Langton, Stephen

 Born     Born At  
 Died  1228   Buried At  
Archbishop of Canterbury. After the death of Hubert Walter, king John wanted John Gray, bishop of Norwich as the new archbishop. The bishops and monks instead voted Reginald, the prior of Canterbury. John forced the election of Gray, but pope Innocent III did not agree and held a vote between Gray and Reginald that ended in a draw. The pope chose Langton instead.

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YearMonthEvent
1206 Dec  The Pope chooses Stephen Langton for Canterbury
 Although the monks of Canterbury wanted their own sub-prior for the post of Archbishop and King John wanted John de Gray, Pope Innocent III chose Stephen Langton. Langton was originally from Lincolnshire but after teaching in Paris had moved to Rome where he had become a Cardinal. The monks of Canterbury accepted the Pope's decision and voted Langton in as the new Archbishop. King John did not agree.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1207   Stephen Langton becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Stephen Langton was chosen as Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Innocent III.[2]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
 Aug  The Pope threatens an Interdict
 The Pope threatened King John with the sentence of Interdict unless he accepted Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. An Interdict meant that church services would be banned in England except for baptisms and confessions. [1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1208 Mar 24  Interdict served by the Pope
 With King John still refusing to accept Langton as Archbishop the Pope served the sentence of Interdict on England. In response King John confiscated church property. Many of the bishops of the great churches in the country fled abroad to the Continent.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1209   Langton lands at Dover
 Stephen Langton landed in England from France to see King John and take the position of Archbishop of Canterbury. John refused to meet with him although John did meet Stephen's brother Simon.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1212 Nov  John accepts Pope's demands
 Taking the advice of William Marshal John accepted the demands of the Pope and that Stephen Langton should become Archbishop. A peace mission was also sent to the Pope.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1213 Jul 20  Excommunication lifted
 When King John agreed to meet Stephen Langton at Winchester he was absolved from excommunication.[1]

Episode: Excommunication of King John  
1215 May 27  A truce is sought
 Stephen Langton and William Marshall attempted to get the Barons and John to meet and find a settlement to the civil war. [1]

Episode: The First Barons' War  
 Jun 15  John's Great Charter (the Magna Carta)
 A large number of barons, led by Stephen Langton the archbishop of Canterbury, meet King John on an island in the Thames at Runnymede. They forced the king to sign the 'Great Charter' or Magna Carta that would limit the power of the monarchy. The barons insisted that the old feudal contract should be reinstated and that the king should abide by the laws that the rest of the population did. The feudal contract allowed the barons to run their own lands, renting it from the king but paying rent by supplying knights rather than money. This feudal system had been set up by William the Conqueror.[3]

Episode: The First Barons' War  
1221   Hubert de Burgh
 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, travelled to Rome and left Hubert de Burgh in charge of affairs of the country. 
1224 Qtr 1  Henry reclaims castles
 All those castles that had been taken from King John were claimed back by Henry. Henry did not want to have untrustworthy Barons in control of strong castles. Fawkes de Breaute, one of the castle occupiers refused to relinquish his castle(s) and started a short rebellion. Stephen Langton and Hubert de Burgh dealt with Fawkes and the castles were handed over. (Need to find out which castles) 
1228   Stephen Langton dies
 On the death of Stephen Langton, the archbishop of Canterbury, the Pope, attempting to raise as much money from the clergy in England filled senior posts in the clergy with anyone who bidded the highest.[3] 

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