four merchant ships from Norway. William Rufus demanded to see Mowbray but instead Mowbray rose up in revolt supported by Roger de Lacy, Gilbert de Clare and William de Eu. Rufus captured the rebels and their main castles at Tynemouth and Bamborough. Mowbray was imprisoned and the other barons were heavily fined or had their lands confiscated.
 
YearMonthEvent
1095   Robert Mowbray's Rebellion
 After attacking four merchant ships Robert Mowbray was called for by William Rufus to explain his actions. Instead Mowbray rose up in rebellion against the king along with other powerful Norman Barons.