|Born||April 1319||Born At|
|Died||8 April 1364||Buried At|
|Father||Philippe (VI, King of France 1328-1350)||Mother||Joan (of Burgundy)|
Family Tree Details
John (II, King of France 1350-1364) (b.1319 - d.1364)
+Bonne (of Luxembourg) =Charles (V, King of France 1364 - 1380) (b.1338 - d.1380) +Joan (of Bourbon) =Charles (VI, King of France 1380-1422) (b.1338 - d.1422) +Isabeau (of Bavaria) (b.1370 - d.1435) =Isabella (of France, Wife of Richard II) (b.1389 - d.1409) =Charles (VII, King of France 1422-1461) (b.1403 - d.1461) =Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438)
John became king of France after the death of his father Philippe.
Edward the Black Prince set out from Bordeaux at the start of a chevauchée into lands held by King John of France. Chevauchée was a medieval term for a process destroying the towns, villages and land of an enemy lord in an attempt to reduce the wealth that the lord could extract and put to use in going to war. It also caused panic in the local population and an exodus of refugees.
On Saturday 17th of September while the Black Prince was moving his army to English owned city of Bordeaux the English and French armies finally came across each other near Poitiers. Edward moved his army into a defensive position protected by hedges on three sides and a narrow lane on the fourth.
On the Sunday a Cardinal attempted to get the English prince and French king to agree a truce, but the two leaders used the Sunday to rest their troops and prepare for the battle ahead.
On Monday the 19th of September the battle of Poitiers took place. Even though the English army was outnumbered the Black Prince used superior tactics in the battle and defeated the French without suffering many losses. John, the French King, was captured along with many other French nobles and taken to Bordeaux.
King John of France was held prisoner at St. Alban's monastery after being captured at Poitiers.
On behalf of the King of England, Edward, the Black Prince arranged a two year truce with John, the King of France at Bordeaux.
The Black Prince with the French king and many other prisoners began the journey from France to England. Once back in England these nobles were ransomed for large amounts of money.
This treaty attempted to agree peace between England and France and the release of the French King, John, from captivity. The terms the King Edward III wanted, were a large ransom and the surrender of several French states.
The Treaty of Bretigny brought a period of peace for nine years during the Hundred Years War. The treaty was arranged between the Black Prince and the dauphin the future King Charles V of France before being approved by King Edward III of England and King John of France. As part of the treaty Edward was given control of the areas of Gascony, Calais and Ponthieu as long as he agreed to give up his claim for the French throne. King John of France, currently being held hostage in England, was to be released on condition of a payment of 3 million gold crowns to be paid in instalments.
At Calais Edward III of England and King John of France, who had be released from captivity, signed the Treaty of Bretigny.
Charles became king of France after the death of his father John and was crowned at Rheims Cathedral.