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|Father||Edward (III, King of England 1327-1377)||Mother||Philippa (of Hainault)|
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Edward (III, King of England 1327-1377) (b.1312 - d.1377)|
|Mother:||Philippa (of Hainault) (b.1314 - d.1369)|
John (of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster) ( - d.1399)
+Blanche (of Lancaster) ( - d.1369) | =Henry (IV, King of England 1399-1413) (b.1367 - d.1413) | | +Bohun, Mary | | | =Henry (V, King of England 1413-1422) (b.1387 - d.1422) | | | | +Catherine (of France) ( - d.1438) | | | | =Henry (VI, King of England 1422-1461, 1470-1471) (b.1421 - d.1471) | | | =Thomas (Duke of Clarence) ( - d.1421) | | | =John (of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford) (b.1389 - d.1435) | | | | +Jacquetta (of Luxembourg) (b.1415 - d.1472) | | | =Humphrey (Duke of Gloucester) ( - d.1447) | | +Joanna (of Navarre) ( - d.1437) | =Philippa, (daughter of John of Gaunt) | | +John (I, of Portugal) | =Elizabeth (daughter of John of Gaunt) | +John (Earl of Pembroke - 1389) +Constance (of Castile) ( - d.1394) | =Katherine (of Lancaster) (b.1372 - d.1418) +Swynford, Catherine =Beaufort, John (1st Earl of Somerset) ( - d.1410) | +Holland, Margaret | =Beaufort, Henry (Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1418) | =Beaufort, John (1st Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1444) | | +Beauchamp, Margaret (of Bletsoe) | | =Beaufort, Lady Margaret (b.1443 - d.1509) | =Beaufort, Edmund (2nd Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1455) | | +Beauchamp, Eleanor | | =Beaufort, Henry (3rd Duke of Somerset) ( - d.1464) | | =Beaufort, Edmund ( - d.1471) | | =Beaufort, John ( - d.1471) | =Beaufort, Joan | +James (I, King of Scotland 1406-1437) (b.1394 - d.1437) | =Margaret (Stewart) ( - d.1445) | =Isabella (Stewart) ( - d.1494) | =Eleanor (Stewart) ( - d.1480) | =James (II, King of Scotland 1437-1460) | =Joan (Stewart) ( - d.1480) =Beaufort, Henry (Cardinal-Bishop of Winchester) (b.1376 - d.1447) =Beaufort, Thomas (Duke of Exeter) ( - d.1426) =Beaufort, Joan (daughter of John of Gaunt) (b.1379 - d.1440) +Neville, Ralph (Earl of Westmorland, Earl Marshal) (b.1364 - d.1425) =Neville, Cecily (Duchess of York) (b.1415 - d.1495) | +Richard (Duke of York) (b.1411 - d.1460) | =Edward (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483) (b.1442 - d.1483) | =George (Duke of Clarence) (b.1449 - d.1478) | =Richard (III, King of England 1483-1485) (b.1452 - d.1485) | =Elizabeth (of York, Duchess of Suffolk) ( - d.1503) | =Margaret (of York, sister of Edward IV) (b.1446 - ) =Neville, Richard (Earl of Salisbury) ( - d.1460) +Montacute, Alice (Daughter of Earl of Salisbury) =Neville, Richard (Earl of Warwick, 'The Kingmaker') (b.1428 - d.1471) =Neville, John (Earl of Northumberland, Lord Montagu) ( - d.1471) =Neville, George (Archbishop of York) ( - d.1476) =Neville, Cecily (Duchess of Warwick) (b.1425 - d.1450) =Neville, Katherine (b.1442 - d.1504)
John of Gaunt married Blanche, the daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster. Henry owned Kenilworth Castle and when he died (?) John became Duke of Lancaster and took ownership of the castle. Gaunt rebuilt the hall and constructed new grand apartments.
John of Gaunt, Edward III's fourth son is created Duke of Lancaster.
Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire.
John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, left Calais with 2,000 soldiers and marched across northern France destroying towns along the way.
William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and chancellor, asked for supplies for war. Parliament petitioned the king to stop the practice of ecclesiastics having positions of power and not being liable to account for their actions, and that non-clerical laymen should replaced them. An important supporter of this action was John of Gaunt.
Henry Yevele was commissioned to design a tomb for John of Gaunt and his first wife Blanche of Lancaster to be built at St. Paul's Cathedral.
John Wycliffe was tried for heresy at the court of the bishop of London at St. Paul's. Wycliffe was supported by John of Gaunt but the trial failed to convict the religious reformer when it ended in riots and chaos.
King Edward III of England died in June 1377. One year earlier Edward's eldest son and heir to the throne, Edward the Black Prince died. Richard, the son of the Black Prince, was proclaimed heir to the throne. King Edward was ill for some time before his death, and John of Gaunt, another of Edward's sons, took the affairs of the nation under his control. Edward was buried in Westminster Abbey in a tomb designed by Henry Yevele.
The 10 year old Richard II was crowned king of England. Ceremonies were overseen by his uncle John of Gaunt. Henry Percy was created Earl of Northumberland at the ceremony in recognition for his services as a soldier leading troops against the French.
Westminster Abbey was closed for several months after a murder took place in the Choir. The Abbey was not reopened for services until it was reconsecrated. Two knights called Schakell and Hawle had taken a Spanish Count prisoner whilst fighting with the Black Prince. As usual a ransom was required for the release of the Count. The Count was allowed to return to Spain to organise the ransom leaving his son as a hostage to ensure the ransom was paid. At this time John of Gaunt was in the process of acquiring the crown of Castile and the saga with the Count's son was an embarrassment. When the two knights refused to release their prisoner they were arrested and sent to the Tower of London. They managed to escape from the Tower and fled to Westminster Abbey and sanctuary, but this was ignored by a group of soldiers led by the Constable of the Tower, Alan Boxhall. Schakell was captured but Hawle and a monk were murdered in the Choir. Several of those involved were excommunicated meaning that they could not be buried after their deaths.
At a session of Parliament held this year both John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock argued with Richard about the way in which the country was being run, his finances and the influences of his advisors.
With the defeat of the Castilians by the king of Portugal, James of Aviz, John of Gaunt saw his chance of taking the Castilian throne by right of his wife. He asked Richard for a loan to be repaid once he had the throne. Richard was pleased to pay the loan and get rid of Gaunt, as Gaunt was criticising Richard's handling of finances and his choice of advisors.
John of Gaunt set sail from Plymouth, his task to take the Castilian throne.
Selection of references used:
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