Margaret (of Anjou)

 Born  23 Mar 1429   Born At  
 Died  25 Aug 1482   Buried At  
Margaret of Anjou was the wife of Henry VI. The marriage between the two was arranged as part of the Treaty of Tours in 1444 between Henry and Charles VII of France. Henry and Margaret were married in 1445. They had one child, Edward, who was born in 1453. Queen Margaret led the fight for the Lancastrians against the Yorkists while Henry was in captivity. See the timeline below for more information.

Explore

Do you want to explore a Saxon Hall, a medieval church or a large stone keep? Click the images below to enter a medieval world.

YearMonthAgeEvent
1444 Apr  15yrsTreaty of Tours
 A peace treaty signed between Henry VI of England and Charles VII of France. The treaty resulted in five years of peace between the two countries and included the arrangement of marriage between Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou.[1]

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
 May 24  Betrothal of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou
 To ensure peace between England and France the marriage between Henry VI and Margaret was arranged. [2] 
1445 Apr 23  16yrsMarriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou
 The marriage of the King of England to Margaret of Anjou had been arranged as part of the treaty signed at Tours to ensure peace between England and France.[3] 
 May 30  Margaret of Anjou crowned
 After a triumphant entrance to London a few days earlier Margaret stayed at the Tower of London for a few days before going to Westminster Abbey where she was crowned. [4] 
1452 Mar  23yrsThe Duke of York surrenders
 The Queen had raised an army and with the King they met the Duke of York at Dartford. Outnumbered, York disbanded his army and surrendered to the King. He was taken to London and later at St. Paul's Cathedral he was forced to swear an oath saying he would not oppose the King.[5] 
1453 Oct 13  24yrsPrince Edward of Lancaster is born
 Edward of Westminster, also known as Edward of Lancaster, King Henry's and Margaret of Anjou's only son, was born at Westminster.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1460 Summer  31yrsQueen Margaret flees to Wales
 After the Lancastrian defeat at Northampton, Queen Margaret and her son Edward escaped to Wales and the safety of Harlech Castle.[5]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Dec 30  Battle of Wakefield
 Queen Margaret had been building an army in the North and started attacking Yorkist held settlements. Richard left London with a small army to deal with the Queen. He had underestimated the Lancastrians and at his castle at Sandal Richard was confronted by superior forces. Although Richard sent word to the Earl of March for assistance he didn't wait and attacked. The battle left Richard Duke of York and his son Earl of Rutland dead.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1461 Feb 17  32yrsSecond Battle of St. Albans
 The Lancastrians army led by the Queen met the Yorkist army led by Warwick at St. Albans. The Yorkist army was split in two and during the battle sections of the Yorkists defected to the Queen's side. The Yorkists were defeated and Warwick escaped. The King, who had been travelling with the Yorkists, was freed and he was reunited with his wife and son.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Feb 27  Yorkists enter London
 Edward and Warwick were allowed to enter the city of London. The citizens of London had refused to let the Queen enter and so she returned north with the King.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1462 Apr  33yrsQueen Margaret sails to France
 In an attempt to raise support for the Lancastrian cause, Queen Margaret sailed from Scotland to Brittany. She hoped she could get support from the French King, Louis XI.[6]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jun 28  Queen Margaret and Louis XI
 Queen Margaret of England and Louis XI of France sign a treaty. Margaret promised that Calais would be his if he helped her return Henry to the throne.[7]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Oct 25  Queen Margaret invades
 Queen Margaret landed near Bamburgh Castle on the Northumbrian coast with a small army. The main castles in the area, Alnwick, Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh surrendered to the Queen.[7]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Nov 13  Queen Margaret retreats to Scotland
 Edward acted quickly to Queen Margaret's arrival in the north. He raised a large army that marched towards Northumbria. Queen Margaret did not have the resources and local support required to fight Edward and so she decided to seek refuge in Scotland. A garrison of soldiers were left at the three Northumbrian castles.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1463 Jul  34yrsQueen Margaret returns to France
 Warwick took an army north to deal with the new threat from Queen Margaret. The Lancastrians had laid seige to Norham Castle on the Scottish border. Under the control of the Earl of Warwick, the Yorkists again proved too powerful for the Lancastrians and with her invasion plans in ruin Margaret decided to return to France. She took Prince Edward with her.[5]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jul  Siege of Norham Castle
 Queen Margaret, Henry VI and Scottish support besieged the castle at Norham. King Edward failed to react to the problem and it was left to the Earls of Warwick and Northumberland to come to the castle's rescue. Henry, Margaret and the Scots fled.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Oct  Treaty with France
 Edward IV agreed a peace treaty with France in which both sides promising not to assist each others enemies. This was a disaster for the Lancastrians who had hoped that they could get French assistance against the English king.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Dec  English Truce with Scotland
 Edward IV agreed a truce with Scotland who had lost interest in fighting for the Lancastrians and Queen Margaret. The truce was signed at York and Edward spent Christmas in the city.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1470 Jul 22  41yrsWarwick and the Lancastrians
 Louis XI, the French King devised a plan to remove Edward IV from the English throne. Louis persuaded the Earl of Warwick (a Yorkist) and Margaret of Anjou the exiled wife of Henry VI (a Lancastrian) to combine forces and attempt to over through Edward. Warwick and Margaret met on 22 July at Anger Cathedral to put their differences aside and to agree on a course of action.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jul 25  Betrothal of Prince Edward and Anne Neville
 The betrothal of Prince Edward and Anne Neville formed part of the agreement between Queen Margaret and the Kingmaker to put King Henry VI back on the English throne. The act taking place at the Cathedral of Angers,[5]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Dec 13  Marriage of Edward of Lancaster and Anne Neville
 The marriage between Edward of Lancaster, the son of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, to Anne Neville, the daughter of Richard Neville the Kingmaker was a marriage to cement the agreement that Richard and Margaret would support each other and try to get Henry VI back on the English throne. The marriage took place in France at the Chateau d'Amboise where Margaret and Edward were exiled.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1471 Apr 14  42yrsQueen Margaret lands at Weymouth
 Queen Margaret (wife of Henry VI) and her son Edward the prince of Wales landed at Weymouth on the very same day as the battle of Barnet. Their intention was to assist the Earl of Warwick, but she arrived too late. Determined to avenge the Barnet defeat, the Queen and her army marched north towards Wales and men she could count on to join her army. Edward had thought of this and to cut the Queen off from Wales, had taken control of the bridges across the River Severn. 
 May 4  The Battle of Tewkesbury
 The Yorkists led by King Edward IV and his brother Richard Duke of Gloucester met the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury. Richard was able to outflank the Lancastrians led by Edmund Beaufort, the self-proclaimed Duke of Somerset. Once Somerset's men had been dealt with, Richard attacked the rear of the Lancastrian line which broke apart and fled. Many of the Lancastrian leaders were caught and killed including Edward the Prince of Wales. Margaret of Anjou was also captured.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
1475 Aug  46yrsPeace treaty signed
 Louis and Edward agreed to a peace treaty to last seven years. The agreement signed at the Treaty of Picquigny meant Louis was to pay Edward an initial sum to leave France and a smaller yearly sum there-after. The French also paid a ransom to free Margaret of Anjou who had been held by the English since the Battle of Tewkesbury. 
1482 Aug 25  53yrsDeath of Margaret of Anjou
 After being freed from captivity in 1475 Margaret had lived in France in some poverty. She died in 1482 and was buried in Angers Cathedral. Her tomb was destroyed in the French Revolution of 1789.[2] 

View walkthroughs of the TimeRef Virtual Medieval Abbey reconstruction.

Village Life

Talk to a medieval girl about her life in a medieval village

Talk to Villager

 

Please note that this area should be showing an interactive map of events. This area will not show if you are currently using an older version of web browser. The map viewer viewer has been tested on IE9 and the latest versions of Firefox and Chrome.