» Categories » Economic
YearDay/MonthTitle / Details
William the Conqueror (1066 - 1087)
1085Dec 25Domesday Book
 At the Christmas Council William ordered the creation of survey of property with their values and populations county by county covering most of England. Commissioners were sent all over England, apart from the far north, to make a record of the population, value, state and ownership of the land. The book consisted of two volumes and was completed by 1088.
Henry I (1100 - 1135)
1103Crops do badly
 Cattle as well as corn and fruit crops did badly this year.
Aug 10Strong winds damage crops
 On the morning of mass day of St. Lawrence, strong winds did more damage that anyone could remember. (St. Lawrence's day appears to be August 10, but this not have been the case in medieval times.)
Henry II (1154 - 1189)
1188The 'Saladin Tithe'
 This tax was imposed on the people of England (and France?) to raise funds for the Third Crusade. Called for by Henry II in 1188 it was used by his son Richard I who became king in 1189 and then quickly left England for the Crusades.
John (1199 - 1216)
1207John introduces the first income tax
 King John introduced the first income tax in England. One thirteenth of income from rents and moveable property had to be paid. Collected locally by sheriffs and administered by the Exchequer. The amount was one shilling on each mark of income, where a mark was 13 shillings and 4 pence. The tax was unpopular with the barons and especially in the churches and monasteries. The tax did raise a lot of money for the king, doubling his annual income for the year.
1210Nov 1Arrest of Wealthy Jews
 King John ordered that Jews across the country had to pay a 'tullage', a sum of money to the king. Those who did not pay were arrested, imprisoned and forced to pay the money in return for their release. May Jews were executed or left the country.
Henry III (1216 - 1272)
1242Henry's finances are criticised
 Simon de Montfort is one a twelve man council who met to work out Henry's finances. Henry was criticised for his excesses.
Edward I (1272 - 1307)
1279Recoinage
 Edward I had new coins minted. (To help fund Welsh campaigns?). The coins were so popular abroad that Edward had to ban any export of coins. Foreign fakes flood England.
1294Edward Balliol asks for resources
 Edward Balliol arrived in London and asked for men and money for Edward's French war.
Commercial treaty with Portugal
 Diniz, the Farmer King of Portugal, signs a commercial treaty with England, beginning a sequence of alliances between the two countries.
Edward II (1307 - 1327)
1315A year of flood, famine and disease
 Natural disasters this year across Europe leading to economic problems.
1316More famines and floods.
 Natural disasters this year across Europe led to economic problems.
Edward III (1327 - 1377)
1336Aug 12Exports of Wool Stopped
 Louis de Nevers, the count of Flanders from 1322, prohibited trade with England in an attempt to control the powerful cloth-weavers in the area. Louis suspected some kind of link between the weavers and England and so he banned the trade of wool to cut the supplies that their wealth relied on. Edward counteracted by changing the only continental port where wool was imported to from Bruges to Antwerp.
1340Universal Crop Failure
 Thousands die of starvation.
1347The Black Death
 Kipchak Mongols besieging a Genoese trading centre on the Crimean coast catapulted their own dead into the city. The cause of death was a mysterious disease. The Genoese escaped by sea taking the 'Black Death' with them. They landed at Messina in Sicily. Bubonic plague, which the Black Death was, was spread by the rat flea. The name Black Death came from the colour of the swelling in the groin, armpit or neck. The person suffering went into a coma and dies soon after. In Europe an estimated 25 million people died. The plague reached Britain in 1348 and again in 1360 and the population may have been reduced by a half.
1348JunThe Plague reaches England
 The plague reached the shores of England first at Melcombe Regis in Dorset. By winter of the year, the plague had reached London.
1349SummerThe Plague is at its peak
 The peak of the plague was reached in the summer of 1349. Estimates of a third of the population dying from the infection have been made but being accurate is very difficult.
1354Statute of Staples
 A law that fixed 15 towns as staple towns. A staple town was a town that was restricted in what it could sell to foreign merchants. The towns were Bristol, Canterbury, Carmarthen, Chichester, Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Exeter, Lincoln, London, Newcastle, Norwich, Waterford, Winchester and York.
1361Another outbreak of the plague
 Another outbreak of the plague takes its tool.
1367AprWykeham becomes Chancellor
 William of Wykeham became Chancellor of England.
1369Again England is hit by the plague
 Another outbreak of the plague affects England.
Henry IV (1399 - 1413)
1411Construction of the Guildhall in London
 Located at the heart of the City of London, the Guildhall was built by the powerful merchants of London to rival the buildings of royalty. In the Guildhall the merchants held their courts and passed their laws and regulations.
Henry VI (1422 - 1461)
1450JanMurder at Portsmouth
 Adam Moleyns, the Bishop of Chichester and Lord Privy Seal, had been sent to Portsmouth by the king to pay the wages of soldiers and sailors who had not been paid for some time. But the anger of the soldiers was so great that they turned on him and he was murdered.
Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
1566Jun 19Birth of the James the future King of England
 James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. He was born at Edinbugh Castle.
Other
1637Coins minted at Aberystwyth Castle
 Charles I gave Thomas Bushell permission to produce coins. He set up the mint inside Aberystwyth Castle. Bushell used locally mined Welsh silver. The mint was moved in 1642 because of the war.
1642Armies gather weapons
 Both the Parliamentarian and Royalist solders gathered arms and ammunition in preparation for the fight ahead. Houses belonging to the Royalist supporters were looted and items sold to raise cash.
Canterbury Cathedral vandalised
 Parliamentarian troops broke into Canterbury Cathedral and damaged the interior including the organ and choir.
Aug 21Dover Castle captured
 Parliamentarian forces attacked any Royalist strongholds they could find in Kent including the castle at Dover. The castle was captured and was placed under the control of Parliament.
SepPrince Rupert at Leicester
 A sum of two thousand pounds was demanded by Prince Rupert from the people in Leicester to save their town from being robed. They only paid 500 pounds and complained to King Charles. The king was unhappy with the Princes' actions but the money was not handed back.
1643Dec 20Arundel Castle Siege
 Parliamentarian cannons pound Arundel Castle where Royalist forces were un siege. William Waller controlled the attacking Parliamentarian army.
1644Caernarvon Castle captured
 Since 1642 Caernarvon Castle had been held by Royalist forces for Charles I, but Parliamentarian forces attacked and captured the castle.