John (of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster)

 Born     Born At  
 Died  1399   Buried At  
 Father  Edward (III, King of England 1327-1377)   Mother  Philippa (of Hainault)
John of Gaunt was the son of Edward III, King of England and the father of Henry IV, king of England. He was born in Ghent, Flanders from which his name comes. When Edward III died in 1377 the English throne passed to Richard II, John's nephew. Richard was only ten at the time and too young to rule unaided. John of Gaunt took control of the country until Richard was old enough to rule. Gaunt alienated the Church by supporting Wyclif's criticism of the Church's power and wealth.

Family Tree Details
Father: Edward (III, King of England 1327-1377) (b.1312 - d.1377)
Mother: Philippa (of Hainault) (b.1314 - d.1369)
John (of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster) ( - d.1399)
+Blanche (of Lancaster) ( - d.1369) | =Henry (IV, King of England 1399-1413) (b.1367 - d.1413) | | +Bohun, Mary | | | =Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422) (b.1387 - d.1422) | | | | +Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438) | | | | =Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471) (b.1421 - d.1471) | | | | +Margaret (of Anjou) (b.1429 - d.1482) | | | | =Edward (of Lancaster, Prince of Wales) (b.1453 - d.1471) | | | =Thomas (Duke of Clarence) ( - d.1421) | | | =John (of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford) (b.1389 - d.1435) | | | | +Jacquetta (of Luxembourg) (b.1415 - d.1472) | | | =Humphrey (Duke of Gloucester) ( - d.1447) | | +Joanna (of Navarre) ( - d.1437) | =Philippa, (daughter of John of Gaunt) | | +John (I, of Portugal) | =Elizabeth (daughter of John of Gaunt) | +John (Earl of Pembroke - 1389) +Constance (of Castile) ( - d.1394) | =Katherine (of Lancaster) (b.1372 - d.1418) +Swynford, Catherine =Beaufort, John (1st Earl of Somerset) ( - d.1410) | +Holland, Margaret | =Beaufort, Henry (Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1418) | =Beaufort, John (1st Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1444) | | +Beauchamp, Margaret (of Bletsoe) | | =Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509) | | +Tudor, Edmund (Earl of Richmond) ( - d.1456) | | =Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) | =Beaufort, Edmund (2nd Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1455) | | +Beauchamp, Eleanor | | =Beaufort, Henry (3rd Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1464) | | =Beaufort, Edmund ( - d.1471) | | =Beaufort, John ( - d.1471) | =Beaufort, Joan | +James (I, King of Scotland 1406-1437) (b.1394 - d.1437) | =Margaret (Stewart) ( - d.1445) | | +Louis (XI, King of France 1461-1483) | =Isabella (Stewart) ( - d.1494) | =Eleanor (Stewart) ( - d.1480) | =James (II, King of Scotland 1437-1460) | | +Mary (of Guelders) (b.1433 - d.1463) | | =James (III, King of Scotland 1460-1488) ( - d.1488) | =Joan (Stewart) ( - d.1480) =Beaufort, Henry (Cardinal-Bishop of Winchester) (b.1376 - d.1447) =Beaufort, Thomas (Duke of Exeter) ( - d.1426) =Beaufort, Joan (daughter of John of Gaunt) (b.1379 - d.1440) +Neville, Ralph (Earl of Westmorland, Earl Marshal) (b.1364 - d.1425) =Neville, Cecily (Duchess of York) (b.1415 - d.1495) | +Richard (Duke of York) (b.1411 - d.1460) | =Edward (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483) (b.1442 - d.1483) | | +Woodville, Elizabeth (b.1437 - d.1492) | | =Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) | | =Edward (V, King of England 1483) (b.1470 - m.1483) | | =Richard (Duke of York, Prince in the Tower) ( - m.1483) | | =Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV) (b.1469 - d.1507) | =George (Duke of Clarence) (b.1449 - d.1478) | | +Neville, Isabel (Duchess of Clarence) (b.1451 - d.1476) | | =Plantagenet, Edward (Earl of Warwick) ( - d.1499) | | =Margaret (Countess of Salisbury) ( - d.1541) | =Richard (III, King of England 1483-1485) (b.1452 - d.1485) | | +Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England) (b.1456 - d.1485) | | =Edward (of Middleham, Prince of Wales) (b.1473 - d.1484) | =Elizabeth (of York, Duchess of Suffolk) ( - d.1503) | | +Pole, John de la (Duke of Suffolk) ( - d.1491) | | =Pole, John de la (Earl of Lincoln) ( - d.1487) | | =Pole, Edmund de la (Earl of Suffolk) ( - d.1513) | | =Pole, Richard de la ( - d.1525) | =Margaret (of York, sister of Edward IV) (b.1446 - ) =Neville, Richard (Earl of Salisbury) ( - d.1460) +Montacute, Alice (Daughter of Earl of Salisbury) =Neville, Richard (Earl of Warwick, 'The Kingmaker') (b.1428 - d.1471) | +Anne (Daughter of Richard Beauchamp) | =Neville, Isabel (Duchess of Clarence) (b.1451 - d.1476) | =Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England) (b.1456 - d.1485) =Neville, John (Earl of Northumberland, Lord Montagu) ( - d.1471) =Neville, George (Archbishop of York) ( - d.1476) =Neville, Cecily (Duchess of Warwick) (b.1425 - d.1450) | +Beauchamp, Henry (1st Duke of Warwick) ( - d.1446) | =Beauchamp, Anne (Countess of Warwick) (b.1443 - d.1449) =Neville, Katherine (b.1442 - d.1504) +William (Lord Hastings) (b.1430 - d.1483)

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Partial Personal Timeline

YearMonthEvent
1361 - 1399 John of Gaunt owns Kenilworth
 John of Gaunt married Blanche, the daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster. Henry owned Kenilworth Castle and when he died (?) John became Duke of Lancaster and took ownership of the castle. Gaunt rebuilt the hall and constructed new grand apartments.[1] 
1362   John becomes Duke of Lancaster
 John of Gaunt, Edward III's fourth son is created Duke of Lancaster. 
1367 Mar  Henry (IV) future king of England in born
 Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire. 
1369 Jul  John of Gaunt in northern France
 John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, left Calais with 2,000 soldiers and marched across northern France destroying towns along the way.[2] 
1371   Wykeham asks for war supplies
 William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and chancellor, asked for supplies for war. Parliament petitioned the king to stop the practice of ecclesiastics having positions of power and not being liable to account for their actions, and that non-clerical laymen should replaced them. An important supporter of this action was John of Gaunt. 
1374   A Tomb for John of Gaunt
 Henry Yevele was commissioned to design a tomb for John of Gaunt and his first wife Blanche of Lancaster to be built at St. Paul's Cathedral.[3] 
1377 Feb  Wycliffe tried for heresy
 John Wycliffe was tried for heresy at the court of the bishop of London at St. Paul's. Wycliffe was supported by John of Gaunt but the trial failed to convict the religious reformer when it ended in riots and chaos. 
 Jun 21  Edward III Dies
 Edward III, the King of England died in June 1377. One year earlier Edward's eldest son and heir to the throne, Edward the Black Prince died. Richard, the son of the Black Prince, was proclaimed heir to the throne. King Edward was ill for some time before his death, and John of Gaunt another of Edward's sons took the affairs of the nation under his control. Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey in a tomb designed by Henry Yevele.[4]

Episode: Edward III - The Hundred Years War  
 Jul 16  Richard II is crowned
 The 10 year old Richard II was crowned king of England. Ceremonies were overseen by his uncle John of Gaunt. Henry Percy was created Earl of Northumberland at the ceremony in recognition for his services as a soldier leading troops against the French. 
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