Saladin

Died: 1193

he Muslim leader Al-Malik al-Nasir Salad ed-Din Yusuf.
 
YearMonthEvent
1187 Oct 2  Jerusalem falls to the Muslims
 The al-Asqu mosque was returned to Islam. The Muslims allowed four Christian Priests to hold services in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This was opposed to the first Crusaders who since they first captured the city in 1099 had treated Jerusalem as theirs alone. The Muslim leader was Al-Malik al-Nasir Salad ed-Din Yusuf (Saladin).[1]

Episode: The Third Crusade  
1188 Jan  The 'Saladin Tithe'
 Josias, the Archbishop of Tyre, found Henry II and Philippe II at Gisors and told them of the defeat at Hattin. Both kings agreed to peace terms and to contribute to a joint Crusade. It was decided to raise a new tax to pay for the endevour. This tax, known as the Saladin Tithe, was imposed on the people of England and France to raise funds for a new Crusade. But the truce between England and France did not last long enough for the planned joint crusade to get underway.[2] 
1190 Feb  Treaty of Adrianople
 The large army of German crusaders marched towards Constantinople on the way to the Holy Land. But Isaac II, the Byzantine Emperor, had sided with Saladin and was attempting the stop them by attacking the crusaders. But the German army was too strong and they captured Adrianople. A peace treaty was signed by Isaac and Frederick of Germany, the crusaders' leader, that ensured the Germans were given supplies and free passage through to the Holy Land.

Episode: The Third Crusade  
1191 Apr 10  Richard's fleet leave Sicily
 The fleet left Sicily to sail to Rhodes. On route, three ships were separated from the group and landed on Cyprus at the port of Limassol. The governor of Cyprus at the time was Isaac Dacus Comnenus, who had come to power from trickery. He had sided with Saladin, and treated Richard's ships as the enemy.[1]

Episode: The Third Crusade  
 Jun 6  Richard arrives at Tyre and attacks Acre
 Richard landed at Tyre and quickly moved towards Acre, where he needed to help an army that was besieging the town which was being held by a garrison of Saladin's troops. By July 12th, the town fell to Richard. Richard held Saladin's men hostage in exchange for 200,000 dinars and 1500 of Richard's own troops who were being held by Saladin. When no ransom was paid, Richard publicly executed 2700 of the garrison. It was at this point that Richard angered Leopold of Austria, who was to imprison Richard as he tried to return to Normandy. Leopold's banner was ripped down from alongside Richard's and the French. The banners indicated that the spoils of war should be shared, but Richard was not prepared the share with Leopold, who had not contributed that much to the fall of Acre.[1]

Episode: The Third Crusade  
1192 Apr 28  Conrad is assassinated
 Conrad of Montferrat was killed by two Assassins disguised as monks as he walked home. The Assassins, one of whom had been captured alive and questioned, had been sent by their leader Sinan. The suspected reasons for the murder are varied, some theories suggest Conrad had intercepted a shipment of wealthy goods bound for the Assassin Order while others suggest Saladin had ordered the murder of both Conrad and Richard I. Some also suggest it was Richard himself who had ordered the murder.

Episode: The Third Crusade  
 Jul  Attack on Jaffa
 Saladin was in Jerusalem when he heard the news of the Christian attack on the caravan. It looked certain that the Crusaders would use the resources that they had captured to continue on and attack the city. But Richard decided to return to Jaffa against the wishes of many in his army. While peace negotiations were again sent to Saladin Richard moved his army up to Acre in preparation to leave the Holy Land. When Richard left Jaffa Saladin took his army out of Jerusalem and attacked the city. After three days of assault the walls of Jaffa fell and the Moslems entered.[3]

Episode: The Third Crusade  
 Sep 2  Peace with Saladin
 Richard the Lionheart signed a peace treaty with the Moslem leader Saladin.[4]

Episode: The Third Crusade  
1193   Saladin dies
 Saladin died. 

Sawtrey, William

Died: 1401

illiam Sawtrey was a follower of John Wycliffe and part of the Lollard movement. William was accused of heresy and sentenced to death. He was the first Lollard to the burned at the stake.
 
YearMonthEvent
1401 Mar  William Sawtrey is the first Lollard to be burned at the stake
 William Sawtrey was a follower of John Wycliffe. 

Scrope, Richard (Archbishop of York)

ichard Scrope was a member of the Scrope family who had been important land owners since the Norman Conquest and had built Bolton Castle. Richard Scrope was the Archbishop of York and in 1405 became involved in a revolt with Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland to overthrow King Henry IV. The King put the rebellion down with the help of the Nevilles, another powerful Northern family, and had the Archbishop executed.
 
YearMonthEvent
1405 Apr  Scrope's revolt
 Richard Scrope colluded with the Earl of Northumberland to overthrow Henry IV. Scrope was the Archbishop of York. 
 May  Scrope executed
 The Archbishop's revolt was crushed with the aid of the Nevilles and the king had him executed. 

Seymour, Edward (Duke of Somerset, Protector)

Died: 1552

dward Seymour was the brother of Jane Seymour, Queen of England to Henry VIII. When Henry VIII died in 1547 Edward Seymour was made Protector of the Realm to run the affairs of the country as Henry VIII's son Edward VI was only nine years old and too young to rule unaided.
 
YearMonthEvent
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1547 Apr  Catherine Parr marries Thomas Seymour
 Jealous of his elder brother's power Thomas Seymour married Catherine Parr to enter the household of the young King Edward and the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth.[5] 
 Sep 10  Battle of Pinkie Cleugh
 Thousands of Scots gathered near the town of Musselburgh, just to the east of Edinburgh. They faced an English army led by the Duke of Somerset. The Scots had a good position on the battle field but wasted it when they attacked. The Scots were heavily defeated. The defeat at Pinkie Cleugh was a threat to Queen Mary and so she was secretly moved from Stirling Castle to the Augustinian Inchmahome Priory located on an island on lake Menteith.[6] 

Seymour, Thomas (Lord High Admiral, Lord Sudeley)

Executed: 1549

homas was the brother of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset, the Protector of Edward VI. Thomas married Catherine Parr after the death of Henry VIII. Thomas flirted with the young Lady Elizabeth, the future Queen Elizabeth, who was living with Catherine. Catherine became jealous of Thomas's affections towards her step-daughter and sent Elizabeth away. After Catherine's death in 1548 Thomas's attentions turned to Elizabeth and a plot to marry her. For this and other plots to take control of the monarchy Thomas was found guilty of treason and executed in 1549.

Family Tree Details
Seymour, Thomas (Lord High Admiral, Lord Sudeley) ( - ex.1549)
+Parr, Catherine

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Spouses/Issue

YearMonthEvent
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1547 Apr  Catherine Parr marries Thomas Seymour
 Jealous of his elder brother's power Thomas Seymour married Catherine Parr to enter the household of the young King Edward and the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth.[5] 

Sihtric (Norse King of York)

Died: 927

Norse leader from Dublin who attacked the kingdom of Mercia from the Mersey frontier. The Mersey formed part of the boundary between Mercia and the Viking Kingdom of York.
 
YearMonthEvent
926 - 100 Sihtric marries Aethelstan's sister
 To help consolidate his links to the North Athelstan married his sister to Sihtric, the Norse King of York. 
927   Athelstan becomes overlord King
 With the death of Sihtric, the Danish leader in the North of England, Athelstan was able to then drive out the Dane's sons. This left Athelstan the master of Northumbria. His attacks on the Welsh and the submission of Constantine the King of Scotland and Owen the King of Cumberland led to him becoming overlord. 
937   Danish invasion
 The Dane Anlaff (possibly Sihtric's son), Owen of Cumberland and Constantine, King of the Scots sailed into the Humber to invade Northumbria. Athelstan's speed at raising his army that marched north put paid to any plans of invasion and a fierce battle occurred (Brunanburgh near Beverley ?) in which many Danish kings and earls were killed.

Episode: Viking Invasions  

Simnel, Lambert

n 1487 Lambert Simnel appeared in Ireland claiming to be Edward, Earl of Warwick. His claim was supported by Margaret of York, the sister of Edward IV, and John de la Pole, the Earl of Lincoln, her nephew. The real Earl of Warwick had been imprisoned by Henry VII in the Tower of London because he was the nephew of Edward IV and a rightful heir to the English throne. John de la Pole landed in Ireland in May of 1487 with some German mercenaries. The Irish crowned Simnel as Edward VI in Dublin and supported an invasion force. They landed on the Lancashire coast, but Henry was prepared and the two armies met at Stoke on 16th of June. The fight could have gone either way but Henry's army won the battle. Lincoln was killed and Lambert Simnel was captured. Henry did not blame Simnel and let him work in the royal kitchens.
 
YearMonthEvent
1487 May 24  Lambert Simnel crowned in Dublin
 Lambert Simnel arrived in Ireland claiming to be Edward Earl of Lincoln and true heir to the English throne. He was crowned by the Irish at Dublin as Edward VI.[7]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jun 16  Battle of Stoke
 Henry VII fought the Earl of Lincoln and Lambert Simnel at Stoke. The English throne was at stake. Simnel was captured and Lincoln was killed. This battle ended the Wars of the Roses.[8]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

Sir William ap Thomas

Died: 1445

ir William fought at Agincourt beside King Henry V and was knighted by Henry VI and known as the 'blue knight of Gwent'. Sir William married Elizabeth Bloet who had inherited the site on which the present Raglan Castle stands from here father. When Elizabeth died in 1420, Sir William was able to maintain possession of the castle by an agreement with his stepson. Sir William died in 1445 and his eldest son called William Herbert carried on the building work.
 
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Siward, (Earl of Northumbria)

Died: 1055

iward, probably a Dane, was an earl who controlled land in northen Britain at the time of Canute and Edward the Confessor. The lands he controlled were Northumbria and Deira, now Yorkshire, and he seems to have ruled them well. In 1054 Siward attacked Scotland and supposedly defeated the king MacBeth. There is some confusion as to who Siward was supporting as chronicles state that Malcolm Canmore replaced MacBeth after the invasion but it is now known that Malcolm Canmore killed MacBeth in 1057 and became King of Scotland in 1058. Siward died in 1055 and was succeeded as Earl of Northumbria by Tostig.
 
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Stafford, Humphrey (Duke of Buckingham)

Died: 10 Jul 1460

umphrey Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, was a Lancastrian supporter during the Wars of the Roses and fought along side King Henry VI. Humphrey Stafford was killed at the Battle of Northampton by the Yorkists.
 
YearMonthEvent
1455 May 22  Battle of St. Albans
 The King had by his side at St. Albans the Dukes of Somerset and Buckingham, Lords Pembroke, Northumberland and Devon and around 2,000 Lancastrian men. They tried to hold the town against the Yorkists led by Salisbury and Warwick but Warwick was able to enter the town through an unguarded spot and attack the flanks of the Lancastrian barricades. Although this battle was small it left the Duke of Somerset dead along with Lord Northumberland and Clifford. As a result of this victory power again swung to the Yorkists although support from the Barons was not total. Richard, Duke of York, again became Protector of the Realm and the powerful position of Captain of Calais was given to the Earl of Warwick.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1460 Jul 10  Battle of Northampton
 The Lancastrians's Court was in Coventry at the time of the Yorkist rebels entering London. When news reached them, the Lancastrians moved south to Northampton to meet the rebels. The Yorkists led by the Earl of Warwick wanted to talk but the Lancastrians led by the Duke of Buckingham wanted to fight. Although the Lancastrians had less men than the Yorkists, they did have control of a stronger position. The Yorkists managed to defeat the Lancastrians due to a section of the Lancastrian army led by Lord Grey of Ruthin moving away allowing the Yorkists through. Orders were given that the King and ordinary men should be spared, while the knights and lords should be killed. When the fighting was over the casualties were light, but the Lancastrian leaders, Buckingham, Shrewsbury and Egremont were dead and the King was captured.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

Stewart, David (Duke of Rothesay)

Died: Mar 1402

avid was the eldest son of Robert III, King of Scotland and heir to the Scottish throne. David was arrested by his uncle, Robert the duke of Albany and locked up in Falkland Palace where he died in 1402.

Family Tree Details
Father: Robert (III, King of Scotland 1390-1406) ( - d.1406)
Mother: Drummond, Annabella (b.1350 - d.1401)
Stewart, David (Duke of Rothesay) ( - d.1402)

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YearMonthEvent
1402 Mar  Death of David Stewart
 David, the eldest son of Robert III, King of Scotland, was arrested by his uncle, Robert the duke of Albany and locked up in Falkland Palace where he died in 1402. This led to James I becoming the next king of Scotland. 

Stewart, James (1st Earl of Moray)

Born: circa 1531 Died: 11 Jan 1570

ames was the illegitimate son of James V, King of Scotland and Lady Margaret Erskine. James was one of many illegitimate sons that the king had. Although James had been born out of marriage he still had royal blood and a claim to the Scottish throne. James was the half-brother of Mary, Queen of Scots and when Mary returned from France to claim the Scottish throne, James became her close adviser. When Mary married Lord Darnley, James' support for Mary waned and he and several other nobles rebelled against the Queen. They were defeated and James was exiled to England. When Mary abdicated in 1567 James was chosen as Regent of Scotland but in 1570 was murdered by a supporter of the old Scottish Queen.

Family Tree Details
Father: James (V, King of Scotland 1513-1542) (b.1512 - d.1542)
Mother: Erskine, Margaret (Lady)
Stewart, James (1st Earl of Moray) (b.1531 - m.1570)

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YearMonthEvent
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1561 Aug 14  Mary Stuart leaves France
 Leaving France from Calais in a small flotilla of ships, Mary Stuart set sail for Scotland. Five days later the ships arrived at the port of Leith, now part of Edinburgh. Mary was met by her half-brother James Stewart[9] 
1562 Oct  Fall of Huntley
 George Gordon, the 4th Earl of Huntley rebelled against Mary and at the battle of Corrichie his supporters were defeated by the Earl of Moray. Huntley died at the battle but not from a wound but because he was overweight and the strain of the events was too much for him.[6] 

Stewart, Robert (Duke of Albany)

Born: circa 1340 Died: 1420

obert, Duke of Albany was the younger brother of King Robert III of Scotland. When the King' health became poor, Albany saw his opportuinity to rule Scotland himself. But the King had two sons, David Stewart, the Earl of Rothesay and James. David was unpopular and Albany used this as an excuse to have him imprisoned. While in captivity David was starved to death. In 1406 the King became aware of the threat that Albany posed and so put his youngest son, James, on a ship to France where he would be safe from his uncle. But the ship was intercepted by the English and James was captured. James was around twelve years old at the time. Being of noble birth the young prince was treated well and given an education fitting his status. When King Robert died Albany assumed the title of Regent and became the ruler of Scotland. He remained in power until his death in 1420.

Family Tree Details
Father: Robert (II, King of the Scots 1371-1390) ( - d.1390)
Mother: Mure, Elizabeth
Stewart, Robert (Duke of Albany) (b.1340 - d.1420)

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YearMonthEvent
1402 Mar  Death of David Stewart
 David, the eldest son of Robert III, King of Scotland, was arrested by his uncle, Robert the duke of Albany and locked up in Falkland Palace where he died in 1402. This led to James I becoming the next king of Scotland. 
1406 Mar  James (I) captured by the English
 Robert III had fled from the Duke of Albany to Rothesay Castle and had attempted to send his son James to France. English pirates intercepted James and he was sent to London and imprisoned. 
 Apr  James I of Scotland
 With the death of Robert III, King of the Scots, James I was the new King of Scotland but as he was imprisoned by the English, his uncle Robert, Duke of Albany, acted as Regent until James' release in 1424.[10] 

Stigand, (Archbishop of Canterbury)

Died: 1072

tigand was the last Anglo-Saxon Archbishop of Canterbury. In around 1020 he became King Canute's priest and was installed at the new foundation of Ashingdon in Essex. When Edward the Confessor became King of England Stigand's rise to power began. He was soon given the bishopric of Elmham (1043).
 
YearMonthEvent
1043   Stigand become bishop of Elmham
 Shortly after Edward the Confessor became King, Stigand was promoted to the position of bishop. 
1047   Stigand at Winchester
 Stigand was promoted to the position of Bishop at Winchester. 
1052 Summer  Stigand becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Stigand, Bishop of Winchester, mediated between the Godwines and Edward the Confessor. The Norman Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert of Jumieges, fled the country with other bishops who had been appointed by Edward. Stigand assumed the title of Archbishop of Canterbury. Robert appealed to Leo IX and Stigand was excommunicated (repeated by Victor II & Stephen IX, repealed by Benedict X, reintroduced by Nicholas II and Alexander II). 
1066 Nov  William advances to London
 After his victory at the battle of Hastings William moved along the south coast to Dover where extra fortifications were built in the existing castle at the top of the cliffs. From there he moved on to Canterbury. After the death of Harold the archbishops of York and Canterbury, Ealdred and Stigand supported the plan to put Edgar the Aetheling on the English throne but William moved too quickly for this to be done. Canterbury submitted to William and he moved on to London. Instead of entering London from the south he moved around the west of the city crossing the Thames at Wallingford. Finally archbishop Stigand and the other Anglo-Saxon leaders submitted to William and after turning south at Little Berkhamsted William entered London.

Episode: Norman Invasion  
1067 Mar  William returns to Normandy
 William returned to Normandy taking as guests Edgar the Aetheling (the grandson of Edmund Ironside), Stigand (Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earls of Mercia and Northumbria and the brothers Edwin and Morcar.[11] 
1070   Lanfranc becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 William the Conqueror placed Lanfranc in the position of Archbishop of Canterbury a move designed to strengthen his hold on the English throne. Thomas of Bayeux, a pupil of Odo (William's brother), was put in the position of Archbishop of York after the death of Ealred who died on September 11, 1069. Archbishop Stigand was imprisoned in Winchester. 

Streona, Eadric

Died: 1017

adric was the Ealdorman of Mercia and excelled at the art of double-crossing. Eadric was an advisor to King Aethelred the Unready, and Edmund. In December of 1017 Canute put an end to Eadric's treacherous ways by having him killed.
 
YearMonthEvent
1017 Dec  Death of Eadric Streona
 Canute had the treacherous Ealdorman Eadric Streona of Mercia killed. 

Suger (of St Denis, Paris, Abbot)

Born: 1081 Died: 1151

uger was the Abbot of the abbey Church of St Denis in Paris from 1122(7) until his death in 1151 and his church was the first Cathedral to be built in the Gothic style. It was built to the Abbot's own specification. The Abbot was an important adviser to the French Kings including Louis VI and Louis VII. His administrative and government skills were used when he was declared regent of France while King Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine travelled to the Holy Land during the Second Crusade.
 
YearMonthEvent
1140   Abbey Church of St Denis construction begun
 The construction of the abbey church of St Denis in Paris, the first Gothic Cathedral was begun in aorund 1140. Combining stained glass windows, flying buttresses, choir vaulting and rib vaults, it was a daring innovation in architecture. The specifications were set by the abbot of St Denis, Suger.[12] 
1147 Jun  Louis VII joins the Crusade
 Declaring Abbot Suger regent of France, Louis VII and Eleanor began their Crusade.

Episode: The Second Crusade  

Swynford, Catherine

Family Tree Details
Swynford, Catherine
+John (of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster) ( - d.1399) =Beaufort, John (1st Earl of Somerset) ( - d.1410) | +Holland, Margaret | =Beaufort, Henry (Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1418) | =Beaufort, John (1st Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1444) | | +Beauchamp, Margaret (of Bletsoe) | | =Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509) | | +Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) | | =Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) | =Beaufort, Edmund (2nd Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1455) | | +Beauchamp, Eleanor | | =Beaufort, Henry (3rd Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1464) | | =Beaufort, Edmund ( - d.1471) | | =Beaufort, John ( - d.1471) | =Beaufort, Joan | +James (I, King of Scotland 1406-1437) (b.1394 - d.1437) | =Margaret (Stewart) ( - d.1445) | | +Louis (XI, King of France 1461-1483) | =Isabella (Stewart) ( - d.1494) | =Eleanor (Stewart) ( - d.1480) | =James (II, King of Scotland 1437-1460) | | +Mary (of Guelders) (b.1433 - d.1463) | | =James (III, King of Scotland 1460-1488) ( - d.1488) | =Joan (Stewart) ( - d.1480) =Beaufort, Henry (Cardinal-Bishop of Winchester) (b.1376 - d.1447) =Beaufort, Thomas (Duke of Exeter) ( - d.1426) =Beaufort, Joan (daughter of John of Gaunt) (b.1379 - d.1440) +Neville, Ralph (Earl of Westmorland, Earl Marshal) (b.1364 - d.1425) =Neville, Cecily (Duchess of York) (b.1415 - d.1495) | +Richard (Duke of York) (b.1411 - d.1460) | =Edward (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483) (b.1442 - d.1483) | | +Woodville, Elizabeth (b.1437 - d.1492) | | =Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) | | =Edward (V, King of England 1483) (b.1470 - m.1483) | | =Richard (Duke of York, Prince in the Tower) ( - m.1483) | | =Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV) (b.1469 - d.1507) | =George (Duke of Clarence) (b.1449 - d.1478) | | +Neville, Isabel (Duchess of Clarence) (b.1451 - d.1476) | | =Plantagenet, Edward (Earl of Warwick) ( - d.1499) | | =Margaret (Countess of Salisbury) ( - d.1541) | =Richard (III, King of England 1483-1485) (b.1452 - d.1485) | | +Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England) (b.1456 - d.1485) | | =Edward (of Middleham, Prince of Wales) (b.1473 - d.1484) | =Elizabeth (of York, Duchess of Suffolk) ( - d.1503) | | +Pole, John de la (Duke of Suffolk) ( - d.1491) | | =Pole, John de la (Earl of Lincoln) ( - d.1487) | | =Pole, Edmund de la (Earl of Suffolk) ( - d.1513) | | =Pole, Richard de la ( - d.1525) | =Margaret (of York, sister of Edward IV) (b.1446 - ) =Neville, Richard (Earl of Salisbury) ( - d.1460) +Montacute, Alice (Daughter of Earl of Salisbury) =Neville, Richard (Earl of Warwick, 'The Kingmaker') (b.1428 - d.1471) | +Anne (Daughter of Richard Beauchamp) | =Neville, Isabel (Duchess of Clarence) (b.1451 - d.1476) | =Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England) (b.1456 - d.1485) =Neville, John (Earl of Northumberland, Lord Montagu) ( - d.1471) =Neville, George (Archbishop of York) ( - d.1476) =Neville, Cecily (Duchess of Warwick) (b.1425 - d.1450) | +Beauchamp, Henry (1st Duke of Warwick) ( - d.1446) | =Beauchamp, Anne (Countess of Warwick) (b.1443 - d.1449) =Neville, Katherine (b.1442 - d.1504) +William (Lord Hastings) (b.1430 - d.1483)

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Sybilla (of Conversano)

arried Robert II (Curthose), Duke of Normandy.
YearMonthEvent
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