Wallace, William

Died: 23 Aug 1305

1297 Sep 11  Battle at Stirling Bridge
 William Wallace and Andrew De Moray leaders of the Scottish revolt in the South and North joined forces and defeated the English army led by Surrey at Stirling. The Scots caught the English forces as they crossed a bridge across the Forth.[1]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
1298 Jul 22  Battle of Falkirk
 Edward's army defeated Wallace. The battle is dominated by the English and Welsh longbows.

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
1303 May  Edward's last campaign in Scotland
 William Wallace had returned to Scotland from France where he had been in exile and so Edward took an army into Scotland.[2]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
1305   William Wallace captured
 William Wallace was betrayed and captured by the English.[2]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
 Aug  Wallace executed
 William Wallace was tried and executed.[2]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  

Walter, Hubert

Died: 1205

ubert Walter became Archbishop of Canterbury and Justiciar from 1193 after Baldwin. Hubert Walter was brought up in the Ranulf Glanvill household. He joined Richard on the Crusades and when Richard was captured in Germany, Hubert was responsible for running Richard's affairs and helped raise funds to pay for Richard's ransom. Hubert crowned Richard's brother John and was given the position of Chancellor.
1193   Hubert Walter becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Hubert Walter follows Baldwin as Archbishop of Canterbury. 
1199 May  Important Appointments
 John chose people to help him run the country. He appointed the Archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert Walter, as Chancellor. Geoffrey fitz Peter was chosen as Justiciar and William, Earl of Pembroke, became Marshal of John's household.[3] 
1204 Spring  Peace negotiations with France
 After losing Normandy to the French, John sent an embassy to France to negotiate with Philippe. In the party that went from England were Hubert Walter and William Marshal. The negotiations failed due to Philippe's demands.[3] 
1205 Summer  More castles fall to the French
 The castles at Chinon and Loches both fell to the French as Philippe strengthened his position. Again William Marshall travelled to see Philippe to agree peace terms, but his attempts were destroyed by Hubert Walter who sent a secret letter to Philippe telling him not to accept William Marshal's promise that John would do homage to Philippe. (What's going on here?)[3] 
 Jul 13  Hubert Walter dies
 Hubert Walter the Archbishop of Canterbury and King John's most important advisor died.[3]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
 Dec  John forces election of De Gray
 When Hubert Walter died a dispute began between King John and the monks of Canterbury over who should become the new Archbishop of Canterbury. King John wanted John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, to have the position but the monks wanted their sub-prior, Reginald. The matter was delayed until December when a mission sent to Rome could consult the Pope. Reginald himself went as part of the mission and stated that he had been elected by the monks. When King John heard of this he demanded that De Gray should be elected and the monks dutifully did.[3]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  

Wareham, William (Archbishop of Canterbury)

illiam Wareham became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1503. He later performed the marriage ceremony for Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1503   William Wareham becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 William Wareham is elected to the post of Archbishop of Canterbury by Julius II. 

William (Adelin)

Born: 1103 Died: 1120

illiam Adelin was the son of Henry I, the King of England. William was drowned while returning from Normandy to England when his ship 'The White Ship' sank. The crew and passengers were drunk and the helmsman steered the ship onto rocks even though the sea was calm. William was Henry's only son and his death left Henry without a male heir. Henry attempted to ensure that his daughter Matilda, William's sister, should become Queen of England when Henry died. Although the barons initially agreed to this arrangement when Henry did die conflict and civil war broke out between Stephen of Blois, who claimed the English throne and Matilda.

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Father: Henry (I, King of England 1100-1135) (b.1068 - d.1135)
Mother: Matilda Edith (of Scotland)
William (Adelin) (b.1103 - d.1120)

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1119   William Adelin marries Matilda
 Fulk V of Anjou married his daughter Matilda to William Adelin, heir to the English crown. Wanting to go on Crusade, Fulk needed to ensure security and a marriage between his family and the English crown could help. 
1120 Nov  William Adelin is drowned
 The son of Henry I was drowned attempting a crossing from Normandy to England. It should have been a straight forward sea crossing from Normandy to England and the weather was good, but the young prince and his young friends had delayed the sailing with their merrymaking in Normandy. The crew of the White Ship were supplied with beer were in no state to handle the ship safely. The ship his rocks and began to sink. Prince William was initially saved and placed in a small boat but on his orders he tried to rescue his sister and the boat was overwhelmed by others hoping to be saved. The small boat tipped over and the prince was drowned.

Episode: Stephen's succession to the throne  

William (II, King of Sicily)

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1175 Aug  Joan travels to Sicily
 Joan, the daughter of Henry II, King of England, travelled to Sicily to marry William II the King of Sicily.[4] 
1177 Feb 13  Joan becomes the Queen of Sicily
 In the city of Palermo on the island of Sicily Joan, the daughter of King Henry II married William II, the king of Sicily.[4] 

William (Monk of Fecamp)

on of Richard II, Duke of Normandy.

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Father: Richard (II, Duke of Normandy)
Mother: Judith
William (Monk of Fecamp)

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Father: Richard (II, Duke of Normandy)
Mother: Judith

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William (of Warenne, Earl of Surrey)

Died: 1088

t the time of the Conquest, William of Warenne accompanied William the Conqueror across from Normandy, fighting at the Battle of Hastings. William of Warenne was rewarded with huge amounts of land and helped his Lord, William the Conqueror put down revolts. He was responsible for putting up many castles in the quest to dominate the areas under his control. After the Conqueror's death, William supported William Rufus' claim to the throne and as a reward was granted the title of Earl of Surrey. He died in 1088 leaving a massive dynasty that would be powerful for several centuries.
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Woodville, Richard (1st Earl Rivers)

Born: circa 1410 Died: 12 Aug 1469

ichard Woodville (also spelt WydeVille) was the father of Elizabeth Woodville who married King Edward IV of England. Richard was not born into a noble family. His father served in France under Henry V and John, Duke of Bedford. Richard also served the Duke as a knight. In 1435 the Duke of Bedford died and Richard married his widow Jacquetta of Luxemberg, As Jacquetta was a member of an important European family her wealth and contacts gave Richard the means to become an important person in the English Court. Some of the titles bestowed on Richard were Lord Rivers (Baron Rivers) in 1446, a knight of the Garter and lieutenant of Calais. During the period of the Wars of the Roses RIchard was initially a Lancastrian, but declared his support for Edward IV and theYorkists when it looked like the Lancastrians were defeated. His daughter Elizabeth secretly married Edward in May of 1464. Richard was then created an ear and the constable of England. He organised marriages of his children into important noble families to increase his own status. But his fame was not accepted by all, especially the Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker. After Warick's rebellion against King Edward in 1469, Richard Woodville was captured and executed.

Family Tree Details
Woodville, Richard (1st Earl Rivers) (b.1410 - d.1469)
+Jacquetta (of Luxembourg) (b.1415 - d.1472) =Woodville, Anthony (Earl Rivers) (b.1442 - d.1483) =Woodville, Elizabeth (b.1437 - d.1492) | +Edward (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483) (b.1442 - d.1483) | | =Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) | | | +Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) | | | =Arthur (Prince of Wales) (b.1486 - d.1502) | | | | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) | | | =Margaret (Tudor, Daughter of Henry VII) (b.1489 - d.1541) | | | | +James (IV King of Scotland 1488-1513) (b.1473 - d.1513) | | | | | =James (V, King of Scotland 1513-1542) (b.1512 - d.1542) | | | | +Douglas, Archibald (Earl of Angus) ( - d.1557) | | | | =Douglas, Margaret ( - d.1578) | | | =Henry (VIII, King of England 1509-1547) (b.1491 - d.1547) | | | | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) | | | | | =Mary (I, Queen of England 1553-1558, Bloody Mary, Mary Tudor) (b.1516 - d.1558) | | | | +Boleyn, Anne ( - ex.1536) | | | | | =Elizabeth (I, Queen of England 1558-1603) (b.1533 - d.1603) | | | | +Seymour, Jane ( - d.1537) | | | | | =Edward (VI, King of England 1547-1553) (b.1537 - d.1553) | | | | +Anne (of Cleves) (b.1515 - d.1557) | | | | +Howard, Catherine ( - ex.1542) | | | | +Parr, Catherine | | | =Mary (Tudor, Queen of France) (b.1495 - d.1533) | | | +Louis (XII, King of France) ( - d.1515) | | | +Brandon, Charles (Duke of Suffolk) (b.1485 - d.1545) | | | =Frances (Lady) | | | =Clifford, Eleanor (Lady) ( - d.1547) | | =Edward (V, King of England 1483) (b.1470 - m.1483) | | =Richard (Duke of York, Prince in the Tower) ( - m.1483) | | =Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV) (b.1469 - d.1507) | +Grey, John (Sir) ( - d.1461) =Woodville, Edward ( - d.1448)

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1460 Jan 15  Yorkists capture Lancastrian fleet
 The Lancastrians were building a large fleet of ships at Sandwich on the south coast and with it they planned to attack Calais. The Earl of Warwick became aware of this and arranged a raid led by John Dinham to steal the ships. Early in the morning of the fifteenth of January the Yorkists supporters attacked the dockyard and stole those ships that were seaworthy. Richard Woodville (Earl Rivers), his wife Jacquetta and their son Anthony were captured.[5]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

Wulfstan (Bishop of Worcester)

Born: 1008 Died: 19 Jan 1095

ulfstan, bishop of Worcester undertook large scale rebuilding work, including Worcester Cathedral, Hereford Cathedral, (Tewkesbury Abbey?), Great Malvern Priory and many other churches in the Worcester, Hereford and Gloucester area.

Wulfstan was a native of the Worcester area and managed to retain his position as bishop (which he took in 1062), after the Norman invasion of 1066.

He had an alter dedicated to him in (Great Malvern Priory?) alongside Cantilupe of Hereford and King Edward the Confessor.

1058   Gloucester Cathedral rebuilding starts
 Under the direction of Wulfstan, the future Bishop of Worcester, construction work began at Gloucester Cathedral. The new building was burnt down and rebuilt later by Abbot Serlo.[6] 
1062 Sep 8  Wulfstan becomes bishop of Worcester
 A monk at Worcester from 1040, Wulfstan was recommended for the position of bishop by visiting papal legates. 
1084   Worcester Cathedral building begins
 Building work starts on Worcester Cathedral. Orchestrated by Bishop Wulfstan. (More Information to follow) 
1088 Spring  Worcestershire Rebellion put down
 The Worcestershire rebellion led by Robert of Lacy was dealt with quickly by Wulfstan, the Bishop of Worcester, who called on those knights and local landowners still loyal to the King to defend Worcester. Many of the rebels were captured or killed.[7] 
1095   Wulfstan dies
 Wulfstan was bishop of Worcester. The location of his grave is not known. 
1158 Spring  Henry visits Wulfstan's Shrine
 At Easter Henry II and his wife Eleanor visited Worcester Cathedral and placed their crowns on the shrine of Wulfstan, vowing not to wear them again.[8] 

Wulfstan, (Archbishop of York 1002-23)

Died: 1023

ulfstan became Bishop of London in 996 and in 1002 became the Archbishop of York. Until 1016 he held the see of Worcester as well as that of York. Wulfstan was an important writer of his time and worked both on religious works and works of law for King Canute.
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ife of Aethelred I, King of Wessex 866-871.

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Wycliffe, John

ohn Wycliffe was a philosopher and scholar who during the reigns of Edward III and Richard II believed that the Church was not giving a true reflection of the Bible's messages. He translated the Bible into English so that ordinary people could read and understand it for themselves. His version was known as Wycliffe's Bible. The followers of Wycliffe were called the Lollards and were branded as heretics by the Church. The Bishops of England passed a statute imposing the death penalty on the Lollards and the first Lollard to be burned at the stake was William Sawtrey in 1401.
1377 Feb  Wycliffe tried for heresy
 John Wycliffe was tried for heresy at the court of the bishop of London at St. Paul's. Wycliffe was supported by John of Gaunt but the trial failed to convict the religious reformer when it ended in riots and chaos. 
1378 Feb  Wycliffe again tried for heresy
 Again John Wycliffe was tried for heresy but this time he was supported by Joan of Kent the widow of Edward, the Black Prince. The trial ended when the citizens entered the courtroom to save him. 
1382 May 21  Earthquake
 An earthquake occurred somewhere in the Straits of Dover and was felt in southern England and in the Low Countries across the North Sea. The event happened during a meeting to condem the works of John Wycliffe. 
1384 Dec 31  Death of John Wycliffe
 John Wyciffe died. 

Wykeham, William (of)

Born: 1324 Died: Sep 1404

rom an architect and surveyor for Edward III, to the Bishop of Winchester, and the founder of New College, Oxford, William of Wykeham had a varied and distinguished life. Although not taught in religious ways, Wykeham gained his positions in the church as reward for his service to the King. His architectural achievements included the conversion of Winchester Cathedral from Norman to Perpendicular, and the reconstruction of Windsor Castle. Other buildings he worked on include Abingdon Abbey in 1375 and Corfe Castle a couple of years after.
1366 Oct  Wykeham becomes Bishop
 William of Wykeham became the Bishop of Winchester. Although not approved of by the Pope (Urban V), Wykeham was consecrated in October 1367. 
1367 Apr  Wykeham becomes Chancellor
 William of Wykeham became Chancellor of England. 
1371   Wykeham asks for war supplies
 William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and chancellor, asked for supplies for war. Parliament petitioned the king to stop the practice of ecclesiastics having positions of power and not being liable to account for their actions, and that non-clerical laymen should replaced them. An important supporter of this action was John of Gaunt. 
1379   New College Oxford founded
 William of Wykeham founded his college, New College, Oxford. The foundations being laid in 1380. 
1382   Founding of Winchester College
 William of Wykeham founded Winchester College so that prayers could be said for his soul for all time. It also provided training for boys that were to enter his other college, New College Oxford.[9] 
1394   Winchester Cathedral rebuilding work
 Work began on converting the Norman front and nave of Winchester Cathedral to the Perpendicular style by the Bishop of Winchester, William of Wykeham. 
   Winchester College opens
 William of Wykeham founded Winchester College in 1382 and building work had been progressing since then. The college opened in this year for its first students.[10] 
1404 Sep 27  Death of William of Wykeham
 William of Wykeham the Bishop of Winchester died in this year. He was replaced by Henry Beaufort.[11] 

Wynford, William

aster mason who worked on projects at Windsor Castle, Wells Cathedral, Winchester College and New College Oxford. Wynford worked at Windsor Castle from 1360 and work here included the Great Gate and the royal lodgings in the upper ward. While Wynford was at Windsor, the clerk of the works was William of Wykeham. Wykeham was to become the Bishop of Winchester Cathedral and when work was needed to convert the Norman Cathedral to the Perpendicular style, Wynford was employed to perform the task. Work began on 29th of September, 1394. Wynford worked mainly in the south-west of the country.
1365 - 1395 Wells Cathedral South-west Tower
 William Wynford was the architect behind the South-west tower of Wells Cathedral.[12] 
1393   Construction of Wardour Castle
 The work on Wardour Castle (now Old Wardour Castle) was begun in this year. The architect in charge may have been William Wynford who was responsible for the changes made to Winchester Cathedral around about the same time. The castle is very unusual in that is hexagonal and aligned to the north-east.