Stirling Castle

tirling Castle is known as 'the Key to Scotland' this may be the most important and strategic castle in Scotland. It is situated in the link between the north and the south. It is built on an outcrop of volcanic rock. Access to the castle is from the south-east where the rock slopes down. Over the years the castle has fallen into the hands of many people, both Scottish and English. In 1174, William the Lion signed the treaty of Falaise which allowed key Scottish castles to be taken over by the English. During the period 1296 and 1304, the castle was captured by the Scottish and the English several times until Edward I finally took control of it to last for ten years. After the battle of Bannockburn in 1314 the Scots reclaimed the castle, but in 1333 the English took it back again. More to come ...

Stirling Castle Key Facts
DirectionsAt the heart of the city of Stirling
CategoriesStone / Cliff-top
RemainsExcellent remains
Access to siteOnly open at certain times

1174 Dec 8  William I of Scotland signs Treaty of Falaise
 Captured by the English, William of Scotland was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise. The treaty made Scotland a feudal possession of England and William and his nobles swore fealty to Henry II. William had to hand over several castles to the English in return for his freedom. One of these was Stirling Castle.This treaty was overruled by Richard I in return for funds paid by Scotland that Richard needed for his crusade in 1189.[1] 
1297 Sep 11  Battle at Stirling Bridge
 William Wallace and Andrew De Moray leaders of the Scottish revolt in the South and North joined forces and defeated the English army led by Surrey at Stirling. The Scots caught the English forces as they crossed a bridge across the Forth.[1]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
1303 Dec  Edward stays at Dunfermline Abbey
 Edward spent the winter months at Dunfermline Abbey where he planned the attack on Stirling Castle.[2]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
1304 Spring  Edward besieges Stirling Castle
 Edward began a siege of Stirling Castle.[2]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
 Jul  Stirling Castle surrenders
 The Scots surrendered Stirling Castle to Edward. [2]

Episode: Edward I and Scotland  
1313 Jun  Stirling Castle Siege
 Stirling castle was still under the control of English forces but was under siege from the Scots led by Edward Bruce. Bruce and the English commander, Sir Philippe de Mowbray, came to an agreement that if English forces had not reached the castle by midsummer 1314, Mowbray would surrender the castle to the Scots. Bruce even let Mowbray leave the castle to inform the English king of the agreement.[3]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1314 Jun 17  Edward leaves Berwick
 Edward II and his army left Berwick to march to Stirling Castle which they had to reach before midsummer's day if the castle were to be saved from falling back into the hands of the Scots.[3]

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
 Jun 24  Battle of Bannockburn
 Forces led by Edward II were defeated by Robert I at Bannockburn. Edward was trying to reach Stirling Castle to relieve the English forces there. This was an important battle for the Scots to win and helped them to make some gains of land in northern England even if the success was short-lived.

Episode: Robert the Bruce  
1337 Aug  Edward rescues Stirling Castle
 Edward III reaches Stirling Castle with supplies to assist the English garrison there that was under siege from Sir Andrew Moray.[2] 
Early Modern Period (1500-1800)
1513 Sep 21  James V crowned King of Scotland
 Shortly after the death of his father, James V was crowned King of Scotland at Stirling Castle. 
1547 Sep 10  Battle of Pinkie Cleugh
 Thousands of Scots gathered near the town of Musselburgh, just to the east of Edinburgh. They faced an English army led by the Duke of Somerset. The Scots had a good position on the battle field but wasted it when they attacked. The Scots were heavily defeated. The defeat at Pinkie Cleugh was a threat to Queen Mary and so she was secretly moved from Stirling Castle to the Augustinian Inchmahome Priory located on an island on lake Menteith.[4] 


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