» Categories » Religious
YearDay/MonthTitle / Details
800Dec 25Charlemagne becomes Emperor
 Charlemagne was acclaimed as Roman Emperor in St Peter's in Rome by Pope Leo III.
804MayDeath of Alcuin of York
 Alcuin of York died at the monastery of St. Martin's at Tours.
814Vikings attacks
 The monastery on the island of Noirmoutier just to the south of the River Loire's mouth was attacked.
826Christianity introduced into Scandinavia
 The monk Ansgar accompanied Harold of Norway to Scandinavia to spread Christianity into the region. King Harold had recently been converted to Christianity.
853Alfred goes to Rome
 Alfred is sent to Rome by his father to see Pope Leo IV.
855Ethelwulf and Alfred visit Rome
 Ethelwulf and Alfred visit Rome to see Pope Leo IV.
Edward the Elder (899 - 924)
907Romsey Abbey founded
 According to medieval accounts the abbey for nuns was founded at Romsey by Edward the Elder in this year.
910Abbey of Cluny founded
 The abbey of Cluny was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine (d.918). The abbey became founding member of a new Order of Monks known as the Cluniacs. All of Cluny's daughter houses sent money back to the abbey and it became very rich.
Aethelstan (924 - 939)
926Sihtric marries Aethelstan's sister
 To help consolidate his links to the North Athelstan married his sister to Sihtric, the Norse King of York.
930St. Albans attacked by the Danes
 The abbey church at St. Albans was attacked and damaged by Vikings.
Edmund (939 - 946)
943Dunstan and Glastonbury
 Dunstan moved to Glastonbury where he placed the monastery under the rule of the Benedictine Order and became the abbot there.
Eadred (946 - 959)
948Eadred destroys the monastery at Ripon.
 Eadred destroys the monastery at Ripon.
956Dunstan sent into exile
 Eadwig sent Dunstaninto exile. The reason for this is that Dunstan had caught Eadwig and Aelgifu together before they were married and at a time when Eadwig should have attended an important meeting. Dunstan must have upset Eadwig at this point and was sent into exile.
Edgar (959 - 975)
959Aefsige becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Aefsige became Archbishop of Canterbury.
Beorhthelm becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Beorhthelm became Archbishop of Canterbury.
960Dunstan becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Dunstan became Archbishop of Canterbury.
962St. Paul's burns down
 The church of St. Paul's built by Ethelbert burnt down this year.
964Benedictines at Winchester
 At the bidding of St. Dunstan Benedictine monks moved from the Abbey of Abingdon to Winchester. Work began on a new Saxon church on the site.
972Consecration of Peterborough Abbey
 Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Oswald, the Archbishop of York, consecrated the abbey at Peterborough in the presence of King Edgar.
973May 11Coronation of King Edgar
 King Edgar was crowned at Bath Abbey.
Aethelred the Unready (978 - 1016)
983Monastery at Worcester
 Oswald founded a Benedictine monastery at Worcester dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin. Oswald became bishop of Worcester upon the recommendation of Dunstan.
988Athelgar becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Athelgar became the Archbishop of Canterbury after the death of Dunstan.
990Sigeric Serio becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Sigeric Serio becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
994WinterTrygvasson converted to Christianity
 Through the Winter months Aethelred provided the Vikings with lodgings and £16,000 in cash to stop the raids on his land. Aethelred was also the sponsor at the baptism of Olaf Trygvasson. Olaf was given instruction from the Bishop of Winchester.
995Aelfric becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Aelfric becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
999Sylvester II was elected Pope
 
Durham Cathedral consecrated
 Bishop Aldhun, the first Bishop of Durham, consecrated a cathedral at the location where the remains of St. Cuthbert had been relocated to. The remains were at Lindisfarne and were moved because of the danger of Viking raids.
1002NovAethelred marries Emma
 Aethelred paid the Vikings a sum of £24,000 to try and stop further invasions. In an attempt to strengthen his position against the Vikings he married Emma, the daughter of Richard Duke of Normandy. Aethelred also ordered the murder of all Danes in England but some escaped to report back. Not surprisingly the Viking attacks started again.
1003John XVII becomes Pope
 
Edward the Confessor is born
 Edward the Confessor is thought to have been born sometime between 1003 and 1005 at Islip in Oxfordshire. His father was Aethelred II, the Unready, and his mother was Emma of Normandy, daughter of Robert I, Earl of Normandy.
1004John XVIII becomes Pope
 
1005Aelfheah becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Aelfheah becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
1009Church of the Holy Sepulchre destroyed
 The unstable sixth Caliph of Egypt, Al-Hakim, ordered the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
Sergius IV becomes Pope
 
1011The Vikings murder Aelfheah
 The Vikings captured Canterbury and obtained a payment of £48,000. In a drunken rage the Vikings murdered Aelfheah, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Aelfheah was the man that had baptised Olaf Trygvasson in the Winter of 994. Outraged by the actions of his fellow men Thorkell the Tall defected to the side of Aethelred along with 45 Viking ships to help defend England from further Viking attacks.
1012Benedict VIII is elected Pope
 
1013Lyfing becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Lyfing becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
Canute (1016 - 1035)
1017JulCanute marries Emma
 Canute married Emma, the widow of Aethelred the Unready. This helped Canute secure ties with Normandy as Emma was the daughter of Count of Normandy.
1020Aethelnoth becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Aethelnoth became Archbishop of Canterbury.
1024John XIX becomes Pope
 
1030Canute at Glastonbury Abbey
 King Canute visited Glastonbury Abbey (possibly 1032) to grant the abbey gifts and privileges. He also knelt at the altar and prayed.
1032Benedict IX becomes Pope
 
Harold Harefoot (1035 - 1040)
1037Bishop John of York is canonised
 Archbishop Aelfric canonised John of York, responsible for founding the monastery at Beverley, as St. John of Beverley.
1038Eadsige becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Eadsige became Archbishop of Canterbury after the death of Aethelnoth.
Harthacnut (1040 - 1042)
1040A new minter at Much Wenlock
 Earl Leofric builds a new Minster on the site of older religious buildings at Much Wenlock.
Edward the Confessor (1042 - 1066)
1045JanEdward marries
 Edward married Edith, the daughter of Earl Godwine. Godwine was then in an extremely powerful position being related to the King of England.
1046Clement II becomes Pope
 
1048Aldred founds Monastery at Gloucester
 Aldred, bishop of Worcester refounded a monastery at Gloucester. A monastery had already been founded at Gloucester in 681 by Ostric.
JulDamasus II was elected Pope
 Reigned for less than a month.
1049Leo IX becomes Pope
 
1050Robert of Jumieges becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Edward appointed the French abbot Robert of Jumieges to the post of Archbishop of Canterbury.
Macbeth visits Rome
 Macbeth took time to travel to Rome on a pilgrimage. Reports of his visit tell of him distributing large amounts of money.
See of Devon and Cornwall moved to Exeter
 The See of Devon and Cornwall had been located at Crediton in Devon but in 1050 Edward the Confessor moved the See to Exeter. This moved the cathedral from an obscure location to a more important one. Edward gave the new Bishopric to Leofric.
1052MarDeath of Queen Emma
 Queen Emma died at Winchester.
SummerStigand becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Stigand, Bishop of Winchester, mediated between the Godwines and Edward the Confessor. The Norman Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert of Jumieges, fled the country with other bishops who had been appointed by Edward. Stigand assumed the title of Archbishop of Canterbury. Robert appealed to Leo IX and Stigand was excommunicated (repeated by Victor II & Stephen IX, repealed by Benedict X, reintroduced by Nicholas II and Alexander II).
1053William marries Matilda
 In spite of objections from Pope Leo, William married Matilda, the daughter of Baldwin V, Earl of Flanders.
1054The Great East-West schism
 Although the split between the East and West Churches can not easily be put down to one event, the conflict caused in 1054 between Pope Loe IX and the patriarch of Constantinople is often thought, rightly or wrongly, as the key moment. Pope Leo IX sent a delegation to Constantinople to discuss differences which resulted in the excommunication of the patriarch by the delegation and in return the excommunication of the delegation by the patriarch.
1055Victor II becomes Pope
 
1056Hereford cathedral burnt
 A force of Welsh and Irish men led by Griffith, a Welsh prince attacked and burnt the building.
1057Stephen IX (or X) becomes Pope
 
1058Nicholas II becomes Pope
 
Gloucester Cathedral rebuilding starts
 Under the direction of Wulfstan, the future Bishop of Worcester, construction work began at Gloucester Cathedral. The new building was burnt down and rebuilt later by Abbot Serlo.
Benedict X is elected the Antipope
 
1061Alexander II becomes Pope
 
Honorius II becomes the Antipope
 
1062Sep 8Wulfstan becomes bishop of Worcester
 A monk at Worcester from 1040, Wulfstan was recommended for the position of bishop by visiting papal legates.
1065Lands from Pershore allocated to Westminster
 Edward the Confessor took lands from Pershore Abbey and allocated them to his new Abbey church at Westminster.
DecDedication of Westminster Abbey
 Work on the Abbey at Westminster was either complete or very nearly so at its dedication. Edward the Confessor who had devoted himself to creation was to die less than two weeks later.
William the Conqueror (1066 - 1087)
1066JunDedication of Holy Trinity at Caen
 William and Matilda were at the dedication of Matilda's church, the Holy Trinity at Caen. To show their devotion they gave their daughter Cecilia to the church to be raised as a nun.
1067Odo becomes William's deputy
 Odo,the Bishop or Bayeux, became William the Conqueror's deputy in England and was assisted by William Fitz Osbern until Osbern's death in 1071. Odo also became the Earl of Kent and his wealth and land became considerable.
1068Malcolm III marries Edgar's sister
 Edgar the Aetheling took refuge with Malcolm III in Scotland along with his sister Margaret. Malcolm and Margaret were married in the same year.
1070Malcolm raids Northern England
 The Scottish king attacked towns in the north of England.
Dunfermline Abbey founded
 The Abbey of Dunfermline was founded by Malcolm III, King of the Scots and his wife Margaret.
Lanfranc becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 William the Conqueror placed Lanfranc in the position of Archbishop of Canterbury a move designed to strengthen his hold on the English throne. Thomas of Bayeux, a pupil of Odo (William's brother), was put in the position of Archbishop of York after the death of Ealred who died on September 11, 1069. Archbishop Stigand was imprisoned in Winchester.
JunHereward the Wake sacks Peterborough Abbey
 As part of a revolt against the new Norman invaders, Hereward the Wake sacks the abbey at Peterborough.
1071Canterbury Cathedral rebuilt by Lanfranc
 Canterbury Cathedral was rebuilt at this time by Archbishop Lanfranc. The Cathedral was based on the design of his abbey in Caen.
1072Old Sarum Cathedral
 The first cathedral at Old Sarum was built between 1075 and 1092. Its builder was Bishop Osmund, who was supposed to be William the Conqueror's nephew. From 1072 until 1078, Osmund was William's Chancellor. In 1078 Osmund was given the title of Bishop of Salisbury.
Serlo takes over at Gloucester
 Serlo, William the Conqueror's chaplain, revived the floundering monastery at Gloucester and started major rebuilding work. Serlo died in 1104.
First Cathedral at Lincoln begun
 The Norman Bishop of Fecamp began work on the first Cathedral church at Lincoln. The bishop's see had been moved from Dorchester-on-Thames.
FebCouncil of Winchester
 Lanfranc held a Church council at Winchester where the reorganisation of Bishops and Bishoprics war confirmed. Canterbury was also confirmed as the head of the English Church rather than York.
1073Gregory VII becomes Pope
 
1075Council of London
 At the Council of London Archbishop Lanfranc instigated the movement of many English Bishoprics to more important locations. One of these was the Bishopric of Sherborne and Wilton which moved to Old Sarum.
Chichester founded as a see
 Chichester was made a bishopric in this year when the bishop moved there from Selsey.
1076Battle Abbey Consecrated
 Even though incomplete, Battle Abbey is consecrated.
1077St. Albans Cathedral building begins
 Work began on St. Albans Cathedral. (More Information to follow)
Rochester Cathedral building begins
 Work on Rochester Cathedral began. (More Information to follow)
Gundulf consecrated as Bishop of Rochester
 Gundulf became Bishop of Rochester, remaining there for thirty years and where he is buried.
Jul 14The Bayeux Tapestry
 The Bayeux Tapestry is first shown at the dedication of Odo's cathedral.
1078Osmond becomes Bishop at Old Sarum
 Osmond was a Norman who came to England with William the Conqueror. He exchanged his noble title for that of a religious one and became Bishop at Old Sarum after Herbert. Osmond continued the construction work of a new cathedral at Old Sarum.
Bishops of East Anglia moved to Thetford
 The two bishoprics of East Anglia and Dunwich (Suffolk) were merged into one and moved to Thetford which was an important town at the time and was in a central location.
1079Winchester Cathedral crypt
 Work began on the crypt and transepts of Winchester Cathedral. Until 1093.
1080Clement III becomes the Antipope
 
Ripon monastery destroyed by Normans
 Ripon monastery destroyed by Normans.
Hereford Cathedral new building
 Robert de Losinga, a Norman Bishop started work on a new Cathedral at Hereford.
1081William tours south Wales
 William the Conqueror visited South Wales and St. David's. He met Rhys ap Tewdwr, the ruler of the area and allowed him to remain in control of the region for a yearly sum of money.
1083Ely Cathedral building begins
 Work began on Ely Cathedral
Odo imprisoned
 William imprisoned his half-brother Odo, Bishop of Bayeux.
1084Worcester Cathedral building begins
 Building work starts on Worcester Cathedral. Orchestrated by Bishop Wulfstan. (More Information to follow)
1086Victor III becomes Pope
 
William Rufus (1087 - 1100)
1087Castle Acre Priory founded
 The Priory was founded by William de Warrene a Norman follower of William the Conqueror.
William Rufus gives Manor of Tewkesbury
 William Rufus gave the Manor of Tewkesbury to his cousin, Robert FitzHamon. Together with the patronage of the Priory of Tewkesbury.
St. Paul's Cathedral Burns down
 Work on rebuilding St. Paul's Cathedral started after the Old St. Paul's burnt down and a good deal of London as well. The person in charge of the rebuilding work was Mauritius, chaplain to William the Conqueror and Bishop of London. The new Cathedral was reportedly extremely large.
1088Foundation of Bath Abbey
 Bath Abbey is founded by John de Villula and populated by Benedictine monks.
Urban becomes Pope
 Urban II was elected Pope in 1088. His real name was Odo of Lagery and chose the name Urban when he became Pope. He had at first been a monk at the abbey at Cluny from 1070 and had become a prior there.
1089Serlo builds the crypt at Gloucester
 Some seventeen years after taking his position at Gloucester, Serlo built the crypt.
May 24Lanfranc dies
 After the death of Archbishop Lanfranc William Rufus held open the post of Archbishop of Canterbury for four years taking the revenues for his own purposes.
1092Old Sarum Cathedral completed and dedicated
 The cathedral at Old Sarum was completed and dedicated to Blessed Virgin. The cathedral was damaged by a storm only five days after the dedication service and the roof destroyed. The location of the cathedral meant it exposed to the wind and the sermons were sometimes drowned out by the sound.
Collegiate church founded at Carlisle.
 A collegiate church was founded at this time at Carlisle and a Norman church was built.
Carlisle Collegiate church founded
 Secular canons founded a collegiate church at Carlisle.
Work begins on Carlisle Cathedral
 Work began on the nave and the southern transept.
1093Durham Cathedral begun
 Durham Cathedral was the first building in Western Europe with ribbed vaulting in the ceiling.
Anselm Becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Anselm became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1093 succeeding Lanfranc. The post of Archbishop of Canterbury had been held open by William Rufus so that he could collect for himself the church's income. Anselm died in 1109.
Benedictines take over at Chester.
 Chester was a strategic site after the Norman Conquest and the Saxon church there was taken over in 1093 by Benedictine monks.
SpringWilliam Rufus seriously ill
 William fell ill early in this year and the illness was so serious that reports went out saying that he had died. William granted land to many religious houses in preparation for his death but when he recovered he claimed the land back.
Nov 16Death of Margaret of Scotland
 Margaret of Scotland died only days after her son and husband had been killed at Alnwick.
1094See of Norwich bought by Hebert de Losinga
 Herbert de Losinga purchased the see (seat of the bishop) for the area around Norwich. The bishops seat was at Thetford but Herbert moved it to Norwich itself before starting the construction of a new cathedral.
Battle Abbey reconsecrated
 Building work at Battle Abbey was completed and the abbey reconsecrated by William Rufus.
1095Monastery at Chester founded
 Hugh 'Lupus' d'Avaranches, the first Earl of Chester, founded a monastery at Chester. Later to become Chester Cathedral.
Wulfstan dies
 Wulfstan was bishop of Worcester. The location of his grave is not known.
MarThe Council of Piacenza
 A delegation led by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus visited Pope Urban II to raise the problems he was having fighting the Muslims in the East. Pope Urban removed the excommunication that had been placed on the Emperor by Pope Gregory and promised to help.
Nov 27The Council of Clermont
 On the last day of the council Pope Urban II preached about the oppression being inflicted on the Christians in the Middle East by the Muslim Seljuks. Christian churches were being destroyed and Christians attacked. The Pope called for the Christians in the West to help.
1096Norwich Cathedral building begins
 Work starts on Norwich Cathedral.
Canterbury Choir, East Transepts and Crypt building work.
 Canterbury Choir, East Transepts and Crypt building work.
Qtr 1Peter the Hermit's (or People's) Crusade
 Following Pope Urban's speech at Clermont Peter the Hermit, a simple man with a powerful ability to move people by his words, started preaching for Christians to help their fellow Christians in the East. He started to gain a large number of followers eager to go to Jerusalem with promises of absolution and freedom from a life of hunger and depravation. His followers were poor, not prepared for the journey and not armed.
JulPeter reaches Byzantium
 At Constantinople the Emperor Alexius welcomed Peter's army but there were too many people and no provision had been made for them. There was a general lack of discipline that resulted in repeated attacks and thefts from surrounding villages. Alexius warned Peter to wait for better trained troops to arrive before moving on but the pressure of the army was so great on Constantinople that they were forced to move before help could arrive.
OctRaymond starts his crusade
 While the People's Crusade led by Peter the Hermit was being crushed in the Holy Land, preparations for the First Crusade carried on in Europe. Those leaders involved were Raymond of Toulouse, Hughes Count of Vermandois, Robert Count of Flanders, Robert Duke of Normandy and Etienne Count of Blois. The leaders arranged to meet at Constantinople and set off taking different routes. Some followed the path across Europe taken by Peter the Hermit, while others took a more southerly routes via the Alps and the Adriatic.
1097Anselm goes into exile
 Conflicts between Archbishop Anselm and William Rufus resulted in the Archbishop leaving England and heading for Rome. William confiscated Anselm's land.
AprCrusaders reach Constantinople
 When the crusaders arrived at Constantinople they were greeted by Emperor Alexius. The Emperor was happy for the crusaders to capture areas of the Holy Land but he wanted the land to be under his control. Alexius persuaded the Leaders of the crusaders to swear an oath of allegiance to him and to hand over the land they captured. They could however be allowed to live on and rule that land but not own it.
1098Abbey of Citeaux founded
 The abbey of Citeaux in Burgundy was founded by Robert of Mosleme. The abbey did not prosper until around 1113 when Stephen Harding became abbot and a couple of years later St. Bernard became the abbot of Clairvaux it's daughter house. The abbey of Citeaux was the start of the massively important Cistercian Order.
1099Nave at Durham constructed
 Construction of the nave at Durham Cathedral began in 1099 and lasted until 1128.
Flambard is made Bishop of Durham
 Ranulf Flambard is made the Bishop of Durham by William Rufus.
Paschal II becomes Pope
 
Henry I (1100 - 1135)
1100Theodoric became the Antipope
 
Qtr 3Anselm recalled from exile
 Henry I had no quarrels with the exiled archbishop and invited Anselm to return from exile and take back his position at Canterbury.
Jul 13Abbey Church at Gloucester dedicated
 The abbey church at Gloucester built by Abbot Serlo was dedicated by Samson the Bishop of Worcester, Gundulph the Bishop of Rochester and Harvey Bishop of Bangor.
AugWilliam buried at Winchester
 William Rufus was buried under the tower of Winchester Cathedral. The tower fell down (either in 1101 or 1107 ?). The cause was blamed on the wickedness of the King's bones but was probably due to poor construction or uncertain foundations.
1101Albert elected Antipope
 
1103Conflicts between Church and State
 Disagreements began to arise between Henry I and Archbishop Anselm over the appointment of bishops and abbots into important Church positions. Anselm believed that it was a matter for the Church to decide and should not be controlled by the King. No concession could be agreed upon and once again Anselm went into exile as the King confiscated the lands that the archbishop owned.
1105Sylvester IV becomes the Antipope
 
1106Oct 17St. Etheldreda's Day
 In 1106 or 1107 at Ely Cathedral the remains of saint Etheldreda were moved into the newly built presbytery. This was done on the saint's day, October 17th.
1107FitzHamon dies
 Robert FitzHamon died of his injuries at Falaise in Normandy in 1107. His son-in-law Robert Fitzroy succeeded to the Manor of Tewkesbury and continued the building the Abbey at Tewkesbury.
Construction of Llandaff Cathedral
 At Llandaff in South Wales bishop Urban began the construction of a new church on the site of a much older religious site.
1108Winchester Cathedral tower
 Work began on the tower of Winchester Cathedral in 1108 and building continued Until 1120.
Death of Gundulf
 Gundulf's thirty year career of magnificent castle and cathedral design and construction came to an end with his death. His plans for the reconstruction of Rochester Cathedral were left incomplete. It was not until 1115 that construction work was to resume under the direction of Ernulf.
Southwell Cathedral nave
 Work began on the nave and transepts in 1105 and work continued until 1150.
1109Church at Ely becomes seat of bishop
 The church at Ely became a Cathedral when it became the seat of the bishopric (or Diocese) of the area.
Apr 21Archbishop Anselm dies
 Death of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
1110Haughmond Abbey Founded
 This Augustinian priory was founded by William, a Lord of Clun.
1111Knights Templars: Formed ?
 Robert was the son Walter, the 6th High Steward of Scotland, and Marjorie Bruce the daughter of Robert I, King of the Scots. Robert was born in 1316. Because it was thought that Robert I would die without an male heir it was decided that his daughter's son, Robert, should become king if circumstances did not change. Circumstances did change with the birth of a boy to Robert I's second wife Elizabeth. The boy became David II, king of Scotland after the death of Robert I. It was not until the death of David II in 1371 that Robert, at the age of fifty-five, became King of Scotland. Robert had many children, possibly twenty or more. The marriage to his first wife, Elizabeth Mure, was considered invalid as they were closely related but his second marriage to Euphemia Ross, was declared legal. The problems other the legitimacy of his children would prove to be a source of dispute for his descendants. Robert died at the age of seventy-four and was succeeded by his son John, Earl of Carrick, who took the name Robert III.
Founding of Neath Abbey
 Neath Abbey in south Wales was founded by Richard de Granville. Originally part of the Savigniac Order.
1112Construction of new cathedral at Exeter
 The second Norman bishop at Exeter, Warelwast started the construction of a new cathedral because he was not happy with the current building.
MarBernard of Clairvaux reaches Citeaux
 Bernard (at the age of 22), his brothers and several Burgundian nobles reached the monastery at Citeaux. As there had not been any new novices for some years, Stephen Harding, the abbot, accepted them willingly.
1113Knights Hospitallers Recognised
 A Papal Bull (a formal proclamation issued by the pope) recognised and named the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem as an independent religious order.
JunWorcester Cathedral damaged by fire
 The city of Worcester, its cathedral and castle were damaged by an accidental fire.
1114Count of Champagne travels to the Holy Land
 The Count of Champagne was preparing to travel to the Holy Land when he received a letter from the bishop of Chartres. The letter stated that the count was planning to join 'la milice du Christ' (the original name for the Templars ?). This seems to indicate that the order existed at this time, as the letter speaks of chastity, something not usually expected of a Crusader.
Chichester Cathedral fire
 Chichester Cathedral suffered a disastrous fire in this year.
JanMatilda marries an Emperor
 Matilda, the daughter of Henry I is married to Emperor Henry V.
1115St. Albans consecrated
 The church at St. Albans was consecrated.
Count of Champagne donates land to St. Bernard
 The count of Champagne donated land to St. Bernard on which the abbey of Clairvaux was built.
Clairvaux Abbey founded
 The Cistercian abbey of Clairvaux was founded in 1115 by Bernard of Fontaines who became Clairvaux's abbot until his death in 1153.
Nave of Rochester Cathedral
 Construction of Rochester Cathedral's name commenced in 1115 and finished around 1130.
1116Fire destroys Peterborough Abbey
 An accidental fire destroys the abbey at Peterborough.
1117Peterborough Cathedral choir and transept
 After the devastating fire of 1116 work began on rebuilding the abbey at Peterborough. The central area including choir and transept were begun first. Work continued until 1155.
1118Gelasius II becomes Pope
 
Gregory VIII becomes the Antipope
 
1119Calixtus II becomes Pope
 
Knights Templar in Jerusalem
 The Knights Templars travelled to the Holy Lands twenty years after Jerusalem was captured by European powers.
Knights Templar order founded in Jerusalem
 Knights Templar order founded in Jerusalem, by Hughes de Payen.
1120Worcester Cathedral Chapter-house
 Work began on the chapter-house of Worcester Cathedral.
Dedication of Llandaff Cathedral
 The church at Llandaff was dedicated by bishop Urban to St. Peter, St. Dubricius, St. Teilo and St. Oudoceus.
1121Henry I marries Adeliza
 Henry I married Adeliza of Louvain at Windsor Castle. Adeliza was his second wife. They did not have any children.
Norwich Cathedral nave and tower
 Work on the nave and central tower was begun in 1121 after the choir and transept. Work finished in 1145.
Reading Abbey founded
 Henry I founded the abbey at Reading. The Cluniac Order of monks populated the abbey.
1122Gloucester fire
 A fire that started in the town of Gloucester spread to the Cathedral destroying treasures and all but a few books.
Kenilworth Abbey Founded
 A priory of Austin Canons was founded in Kenilworth by Geoffrey de Clinton, the Chamberlain of King Henry I. The Priory was raised to the status of an abbey in the reign of Henry VI.
1123Foundation of Inchcolm Abbey
 Alexander I founded this abbey on an island in the middle of the Forth river in Scotland. The Scottish king took refuge on the island in a storm and rewarded the hermit who looked after him with the foundation of a church.
Oct 23Tewkesbury Abbey consecrated
 Five bishops took part in the consecration of Tewkesbury Abbey.
1124Furness Abbey founded
 Founded by Stephen, the future King of England, this abbey is situated near Barrow in Furness. Initially the order was Savigniac but were later converted to Cistercians in 1147 when the orders were merged.
Honorius II becomes Pope
 
Celestine II is elected Antipope
 Was Antipope for just one or two days before resigning in favour of Honorius II.
1126Henry of Blois at Glastonbury
 Henry I brought his nephew, Henry of Blois, from Normandy to take the position of abbot at Glastonbury Abbey.
1128First Cistercian Abbey in Britain
 Waverley Abbey, the first Cistercian abbey was founded.
Construction of new church at Dunfermline Abbey
 The construction of new church buildings was begun in 1128 at Dunfermline Abbey. The outline of this earlier church can be seen on the floor of the current nave.
The nave at Durham is vaulted
 Work on the nave vaulting lasted from 1128 until 1133.
Templar Church in London
 Hugh de Payens may have been granted the land for the first Temple Church in London at this time. Consisting of an orchard, a cemetery, a round church. The position was possibly at the end of Chancery Lane. The temple was moved in 1161.
Lichfield regains Bishop's seat
 Lichfield had lost the status to allow it a cathedral during the eleventh century, but in 1128 Lichfield was restored to its ancient status.
JanCouncil of Troyes takes place
 The Council of Troyes took place. Its aim was to consider the claim of the Knights Templars represented by Hughes de Payen and Andre de Montbard and was brought about by Bernard of Clairvaux. The Council provided papal approval for the Templars and resulted in many new recruits joining the order. The Order was provided it with its first rule, the Latin Rule.
1130Fire at Rochester
 On the same day that Henry I attended the consecration of Rochester Cathedral, a fire took hold in the city and damaged the newly finished building.
Innocent II becomes Pope
 
Canterbury choir dedication
 A new choir started at Canterbury Cathedral in 1093 by Prior Ernulf and completed by Prior Conrad was dedicated in the presence of Henry I, David of Scotland and many English Earls.
Anacletus II becomes the Antipope
 
DecHenry spends Christmas at Woodstock
 Henry spent Christmas at Woodstock.
1131Gilbertines founded
 A minor order of monks and nuns was founded in this year by St. Gilbert. Most of the foundations were set up in the east of England as Gilbert came from Lincolnshire.
Basingwerk Abbey founded
 The North Welsh Cistercian Abbey was colonised by monks from the Norman house called Savigny and was possibly founded by the Earl of Chester at the time, Ranulf de Gernon.
Rievaulx Abbey founded
 The Cistercian abbey of Rievaulx was founded.
1132WinterMonks visit Ripon
 A Group of monks from St. Mary's in York Arrive at Ripon. They go on to found Fountains Abbey
1133Combermere Abbey founded
 Ranulf, the Earl of Chester witnessed the foundation of the new Savigny abbey in the Midlands.
Augustinians at Portchester
 A small priory was built by Augustinian monks within the confines of Portchester Castle.
Durham Cathedral Chapter house
 The Chapter house at Durham Cathedral was begun in 1133 and took until 1140.
Foundation of Garendon Abbey
 A Cistercian abbey founded by monks from Waverley Abbey.
1134Fountains Abbey Founded
 Fountains abbey was founded.
Calder Abbey first founded
 Colonising a new abbey at Calder was first attempted by monks from the Savigny order, but they were driven out by the Scots a few years later.
Stephen (1135 - 1154)
1135Buildwas Abbey founded
 Founded in 1135 by Roger de Clinton. It was populated by monks from Furness Abbey.
Stephen at Hereford
 Stephen visits Hereford Cathedral for his royal proclamation on Whit-Sunday. The chair reputed to have been used by Stephen still exists at Hereford.
1136Buckfast Abbey founded
 The site of an early Benedictine abbey was taken over by the Cistercians with the permission of King Stephen. Monks from Savigny colonised the abbey.
Forde Abbey founded
 Initially the abbey was situated at Brightly in Devon, but the site proved too difficult and in 1141 moved. The founding monks came from Waverly Abbey in Surrey.
JanA fire at St. Paul's
 Reconstruction work on the Cathedral at St. Paul's had been going on since the last major fire of 1087, and this fire again did much damage to the building.
1137Bath Abbey fire
 A fire badly damages the church at Bath Abbey.
York Minster damaged by fire
 York Minster was partially damaged by fire in this year. The near-by church of St. Mary's and some other 37 churches were also damaged. (Need to find out what was happening here.)
1138Foundation of Bordesley Abbey
 Waleran, the earl of Worcester founds a new Cistercian abbey with help from monks from Garendon.
Calder Abbey attacked by the Scots
 Monks of the Savigny order were attacked by the Scots under the control of David I, and were forced to return to Furness Abbey.
Theobald becomes Archbishop
 Theobald is elected as Archbishop of Canterbury.
Victor IV becomes the Antipope
 His reign was only during 1138. A different person was elected antipope in 1159 but took the same name of Victor IV.
1139Kingswood Abbey founded
 A Cistercian abbey was founded by monks from Tintern Abbey. The location of the abbey altered several times in the first few years, but finally settled at Kingswood in Gloucestershire. A sixteenth-century gatehouse is all that remains.
Papal Bull by Pope Innocent II
 A Papal Bull issued by Pope Innocent II, a former Cistercian monk and protégé of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, stated that the Knight Templars should owe allegiance to no one other than the Pope himself. This meant that the Templars answered to no one not even Kings or other political or religious authorities.
Kirkstead Abbey founded
 A daughter house of Fountains Abbey. The initial location of the abbey proved unsuitable and the a new site was chosen near Horncastle in Lincolnshire.
1140Whitland Abbey foundation
 This Cistercian abbey in Wales was colonised by monks from Clairvaux.
Foundation of Augustinian canons at Bristol
 Robert Fitzharding founded a monastery of Augustinian canons in Bristol.
Building of original Bristol church
 Building of original Bristol church.
Coggeshall Abbey founded
 King Stephen and Matilda his wife founded Coggeshall Abbey. This was to be the last of the Savigny abbeys to be founded before the order merged with the Cistercians in 1147.
Abbey Church of St Denis begun
 The construction of the abbey church of St Denis in Paris, the first Gothic Cathedral was begun in 1140. Combining stained glass windows, flying buttresses, choir vaulting and rib vaults, it was a daring innovation in architecture. The specifications were set by the abbot of St Denis, Suger.
1141Lincoln Cathedral damaged by fire
 The roof of the Cathedral burnt down. Bishop Alexander the Magnificent started rebuilding work.
1142Dundrennan Abbey founded
 David I, King of the Scots may have been involved in the foundation of this Cistercian abbey in Scotland. The founding monks probably came from Rievaulx.
Calder Abbey founded
 The Savigny order of monks colonised the a new abbey at Calder in this year. The earlier attempt at colonising the location had failed after being attacked by the Scots.
Cistercians in Ireland
 The first Cistercians arrived in Ireland invited by St. Malachy. Their Abbey of Mellifont was the first of many.
1143Whitland Abbey founded
 Cistercians found Whitland Abbey.
Revesby Abbey founded
 A new Cistercian abbey was founded by monks from Rievaulx in this year. The abbey was founded by William de Roumare I, earl of Lincoln and the first abbot was Ailred, who moved back to Rievaulx in 1146 to become the head of that abbey.
Boxley Abbey founded
 This Cistercian Abbey was founded in 1143 or 1146 by William of Ypres and was colonised by monks from Clairvaux. The Abbey is situated near Maidstone in Kent.
1144 Lucius II becomes Pope
 
1145Eugenius III becomes Pope
 
Jervaulx Abbey founded
 Initially a Savignic foundation, the abbey was taken over by the Cistercian order and responsibility for it was taken by Byland.
Woburn Abbey founded
 A colony of monks from Fountains Abbey move to set up a new Cistercian abbey at Woburn.
Dec 1First formal Bull of crusade
 First formal Papal Bull of Crusade ('Bulla cruciata' - calling on France to restore the Holy Land to Christendom) issued by Eugenius III, together with 'Quantum praedecessors' (reissued 1.3.1146).
1146Knights Templars adopt cross pattee
 The Knights Templars adopted cross pattee; a splayed red cross.
Mar 31Sermon at Vézelay
 St. Bernard's sermon at Vézelay so moved Eleanor of Aquitaine that she vowed to go on Crusade.
Dec 25Diet of Spires
 Diet of Spires; the emperor Conrad III took the cross and secured the election of his son Henry as his successor in Germany.
1147Foundation of Biddlesden Abbey
 A new Cistercian abbey was founded in 1147 by Ernald de Bosco and monks from Garendon.
Dore Abbey founded
 The Cistercian abbey of Dore, south-west of Hereford was founded in 1147 by monks from Morimond
Kirkstall Abbey founded
 A daughter house of Fountains Abbey, the abbey at Kirkstall was first located at Barnoldswick , but was moved a few years later to its current location near Leeds in West Yorkshire.
Bruern Abbey founded
 A Cistercian abbey in Lincolnshire founded by Nicholas Basset and colonised by monks from Waverley.
The Savigny order joins the Cistercians
 The order of Savigny became part of the larger Cistercian movement in this year. The Savigny order was having trouble running its abbeys and it was decided that a merger with the more prosperous Cistercian order was advantageous for both sides.
MayThe start of the Second Crusade
 The crusaders left Regensburg to march across land to Constantinople.
JunLouis VII joins the Crusade
 Declaring Abbot Suger regent of France, Louis VII and Eleanor began their Crusade.
1148Consecration at Bristol
 The Augustinian Abbey at Bristol founded by Robert Fitzharding was consecrated on Easter day in the presence of the Bishops of Worcester, Exeter, St. Asaph and Llandaff.
Lilleshall Abbey Founded
 The Augustinian abbey was founded in around 1148 by Richard de Belmeis.
1150Fountains Abbey cloisters rebuilt
 Work began on rebuilding the cloisters at Fountains Abbey.
Kinloss Abbey founded
 Another Cistercian abbey helped by David I, King of the Scots. The first monks came from Melrose.
Combe Abbey founded
 This Cistercian abbey in the Midlands was founded by Richard de Camville and was a daughter house of Waverley in the south.
Rochester Cathedral West Front
 Work on the West front of Rochester Cathedral began in 1150.
1151Foundation of Flaxley Abbey
 Located in the Forest of Dean, in Gloucestershire, the remains of this Cistercian abbey are in the grounds of a private house. The abbey's benefactor was Roger, Earl of Hereford and it was populated by monks from Bordesley Abbey.
1152MayHenry marries Eleanor
 Only two months after Eleanor of Aquitaine's marriage to Louis VII, king of France was annulled, she married Henry of Anjou - future king of England - Henry II.
1153Anastasius IV becomes Pope
 
Aug 20Death of Bernard of Clairvaux
 Bernard, the abbot of Clairvaux, the post he had held since 1115, and one of the most important religious people in the Middle Ages died at the age of sixty-three.
Henry II (1154 - 1189)
1154Ripon Cathedral rebuilt
 Under the direction of Archbishop Roger of York, Ripon Cathedral was rebuilt. Building work continued until 1180.
Adrian IV becomes Pope
 
Last entry in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles
 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles are a series of historical timelines originally compiled on the orders of King Alfred the Great. The chronicles were maintained and added to by generations of anonymous scribes until the last entry was made in 1154.
Chapter House at Bristol
 Building of the Chapter House at Bristol started in 1154 and continued to 1164.
1155Knights Templar build Temple in Fleet Street
 Being the superintendents of the Masons, the Knights Templars build their Temple in Fleet Street in London.
Peterborough Cathedral Nave
 The nave of Peterborough cathedral was the next phase of rebuilding work after the choir and transept. Work continued until 1175.
Plan for the conquest of Ireland approved
 A plan to conquer Ireland was approved by Pope Adrian IV in a Papal Bull (a formal proclamation issued by the Pope) called Laudabiliter.
1158Dieulacres Abbey founded
 Monks from Combermere founded this daughter house in 1158 at Poulton in Cheshire, but it would later be moved.
SpringHenry visits Wulfstan's Shrine
 At Easter Henry II and his wife Eleanor visited Worcester Cathedral and placed their crowns on the shrine of Wulfstan, vowing not to wear them again.
Sep 23Birth of Geoffrey Plantagenet
 Birth of Geoffrey Plantagenet.
1159Victor IV becomes the Antipope
 
Alexander III becomes Pope
 Alexander III was elected to the position of Pope after the death of Adrian IV. Alexander was supported by the English and the French, but the Germans supported and elected a second Pope known as Octavian.
1160Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France
 Under the direction of the new Bishop of Paris, Maurice de Sulley, a new church was planned. The major construction work would last until around 1235 while minor construction would continue for another 100 years after that. The existing church was pulled down and construction work began in 1163.
1161Coupar Angus Abbey founded
 This Scottish Cistercian abbey was founded by Malcolm IV, King of Scotland. The monks that colonised it came from the abbey at Melrose.
1162Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Thomas Becket becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
Eleanor gives birth in Rouen
 Eleanor of Aquitaine gave birth to a daughter at Rouen. The girl was named Eleanor after he mother.
1163Notre Dame in Paris
 Bishop Maurice de Sulley united the two Cathedrals of Paris, St. Stephen's and the Blessed Virgin with the construction of Notre Dame Cathedral and laid the foundations of the new building that was designed by Eudes de Montreuil.
JulCouncil at Woodstock
 The council held at the Royal Palace of Woodstock near Oxford was the scene for a clash between Henry II and Thomas Becket over the control of payments to Sheriffs. Becket opposed the plan and was going to oppose more of Henry's reforms in the near future.
OctHenry II puts plans of reform to Council of Westminster
 Henry II put his plans before the Council of Westminster to reform the judicial system allowing the courts power over members of the Church which had the luxury of their own courts. Thomas Becket stood against the plans starting a rift between him and Henry that would led to Becket's death.
1164Paschall III becomes the Antipope
 
Foundation of Strata Florida Abbey
 This Cistercian abbey was founded by Robert fitz Stephen, a Norman. Monks were sent from the Cistercian abbey at Whitland to populate the new monastery.
Jan 30William of Paitin dies
 William of Paitin, Henry II's brother, died at Rouen.
Jan 30Constitutions of Clarendon
 A series of statements laid down by Henry II regarding the relationship between the church and the state. One statement was the cause for the rift between Henry and Thomas Becket, that said that a member of the church who committed a crime should be available to be tried in a state court and not just a church one. Clarendon is near Salisbury.
Apr 19Reading Abbey consecrated
 Thomas Becket consecrated the abbey at Reading on its completion in this year.
Oct 6Council of Northampton
 Council of Northampton held to discuss the Welsh rebellion and the Constitution of Clarendon; the Council tried Thomas Becket (8.10) and found him guilty of perjury (failure to appear at Council) and heresy; he was sentenced to forfeiture of his possessions; the sentence was quashed by Alexander III and Becket fled to Lincoln (14.10) and then France (2.11).
Nov 2Becket flees to France
 Becket fled to France and sought the protection of Pope Alexander III, who himself was in exile.
1166Assize of Clarendon
 A series of legislative statements made by Henry II with the aim of improving the justice process, including the jury system.
Becket excommunicates his enemies
 Richard de Lucy, joint Chief Justiciar in England, excommunicated by Thomas Becket.
1168Calixtus III becomes the Antipope
 
1169Jan 6Becket submits to Henry
 Henry II of England, Louis VII of France and Becket met at Montmirail; Becket submitted to Henry excepting only on point, and negotiations failed (7.1); a second meeting took place (7.2) at St. Leger-en-Yvelines, and a papal ultimatum served on Henry..
1170Fire damages Norwich Cathedral
 Some repair work was carried out at the Cathedral after the fire in 1170 (or 1171).
The Galilee porch at Durham is built
 The Galilee porch on the West front of Durham Cathedral was built between 1170 and 1175.
Kingswood Abbey Founded
 The Gloucestershire abbey was moved back to Kingswood and populated by monks from Tintern.
Jul 22Becket and Henry at Freteval
 Henry II and Thomas Becket met near Freteval in France where they came to an agreement to end their differences. This resulted in Becket's partial restoration.
Dec 1Thomas Becket returns to England
 Henry II sent word to England saying that the conflict with Thomas Becket was at an end and his lands should be restored. Hearing this Becket returned to England landing on the south coast at Sandwich.
Dec 25Becket excommunicates his enemies
 On Christmas Day Thomas Becket took to the pulpit at Canterbury Cathedral and gave his sermon. At the end of the sermon he excommunicated several of his enemies who had taken part in his earlier troubles with the King.
Dec 29Thomas Becket is murdered
 When Henry II heard that Thomas Becket had returned to England and was threatening to excommunicate his opponents, his outrage was such that four knights overhearing the King travelled to England and killed Becket inside Canterbury Cathedral.
1171York Minster construction work
 Archbishop Roger began reconstruction work of a new church after the previous one had been destroyed by fire.
Bindon Abbey founded
 A group of Cistercian monks from Forde Abbey colonised a new abbey at Bindon near Wareham on the south coast of England.
Jan 1Henry II told of the murder of Becket
 Henry II told of the murder of Becket.
Aug 6Henry II returns to England
 Henry II returned to England and visits Henry of Blois, the bishop of Winchester who was dying.
Aug 8Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, dies
 Henry of Blois died.
1172May 21Compromise of Avranches
 Even though Henry II was cleared of involvement in Thomas Becket's murder, he did penance before the Cathedral at Avranches in Normandy. The compromise was a deal struck between Henry and the church over the matter of Becket's death. (More detail required).
AugThe Young King is crowned
 At a ceremony at Winchester Cathedral Henry, the Young King, and his wife Margaret were both crowned.
1173Feb 21Becket canonised
 Becket was canonized by Pope Alexander III. His shrine at Canterbury Cathedral became extremely wealthy due to the number of pilgrims visiting it and donating money.
1174Canterbury Cathedral fire
 Canterbury Cathedral suffered another disastrous fire and was damaged so badly that it needed almost completely rebuilding. William of Sens was given the task of constructing a new Cathedral. William was injured by a fall from scaffolding and the work was continued by William the Englishman.
Jul 7Whipping of Henry II
 Henry II accepted his part, even though indirect, in the killing of Thomas Becket. He was whipped by the monks of Canterbury as punishment.
1175Canterbury Choir building work
 Canterbury Choir building work by William of Sens.
1176Cwmhir Abbey is founded
 Cistercian monks from Whitland founded the Welsh abbey of Cwmhir in this year.
Croxden Abbey founded
 Monks from the Savigniac abbey Aulnay-sur-Odon in Normandy found a new abbey in England.
1177Byland Abbey founded
 After several years of moving the location of this abbey, the Cistercian monks finally settled at Byland in North Yorkshire.
Henry II refounds Amesbury Abbey
 Henry II removed the existing nuns from Amesbury Abbey and replaced them nuns from the abbey of Fontevrault in France. The abbey was originally founded in 979 by Alfrida.
1179Canterbury Trinity Chapel and corona building work
 Canterbury Trinity Chapel and corona building work by William Englishman.
Rochester fire
 In 1177 or 1179 another fire took hold in the city of Rochester damaging the Cathedral.
Innocent III becomes the Antipope
 (Not the same as Pope Innocent III)
Nov 1Philip II of France crowned
 Following the Capetian tradition of the French Kings, King Louis VII of France had his eldest son Philip crowned at Rheims Cathedral. Philip then became joint ruler of France.
1181SepLucius III becomes Pope
 
1182Dedication of Notre Dame Cathedral
 The high altar was complete enough at Notre Dame in Paris for its dedication ceremony lead by the Papal Legate Henry and Heraclius, the patriarch of Jerusalem.
1184MayFire destroys Glastonbury Abbey
 A serious fire damaged the abbey at Glastonbury resulting in the need for major rebuilding work.
1185Lincoln Cathedral damaged
 Earth tremors damaged the Cathedral at Lincoln beyond repair. The earthquake must have been very powerful as it was said that it was felt throughout the country. Only the West front survived in good shape and rest of the building had to be demolished.
NovUrban III becomes Pope
 
1186Aberconwy Abbey founded
 A Cistercian Abbey was founded by monks from Strata Florida in Wales in Conwy.
Cleeve Abbey planned
 Plans for a Cistercian abbey in Somerset were put forward around about this time.
1187Another fire at Chichester Cathedral
 Chichester Cathedral suffered another disastrous fire.
Crusade sermon at Llandaff Cathedral
 Archbishop Baldwin preached the Crusade, the spot being marked with a cross that was restored in 1897.
Jul 3Army of Jerusalem defeated
 The army of Jerusalem was beaten by Turkish forces. Guy of Lusignan was King of Jerusalem at this time. All Knights Templars and Hospitallers who survived the battle were executed afterwards.
OctGregory VIII was Pope from October to December
 
Oct 2Jerusalem falls to the Muslims
 The al-Asqu mosque was returned to Islam. The Muslims allowed four Christian Priests to hold services in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This was opposed to the first Crusaders who since they first captured the city in 1099 had treated Jerusalem as theirs alone. The Muslim leader was Al-Malik al-Nasir Salad ed-Din Yusuf (Saladin).
NovRichard takes the Cross. The Crusade
 Richard took the Cross. Before going on a Crusade a vow was taken and the person was given a piece of cloth in the shape of a cross to be sown onto the surcoat. To go on a Crusade meant a person was granted a plenary indulgence which freed them from the terrors of purgatory and hell if they killed the enemy and gave them the promise of eternal life in heaven.
DecClement III becomes Pope
 
Richard I (1189 - 1199)
1189Teutonic Knights established
 The Order of the Teutonic Knights established at Acre.
Aug 29John marries
 John 'Lackland' married Isabella of Gloucester.
1191Foundation of Glenluce Abbey
 Foundation of a Cistercian abbey in south-west Scotland by the lords of Galloway.
Celestine III becomes Pope
 
1192Rebuilding of Lincoln Cathedral
 After the damaging earth tremors of 1185 Bishop Hugh of Lincoln started rebuilding work on the Cathedral at Lincoln. His new scheme was followed even after his death apart from minor alterations up to the completion of the Angel Choir in 1280.
Lincoln Cathedral choir
 Work on the choir and east transept progressed between 1192 and 1200.
1193Hubert Walter becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Hubert Walter follows Baldwin as Archbishop of Canterbury.
West Front of Peterborough Cathedral
 The West front of Peterborough Cathedral was constructed between the years 1193 and 1230.
1194Plans to move Old Sarum cathedral
 Bishop Herbert Poore presented plans to move the cathedral at Old Sarum to a new site nearer the river to be called New Sarum, or now Salisbury. Richard I approved the plan.
Apr 17The 'Crown Wearing'
 Richard took part in a precession to Winchester Cathedral. The king wore a golden crown and was followed by notables from the Church and State. The previous Crown Wearing was in 1158.
1195Alteration to the West End
 Modifications to the west end of the church were undertaken under the direction of the abbot John de Cella. The plan was to add an extra three bays to the existing structure. Progress was slow due to mismanagement of the funds and when John de Cella died not much progress had been achieved. The work was completed under the direction of the next abbot, William of Trumpington.
1197Building work at Notre Dame
 Maurice de Sulley died in 1196 but the building work at Notre Dame continued under the direction of his successor Eudes de Sulley.
1198Cymer Abbey founded
 This Cistercian abbey in north-west Wales was colonised by monks from Cwmhir.
Cleeve Abbey colonised
 Monks from Revesby in Lincolnshire moved to Somerset and colonised the new abbey at Cleeve.
Innocent III becomes Pope
 
John (1199 - 1216)
1199FebTeutonic Knights
 The Order of the Teutonic Knights is approved by Pope Innocent III.
1200Fire destroys the cathedral at Rouen
 The early cathedral at Rouen in France was badly damaged by a fire that destroyed other churches and parts of the city as well.
Lincoln Cathedral Great transept
 Work began on the Lincoln Cathedral's main West transept, or Great transept in 1200.
Rochester Cathedral Presbytery and Choir
 Building work on eastern area of the Cathedral began in around 1200 and continued until 1227.
John divorces Isabella of Gloucester
 King John had been married to Isabella of Gloucester for several years but they had no children. When John became king he quickly obtained a divorce leaving himself free to arrange a marriage that would give him political gain. Within the year he would marry Isabella of Angouleme, the daughter of an important baron in Aquitaine.
1201Dunkeswell Abbey founded
 This Cistercian abbey in Devon was founded by William Brewer.
Valle Crucis Abbey founded
 The abbey in North Wales was founded in 1201 by Madog ap Gruffuud Maelor.
1202Winchester Cathedral Retrochoir and Lady Chapel
 Work began on the retrochoir (area to the east of the presbytery) and the Lady Chapel of Winchester Cathedral. Until 1235.
The Fourth Crusade
 The Fourth Crusade.
Worcester Cathedral fire
 The devastating fire in this year caused so much damage that the building needed to be rebuilt.
1203Beaulieu Abbey founded
 Founded by King John who wanted to become an object of prayer by the Cistercian order. The abbey was built on the site of a hunting lodge in the New Forest and was colonised by monks directly from Citeaux.
1204Apr 1Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine
 Eleanor, Henry II's wife and John's mother died.
1205DecJohn forces election of De Gray
 When Hubert Walter died a dispute began between King John and the monks of Canterbury over who should become the new Archbishop of Canterbury. King John wanted John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich, to have the position but the monks wanted their sub-prior, Reginald. The matter was delayed until December when a mission sent to Rome could consult the Pope. Reginald himself went as part of the mission and stated that he had been elected by the monks. When King John heard of this he demanded that De Gray should be elected and the monks dutifully did.
1206DecThe Pope chooses Stephen Langton for Canterbury
 Although the monks of Canterbury wanted their own sub-prior for the post of Archbishop and King John wanted John de Gray, Pope Innocent III chose Stephen Langton. Langton was originally from Lincolnshire but after teaching in Paris had moved to Rome where he had become a Cardinal. The monks of Canterbury accepted the Pope's decision and voted Langton in as the new Archbishop. King John did not agree.
1207Stephen Langton becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Stephen Langton was chosen as Archbishop of Canterbury by Pope Innocent III.
Earl of Leicester loses land
 King John took the land of the Earl of Leicester (father of Simon de Montfort) and banished him from England.
AugThe Pope threatens an Interdict
 The Pope threatened King John with the sentence of Interdict unless he accepted Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. An Interdict meant that church services would be banned in England except for baptisms and confessions.
Dec 97John at Worcester
 King John visited Worcester and gave funds for the rebuilding of the Cathedral after the devastating fire.
1208Peter of Castelnau is murdered
 Peter of Castelnau, the papal legate, was murdered by heretics belonging to the Albigensains. The Albigensains were an extreme religious group based in the south of France. The Pope wanted them to cease their opposition to the Church. The murder led to the start of the Albegensian Crusade that would destroy the heretics.
West front of Notre Dame
 After the nave was completed construction work commenced on the west front of Notre Dame Cathedral under the direction of Pierre de Nemours.
Mar 24Interdict served by the Pope
 With King John still refusing to accept Langton as Archbishop the Pope served the sentence of Interdict on England. In response King John confiscated church property. Many of the bishops of the great churches in the country fled abroad to the Continent.
1209Langton lands at Dover
 Stephen Langton landed in England from France to see King John and take the position of Archbishop of Canterbury. John refused to meet with him although John did meet Stephen's brother Simon.
Jul 22Albigensians massacred
 The Albignsian stronghold of Beziers was besieged and when it was captured all the people within it were massacred.
NovJohn excommunicated by the Pope
 King John is excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
1210Fountains Abbey rebuilding work
 Rebuilding work of the eastern parts at Fountains Abbey.
1211Rheims Cathedral destroyed by fire
 The French cathedral was left beyond repair after a fire.
SummerExcommunication served
 In Northampton the Papal legate Pandulf served King John with his excommunication ordered by the Pope. For John this was a serious blow to his ability to rule the country as it absolved the King's subjects from their oaths of allegiance, gave the Barons reason to revolt and allowed the King of France to invade England to remove John from power.
1212Children's Crusade
 A mysterious Crusade supposed to have consisted of children from Germany and possibly France. How young the children were who took part is not known and they may not have been children at all. The Crusaders did not get very far and many of those that took part never came back. They were either killed or sold into slavery.
NovJohn accepts Pope's demands
 Taking the advice of William Marshal John accepted the demands of the Pope and that Stephen Langton should become Archbishop. A peace mission was also sent to the Pope.
1213MayKing John's first act of submission
 King John made his first act of submission to the Pope's envoy.
Jul 20Excommunication lifted
 When King John agreed to meet Stephen Langton at Winchester he was absolved from excommunication.
Sep 26Pope's envoy arrives in England
 Cardinal Nicholas De Romanis arrived in England to prepare for the settlement of the Interdict. John's punishment was to pay 100,000 marks to compensate the church for the losses he had caused it.
Oct 3Second act of submission
 King John appeared at St. Paul's Cathedral in a second act of submission to the Pope.
1214Dieulacres Abbey moved
 A new location for this Cistercian abbey was found near Leek in Staffordshire.
Foundation of Deer Abbey
 This Cistercian abbey near Peterhead in Scotland was founded by monks from Kinloss.
Jun 29Interdict lifted
 At St. Paul's Cathedral, in London, the Interdict was finally lifted.
Henry III (1216 - 1272)
1216Honorius III becomes Pope
 
Jul 18Honorius III elected as the new Pope
 Pope Innocent III died on July 16 and two days later in Rome the cardinals elected Honorius III as the Pope.
OctKing John buried at Worcester
 King John's wishes were to be buried at the church at Worcester.This was done and King John's body was placed in a tomb at the centre of the Cathedral.
1217Foundation of Culross Abbey
 Cluross Abbey, in Fife Scotland, was founded by this year by Malcolm, the Earl of Fife.
1219The Fifth Crusade (1219-21)
 The Fifth Crusade.
Foundation of Deer Abbey
 The Cistercian Deer Abbey in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, was founded by William Coymn, the Earl of Buchan. It was populated with monks from Kinloss.
1220Salisbury Cathedral rebuilding started
 A new site 2 miles from the original site at Old Sarum was chosen for the new Salisbury Cathedral. For a Cathedral the building work was completed in a very short time and the building was consecrated in 1258 only 38 years later.
Work on the Lady Chapel of Salisbury Cathedral
 The Lady Chapel of Salisbury Cathedral appears to be the starting point of the construction of the new cathedral. Work continued until 1225.
Chapter-house of Lincoln Cathedral
 Lincoln's Chapter-house was constructed between 1220 and 1235.
Tower Collapse at St. David's
 (Or 1200) The central tower collapsed at St. David's Cathedral destroying the presbytery resulting in construction work to repair the damage.
Lady Chapel at Oxford
 Work began on the Lady Chapel at Oxford Cathedral. The chapel was incorporated into the layout of the Cathedral as an extra aisle built onto the north side of the building.
Jul 7Stephen Langton returns to England
 Stephen Langton returned to England and resumed the role of Archbishop of Canterbury. He performed a ceremony in Canterbury in which relics from St. Thomas Becket were put in a tomb. The 7th of July became St. Thomas of Canterbury's Day; a major holy day.
1221Joan marries Alexander II
 At York Minster, king John's daughter Joan married Alexander II, the king of the Scots. Joan was only eleven years old at the time of the wedding.
Hubert de Burgh
 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, travelled to Rome and left Hubert de Burgh in charge of affairs of the country.
1223Fire at Pershore Abbey
 A fire destroys part of the abbey church at Pershore.
1225Salisbury Choir
 Work on the Choir at Salisbury Cathedral started in 1225 and lasted until 1237.
1226York Minster South Transept
 Building work on the South Transept of York Minster until 1241.
Grace Dieu Abbey founded
 This was a daughter house of the Cistercian abbey at Dore near Hereford. The foundation would have been earlier but the abbey was attacked and burnt by the Welsh in 1223. The abbey was situated near Monmouth, but no real remains can be seen.
Lady Chapel at Hereford
 From around 1226 until 1246, construction of the Lady Chapel at Hereford cathedral was undertaken.
1227Gregory IX becomes Pope
 
Balmerino Abbey founded
 The Scottish Cistercian abbey built by monks from Melrose abbey. The abbey is situated on the shores of the Firth of Tay.
1228The Sixth Crusade (1228-9)
 The Sixth Crusade was won with diplomacy by Frederick II, who had married the heiress of Jerusalem in 1225. He went to the East to claim his right to the throne, and taking advantage of internal disputes between the Sultan's family members, concluded the Treaty of Jaffa, which gave Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth back to the Christians.
Stephen Langton dies
 On the death of Stephen Langton, the archbishop of Canterbury, the Pope, attempting to raise as much money from the clergy in England filled senior posts in the clergy with anyone who bidded the highest.
1230Wells Cathedral West Front
 Work commenced on the West Front of Wells Cathedral.
Wells Cathedral West Front Started
 Building of the West Front of Wells Cathedral was begun.
Rievaulx Abbey rebuilding work
 Rebuilding work commenced at Rievaulx Abbey.
1232Lacock Abbey founded
 Lacock Abbey in Wiltshire was founded by Ela, Countess of Salisbury, the widow of William Longespee, the son of Henry II.
Oaks given to Gloucester
 Henry III donated one hundred and ten oaks from the forest of Dean to help in repair work at Gloucester church.
1236The Pope condemns links to the Assassins
 Pope Gregory IX condemned the links that both the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller had with the Assassin fighters in the Middle East. He issued a Bull (a formal proclamation issued by the pope) preventing further contact with the Assassins.
Canterbury Cloister building work
 Canterbury Cloister building work.
Jan 4Henry marries
 Henry married Eleanor, one of four daughters of Raymond count of Provence. Eleanor was 14 years old. Simon de Montfort, as Lord High Steward, took care of the banquet and kitchen arrangements.
1237Transepts and Nave of Salisbury Cathedral
 Construction of the major transept and nave of Salisbury Cathedral started in 1237 and lasted until 1258. Salisbury Cathedral has a smaller choir transept.
Lincoln tower collapses
 During a sermon by one of the canons of the cathedral, the newly finished central tower collapsed burying some of the congregation.
1238JanSimon marries Henry's sister
 Simon de Montfort married Henry III's sister, Eleanor secretly. She had been married to William, Earl of Pembroke (son of William Marshal?), but he died early and left her with his wealth. The Barons were not happy with this arrangement as they were not consulted.
1239Theobald of Champagne's Crusade
 The Crusade of Theobald of Champagne and the King of Navarre was a French expedition that did little, except obtain concessions from Damascus in Galilee, and Ascalon from Egypt. Richard of Cornwall, the brother of Henry III, arrived after Theobald had left, but managed to strengthen both concessions in Galilee, and the fortifications at Ascalon.
Wells Cathedral dedication of church
 The church at Wells was dedicated in this year, but did not get its status as a Cathedral until 1244.
1240Building work at St. Paul's complete
 The central tower and the choir had been rebuilt during the first part of the thirteenth century and by 1240, building work was completed. Some changes were made at the end of this century, but then no major alterations occurred until after the Reformation.
North Transept of Rochester Cathedral
 Work on the north transept between 1240 and 1255.
Chapter-house as Lichfield
 The Chapter-house at Lichfield has two storeys, the lower one for the meetings and the upper one for the library. The building is roughly octagonal in shape, but two sides are double the length of the others.
1241OctCelestine IV becomes Pope
 Celestine IV was Pope for only seventeen days before his death in November
1242York Minster North Transept
 Building work on the North Transept of York Minster until 1255.
Chapel of the Nine Altars
 The Chapel of the Nine Altars in built on the east end of Durham Cathedral between 1242 and 1280.
OctEarl Richard's vow
 During a violent storm at sea, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, vowed to build a Religious house if he survived. He did survive and as a result Hailes Abbey was built.
1243Innocent IV becomes Pope
 
1244Bishop of Bath and Wells
 The Pope decreed that Wells should be reinstated as a Cathedral and the Bishop became the Bishop of Bath and Wells.
AugJerusalem falls.
 With the fall of Jerusalem and the crushing defeat of the Christian armies at Gaza, Louis IX took the cross and prepared for a Crusade. (It took him four years to set sail).
1245Rebuilding of Westminster Abbey
 Henry started the work of rebuilding Westminster Abbey as a tribute to Edward the Confessor.
Carpini, the Christian envoy, travels to the Mongol Empire
 Carpini, a Christian envoy travelled to the seat of the Mongol Emperor at Karakoram and another, Roubrouck followed in 1253.
Carlisle Cathedral building work
 Work on the choir, aisles and arcading began and construction lasted until 1292 when a fire badly damaged the Cathedral.
1246Beaulieu Abbey dedicated
 The Cistercial abbey at Beaulieu founded earlier by King John was dedicated in the presence of King Henry III, Queen Eleanor and Prince Edward.
Hailes Abbey begun
 Twenty monks and ten lay brothers (monks who performed manual tasks) arrived at Hailes to start work on the new Abbey.
1247Henry receives a relic
 Henry received a relic from the patriarch of Jerusalem consisting of a portion of the blood of Christ in a crystal vase. Henry walked with the vase in his hands clothed in a course robe from the treasury in St. Paul's to the church of Westminster where mass was said. He was assisted by attendants on both sides in case he slipped and dropped the vase.
1248The Seventh Crusade (1248-54)
 After the Christians were defeated at Gaza in 1244, Louis IX of France (St. Louis) took the cross. He actually managed to set sail for Cyprus, his base some four years later. Landing at Damietta in June 1249, Louis, he to wait until the Nile floods had reduced before continuing for Cairo. Held up and cut off from Damietta, Louis' camp was struck with disease and most were killed or captured. Louis was taken prisoner, and had to pay a ransom to be freed.
Bath Lady Chapel
 Construction of the Lady Chapel between 1248 to 1264.
1251Nov 5Dedication of Hailes Abbey
 The King and Queen, with Richard, Earl of Cornwall (the King's brother) were at Hailes Abbey for its dedication ceremony.
Dec 26Margaret marries Alexander III
 Henry III's daughter Margaret married Alexander III, king of the Scots, at York Minster. Both bride and groom were under the age of eleven at the time of the wedding. The festivities were huge as many members of the English and Scottish courts attended the wedding.
1252Shrine to St. Ethelreda installed at Ely
 A shrine to St. Ethelreda was installed in the retrochoir of the cathedral. The ceremony was attended by Henry III and many other dignitaries.
1254Edward marries
 Edward (I) at the age of fifteen travels from Portsmouth with his mother and the Archbishop of Canterbury to marry Eleanor of Castile the half-sister of the King Alfonso X of Castile. Both Edward and Eleanor are descended from Henry II.
Alexander IV becomes Pope
 
1255Angel Choir at Lincoln
 Work began on the construction of the Angel Choir at Lincoln Cathedral in order to house the body of St. Hugh. Work was completed in 1280. The celebration of the movement of the body was attended by Edward I, the Queen and many important figures of the time.
OctEdward and Eleanor return to England
 After the marriage at a Cistercian convent in Castile, Edward and Eleanor returned via Dover to England. Eleanor lived initially at Windsor Castle.
1257Building work at St. Albans
 Sections of the Norman apses at the eastern end of the church were damaged during the earthquake of 1250. It was decided to knock these down and replace them with a plan based on work that had been carried out at Westminster Abbey. The work took over sixty years to complete due to periods when funds were lacking.
1258The West Front of Salisbury Cathedral
 Work on the excellent West Front of Salisbury Cathedral began around 1258 and took until 1266.
1261Urban IV become Pope
 
Qtr 1Absolved from the Provisions of Oxford
 Pope Alexander IV agreed to absolve Henry from the Provisions of Oxford.
May 25Death of Pope Alexander IV
 Urban IV was elected Pope after the death of Pope Alexander IV.
1263Salisbury Cathedral Cloisters
 The cloisters at Salisbury Cathedral were started around 1263 and the work on them continued until around 1284.
1265Clement IV becomes Pope
 
Work begins on the Lady Chapel at Chester.
 Work is begun on the Lady Chapel at Chester Cathedral.
SummerArmies march
 Simon's son was sent to London to raise money and troops. He diverted back through Winchester which was loyal to the king and then moved through Oxford and Northampton. Edward (I) moved from Worcester to Bridgnorth destroying bridges and means of allowing Simon who was on the Welsh side of the Avon from crossing back. The people of Bristol, friendly to Simon's cause sent ships to Newport to help Simon cross, but they were intercepted and destroyed by Edward.
1268JunEdward take the cross
 Edward (I) took the cross in preparation for a Crusade from Ottobuono Fieschi, the papal legate. Ottobuono Fieschi had been sent to help both Henry and Edward sort out troubles at home and was an important factor in the country's rule from 1265 to 1268.
1269Oct 13Edward the Confessor moved
 Henry had Edward the Confessor's remains moved from behind the alter to a newly built golden shrine within Westminster Abbey.
1270Tintern Abbey begun
 Building work begins on Tintern Abbey.
JulPrince Edward leaves for the Holy Land
 Prince Edward (I), his wife Eleanor, his cousin Henry (son of the King of the Romans) and many knights left for the Holy Land.
Jul 20The Eighth Crusade
 Louis IX once again set out on Crusade, not to the east but towards Tunis. Charles, the brother of Louis, influenced the direction as Charles had plans in the East (?). At Cathage in July, the plague broke out and in August Louis died.
Sep 14Relic given to Hailes Abbey
 A phial containing the blood of Jesus was presented to abbey of Hailes by the son of Richard, Earl of Cornwall. The phial had been guaranteed by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and had been bought from the Count of Flanders in 1267. A section of the abbey was rebuilt to hold the relic, and it was held in a purpose built shrine. A similar relic had been presented to the King, Henry III several years before in 1247.
1271Gregory X becomes Pope
 
Edward I (1272 - 1307)
1272Peterborough Cathedral's Lady Chapel
 The Lady Chapel of the Cathedral at Peterborough was constructed between 1272 and 1286.
Nov 16Henry III dies
 Henry was buried in the church of St. Peter's at Westminster (which he had rebuilt) in the former grave of Edward the Confessor whose remains Henry had moved to a golden shrine.
1273Foundation of Sweetheart Abbey
 This Cistercian abbey was founded by Lady Devorgilla, the wife of John Balliol of Barnard Castle. Monks from Dundrennan Abbey colonised Sweetheart Abbey.
FebEdward visits the Pope
 Edward met the Pope in Rome.
1274Vale Royal Abbey founded
 The foundation of this abbey in Cheshire was a result of an almost disastrous sea crossing by Edward I. His fulfilment of a vow taken during the voyage resulted in a new abbey called Vale Royal.
Jul 11Birth of Robert the Bruce
 Robert the Bruce, the future King of Scotland, was born at Turnberry Castle, Ayreshire on the west coast of Scotland.
Aug 19Edward I crowned at Westminster
 Seventeen days after returning from the Crusade, Edward was crowned King of England at Westminster.
1275Jews forbidden to lend money
 Edward I ordered the Jews to stop lending money and charging high rates of interest (usury). Instead, Edward suggested that the Jews should become farmers or learn crafts to earn a living. The Church controlled many of the trade guilds so it was impossible for the Jews to join and it was not possible for them to suddenly learn how to farm land. This led to hardship for many and some resorted to coin clipping. This meant shaving small amounts of metal from coins and melting the shavings down to sell for profit.
Chapter-house at Salisbury
 The Chapter-house at Salisbury Cathedral was begun in 1275.
Death of Margaret
 Margaret, the wife of Alexander III, died in this year.
Earthquake destroys Tor church
 The church at the top of Glastonbury Tor was badly damaged by an earthquake.
1276Jan Innocent V was Pope between January and July
 
JulAdrian V was Pope bewteen July and August
 
SepJohn XXI becomes Pope in September
 
1277Nicholas III becomes Pope
 
Aug 13Vale Royal Abbey foundation stone laid
 Edward and his wife Eleanor of Castile laid the foundation stone of the Cistercian Abbey of Vale Royal in Cheshire.
1278Buckland Abbey founded
 This Cistercian abbey in Devon was colonised by monks from the abbey on the Isle of White. Amicia de Redvers was responsible for its foundation in memory of her husband and son who had died.
Many Jews executed
 Many Jews were arrested in London for coin clipping and almost 300 of them were executed for the crime.
Mar 97King Arthur's remains reburied
 King Edward I and Queen Eleanor visited Glasonbury Abbey and ordered that the tomb of King Arthur be opened for their inspection. In a ceremony the remains were taken to the high altar and then reburied.
1280South Transept at Rochester
 Work on the South Transept and nave commenced in 1280.
1281Martin IV becomes Pope
 
1285Honorius IV becomes Pope
 
1286York Minster Chapter-house
 Building work on the Chapter-house of York Minster until 1296.
1289Norwich Cathedral Chapter-house
 The Chapter-house at Norwich Cathedral was under construction between 1289 and 1303.
1290DecThe 'Eleanor Crosses'
 As Edward travelled with the body of his wife Eleanor from Harby near Lincoln where the Queen died to Westminster a series of crosses were later erected at each location that the body rested over night.
1291York Minster Nave and West Front
 Building work on the Nave and West Front of York Minster until 1345.
1292Rebuilding work at Exeter Cathedral
 Bishop Bitton rebuilt the choir at Exeter Cathedral between 1292 and 1307.
Rebuilding work at Carlisle Cathedral
 Work began on rebuilding the choir, piers and east bay of the cathedral after a damaging fire
Carlisle Cathedral damaged by fire
 The Cathedral is extensively damaged by fire.
1293Wells Cathedral chapter House begun
 The Chapter House and the complicated arrangement of steps leading to them were started in this year and were not completed until around 1310.
1294Boniface VIII becomes Pope
 
Celestine V was Pope between July and December
 
1295Southwell Cathedral Chapter-house
 Work began on the Chapter-house of Southwell Cathedral in 1295 and continued until 1300
1297Norwich Cathedral cloisters
 Cloisters at Norwich Cathedral were built between 1297 and 1318.
AugLouis IX is canonised
 Pope Boniface VIII made King Louis IX of France a saint of the Church twenty seven years after his death whilst on crusade.
1299SepEdward marries
 Edward I married Philippe's sister Margaret and his son, Edward (II), married Philippe's daughter Isabella.
1303Benedict XI becomes Pope
 
Oct 11Death of Boniface VIII
 Boniface, the Pope, died a few weeks after being held captive by supporters of the French King over taxation disputes.
1304Canterbury Screen of choir and chapter house building work
 Canterbury Screen of choir and chapter house building work.
1305'Captivity of the Popes'
 Lasting from 1305 until 1378, the Popes lived in Avignon in southern France and not in Rome.
Clement V becomes Pope
 
1306Central Tower at Lincoln Cathedral
 The central tower at Lincoln Cathedral was constructed between 1306/7 and 1311.
Lady Chapel at Bristol Abbey
 The construction of the Lady Chapel at Bristol Abbey took place.
Edward II (1307 - 1327)
1307Jul 7Death of Edward I
 Edward I died at Burgh-upon-the-Sands on the Solway with Scotland in view across the Firth. Right up until his death Edward's priority was the realms that he ruled.
Oct 13Knights Templar are arrested
 King Philippe of France ordered the arrest of all Knight Templars in France. The order to arrest the Templars was sent out several weeks before the date possibly giving the Templars time to hide their wealth.
1308Rebuilding work at Exeter Cathedral
 The smaller choir transepts, rood screen and sedilia were all constructed between 1308 and 1326 under Bishop Stapledon.
Lady Chapel built at St. Albans
 A Lady Chapel was constructed at St; Albans Abbey.
1309Clement V moves Papacy to Avignon
 
1310Wells Cathedral Lady Chapel
 Work commenced on the Lady Chapel of Wells Cathedral. This could have been between 1320 and 1330.
1314Old St. Paul's Cathedral completed
 Work on the old St. Paul's Cathedral was finally completed in this year.
Lady Chapel built at Reading
 A Lady Chapel was constructed at Reading Abbey.
Mar 18Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney burnt at the stake.
 Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney were burnt at the stake declaring their orthodoxy on an island on the River Seine.
DecGaveston buried
 Edward had delayed having the body of Gaveston buried until he had taken revenge for the murder, but because the King was powerless to act against the Ordainers, he decided to hold a lavish ceremony to bury his dead friend.
1315Wells Cathedral Central Tower
 Work commenced on the central tower of Wells Cathedral. This needed strengthening and in 1338, new internal arches were added to support the weight.
1316John XXII becomes Pope
 
1320Lady Chapel at Lichfield
 The construction of a Lady Chapel at Lichfield Cathedral took place.
1321Lady Chapel construction at Ely
 The construction of the Lady Chapel (also known as the Trinity Chapel) was started in 1321 at Ely Cathedral. Shortly after work began the central tower fell down damaging the choir area.
1322Collapse of central tower at Ely Cathedral
 The collapse of the central crossing tower of Ely Cathedral allowed the construction of the unique Octagon that took its place.
1324Extensive repairs to Bath Abbey
 Repairs begin on Bath Abbey.
1325Peterborough's Central Tower
 The central tower of Peterborough Cathedral was begun in 1325.
Edward III (1327 - 1377)
1328Nicholas V becomes the Antipope
 
Jan 24Edward III marries
 Edward married Philippa of Hainault at York Minster. The marriage was arranged as many were at the time. The arrangement was organised as early as 1323, when she was not nine years old. The Bishop of Exeter visited Hainault to see the girl.
SummerDavid (II) marries Joan
 Part of the Treaty of Northampton was the betrothal of David (II), son of Robert King of the Scots, to Edward's sister Joan. The two were married in the same year.
1329Construction work at Wells
 Reconstruction work, possibly on the choir, took place at Wells Cathedral.
1330York Minster West Window
 Building work on the West Window of York Minster until 1338.
Jun 15Edward (the Black Prince) is born
 Edward was born at the royal manor of Woodstock.
1332Jun 16Isabella born
 Isabella, the daughter of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, was born on this day.
1334The spire of Salisbury Cathedral
 The tower and spire of Salisbury Cathedral were constructed between 1334 and 1380. The spire at 404ft was the tallest stone spire built in the Medieval era.
Benedict XII becomes Pope
 
Construction of the Ely Lantern
 The octagonal vault and the lantern above if were designed and built by the master mason William Hurley at Ely Cathedral.
1337Qtr 2Cardinals sent to Europe
 Two cardinals, Peter Gomez and Bertrand of Montfavence, were sent by Pope Benedict XII to Europe to try and prevent the two kings from going to war.
1338Wells Cathedral scissor arches
 The Scissor arches were added to prevent the collapse of the central tower.
Nov 29Lionel born to Queen Philippa
 Queen Philippa gave birth to another son. The child was born in Antwerp.
1342Clement VI becomes Pope
 
1343Rochester Cathedral Tower
 Under the direction of Bishop Hamo de Hythe the construction of a new central tower was begun
1348Founding of the Order of the Garter
 King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood. Based on the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthur. The name of the order is supposed to have originated when Edward III picked up a garter that had been lost on the dance floor during a banquet. Edward tied the garter around his own leg telling all present not to pass judgement. The garter may have belonged to the beautiful Joan of Kent. Joan was later to marry Edward's son, the Black Prince.
1351Eastminster Abbey founded
 Edward III founded a new Cistercian abbey near the Tower of London. Monks from Beaulieu Abbey populated the new abbey.
1352Innocent VI becomes Pope
 
1355Jan 7Birth of Thomas of Woodstock
 Thomas of Woodstock was born to Philippa and Edward III.
1358Apr 23A Splendid Tournament at Windsor
 To celebrate St. George's day Edward III held a large tournament at Windsor Castle. Edward, the Black Prince, oversaw the proceedings in which kings and nobles from all over Europe were given safe passage to take part in.
Aug 23Death of Queen Isabella
 Queen Isabella, the wife of Edward II and the mother of Edward III died on the 22nd or 23rd of August.
1360Winchester Cathedral West Front
 Work began on the West Front of Winchester Cathedral. Extra work was carried out on the North and South aisles
1361New choir built at York
 Under the direction of Archbishop Thoresby the eastern end of the building was extended elongating the choir. The architectural fashion of Decorated Gothic was changing to Perpendicular Gothic as this construction work was undertaken.
1362Urban V becomes Pope
 
Westminster Abbey Nave
 Rebuilding work was begun on the nave and west cloister at Westminster Abbey. The architect in charge of the works was Henry Yevele.
JanHurricane damages spire at Norwich
 A fierce storm or hurricane hit Britain and the spire at Norwich Cathedral fell. The spire damaged the presbytery as came down..
1363Canterbury Black Prince chantry in crypt built
 The Black Prince chantry in the crypt of Canterbury cathedral built by John Box.
Construction of the Chantry Chapel at Canterbury
 The Black Prince organised the construction of the Chantry Chapel at Canterbury Cathedral and he expressed the wish to be buried there.
Carlisle Cathedral work on the choir
 Extra work on the choir was carried out between 1363 and 1395.
1365Wells Cathedral South-west Tower
 William Wynford was the architect behind the South-west tower of Wells Cathedral.
1366OctWykeham becomes Bishop
 William of Wykeham became the Bishop of Winchester. Although not approved of by the Pope (Urban V), Wykeham was consecrated in October 1367.
1369AugQueen Philippa dies
 Queen Philippa, Edward's wife, died. Edward's affections turned to Alice Perrers who became his mistress and had several illegitimate children.
1370 Gregory XI becomes Pope
 
1372Canterbury Crypt Lady Chapel building work
 Canterbury Crypt Lady Chapel building work by John Box.
1374A Tomb for John of Gaunt
 Henry Yevele was commissioned to design a tomb for John of Gaunt and his first wife Blanche of Lancaster to be built at St. Paul's Cathedral.
1375Worcester Cathedral major building work
 Work progressed on the vaults of the nave and crossing, the west front, north porch and east cloister. Until 1395. The work was desiged by the master mason John Clyve.
Simon Sudbury becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Simon Sudbury becomes the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Galilee porch as Peterborough
 The Galilee porch on the West front of Peterborough Cathedral was started in 1375.
Richard II (1377 - 1399)
1377Building work at Gloucester Cathedral
 Work on Perpendicular style choir and cloisters was begun at Gloucester Cathedral.
Gregory XI becomes Pope
 
Clement VII becomes the Antipope
 
FebWycliffe tried for heresy
 John Wycliffe was tried for heresy at the court of the bishop of London at St. Paul's. Wycliffe was supported by John of Gaunt but the trial failed to convict the religious reformer when it ended in riots and chaos.
1378Urban VI becomes Pope
 
Canterbury Cathedral rebuilding work
 Work on rebuilding the nave and transepts of Canterbury Cathedral was started. The designer was Henry Yeveley one of the greatest architects in the late medieval period.
FebWycliffe again tried for heresy
 Again John Wycliffe was tried for heresy but this time he was supported by Joan of Kent the widow of Edward, the Black Prince. The trial ended when the citizens entered the courtroom to save him.
1379Canterbury Nave and South Transept
 Canterbury Nave and South Transept built by Henry Yevele.
Canterbury Cloisters
 Canterbury Cloisters built by Henry Yevele.
1381Jun 10William Courtenay becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 William Courtenay became the Archbishop of Canterbury.
1382Founding of Winchester College
 William of Wykeham founded Winchester College so that prayers could be said for his soul for all time. It also provided training for boys that were to enter his other college, New College Oxford.
1384Chapel on London Bridge
 A chapel dedicated to St. Thomas was constructed on London Bridge. The architect was Henry Yevele.
Dec 31Death of John Wycliffe
 John Wyciffe died.
1389Boniface IX becomes Pope
 
1394Queen Anne dies
 Richard II's first wife Anne of Bohemia died.
Winchester Cathedral rebuilding work
 Work began on converting the Norman front and nave of Winchester Cathedral to the Perpendicular style by the Bishop of Winchester, William of Wykeham.
Benedict XIII becomes the Antipope
 
1395A tomb for Richard II and Anne
 Henry Yevele designed a tomb for King Richard II and his first wife Anne of Bohemia at Westminster Abbey,
1396Richard II marries Isabella
 The marriage of Richard II and the seven or eight year-old daughter of Charles VI, King of France was arranged.
1397Wilton Diptych painted
 A series of miniature images painted on the side of the Black Prince's tomb in Canterbury Cathedral.
Thomas Arundel exiled
 Shortly after becoming Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Arundel was exiled by Richard II because of his support for the lords appellant who opposed the King's misrule of the country.
Henry IV (1399 - 1413)
1400Tower built at Carlisle
 The tower and north transept at Carlisle were begun in 1400 and were completed in 1419.
Chapter House at Canterbury building work
 Chapter House at Canterbury building work by Stephen Lote.
York Minster East Window
 Building work on the East Window of York Minster until 1405.
1401De heretico comburendo
 The statute called De heretico comburendo was passed by Henry IV allowing heretics to be burnt at the stake. It was forbidden for anyone to translate the Bible into English and illegal to own a copy.
MarWilliam Sawtrey is the first Lollard to be burned at the stake
 William Sawtrey was a follower of John Wycliffe.
1404Innocent VII becomes Pope
 
Worcester Cathedral north and south cloisters
 Work began on the north and south cloisters of Worcester Cathedral. Until 1432.
Sep 27Death of William of Wykeham
 William of Wykeham the Bishop of Winchester died in this year. He was replaced by Henry Beaufort.
1405AprScrope's revolt
 Richard Scrope colluded with the Earl of Northumberland to overthrow Henry IV. Scrope was the Archbishop of York.
MayScrope executed
 The Archbishop's revolt was crushed with the aid of the Nevilles and the king had him executed.
1406Gregory XII becomes Pope
 
1407York Minster central tower
 Building work on the central tower of York Minster until 1423.
1409Alexander V becomes Pope
 
1410John XXIII becomes Pope
 
1411Sep 21Birth of Richard of York
 Richard, Duke of York, was born on the 21st of September. His father was Richard, Earl of Cambridge, and his mother was Anne Mortimer.
1412JanJoan of Arc born
 Joan is born at Domremy.
Henry V (1413 - 1422)
1413AutumnSir John Oldcastle arrested
 As the leader of the Lollards, the friend of the King was arrested and sent to the Tower of London.
DecRichard II's body moved
 In an act of respect to Richard II, Henry had the dead king's body moved to its proper resting place in Westminster Abbey.
1414Alien Priories confiscated
 Alien priories were those in England who were dependant on usually French mother houses. During the Hundred Years War these priories were seen as a security risk. They also were a means of transferring much needed English money to France. A law was passed confiscating these priories. Many were transferred over to other religious orders.
Jan 9Lollards arrested
 A meeting of the Lollards was stormed by the King's troops and many were arrested and subsequently put to death. Their leader, Sir John Oldcastle, managed to escape capture.
1417Martin V becomes Pope
 
1420Jun 2Henry marries
 The marriage of Henry and Catherine the daughter of Charles VI king of France sealed the Treaty of Troyes.
1421Dec 6Birth of Henry (VI)
 Prince Henry (later Henry VI) was born at Windsor.
Henry VI (1422 - 1461)
1423Canterbury South West Tower building work
 Canterbury South West Tower building work by Thomas Mapilton.
Clement VIII becomes the Antipope
 
1425Wells Cathedral North-west Tower
 The North-west tower of Wells Cathedral was constructed during this time.
Benedict XIV becomes the Antipope
 
1429Marriage of Owen Tudor and Catherine of France
 It is believed that Owen Tudor and Catherine were secretly married in this year or just before.
Feb 23Joan begins her mission
 Joan left Vaucouleurs dressed as a man and with an escort of attendants. They headed for Chinon where Charles VII was staying. They reached Chinon in early March.
MarJoan visits Charles VII
 Joan was granted an audience with the dauphin at Vaucouleurs. At the meeting Charles had disguised himself as a servant and had a servant dress as himself. Joan was not fooled and picked the king out. Charles was impressed when Joan told him that God had told her that he was the true heir.
Jul 17Charles VII crowned at Rheims
 Joan of Arc and the dauphin entered Rheims. Charles was crowned in the Cathedral and became King of France.
Sep 8Joan fails to take Paris
 The French fail to retake Paris that had been captured by the English. Joan was slightly injured during the fighting.
1430May 23Joan of Arc is captured
 Joan's main objective was to liberate Paris from the Burgundians, but first she needed to free Compiegne. It was during the fighting here that she was wounded again and this time captured. Joan was then sold to the English who handed her over to the Church. As Compiegne was under the bishopric of Beauvais Joan was delivered to Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais, who led the trial.
1431JanThe trial of Joan of Arc
 Joan's trial began.
1432York Minster south-west tower
 Building work on the south-west tower of York Minster until 1456.
1437 Eugenius IV becomes Pope
 
Jan 3Catherine of France dies
 Catherine died in this year after retiring to Bermondsey Abbey. Some reports say she died whilst giving birth, but this is probably wrong.
1439Felix V becomes the last Antipope
 
1446Henry VI receives the Golden Rose
 Pope Eugenius IV granted the gift of the Golden Rose to King Henry IV for his devotion to both the Church and education. The Golden Rose was a solid gold ornament in the shape of a rose.
1447Nicholas V becomes Pope
 
Feb 23Death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
 A parliament was held at Bury St. Edmunds where the Duke of Gloucester was accused of treason and arrested. It was said that he was planning an uprising against the king. The accusations were made falsely by the Duke of Suffolk. Gloucester died only days after his arrest.
1450Southwell Cathedral West window
 The West window of Southwell Cathedral was begun in this year.
1455Edmund Tudor marries Margaret Beaufort
 Edmund Tudor married Margaret Beaufort, the heiress of the Duke of Somerset. Margaret was only twelve years old.
Calixtus III becomes Pope
 
1458Pius II becomes Pope
 
Edward IV (1461 - 1470)
1463Norwich third spire destroyed
 Lightning once again hit the wooden and lead spire at Norwich Cathedral causing a fire that spread to the roof. After this disaster stone was used in the roof to provide vaulting and used in the new spire to replace the wood.
1464Paul II becomes Pope
 
Sep 14Council at Reading
 Great Council at Reading Abbey; Edward IV announced his marriage and (29.9 - Michaelmas) Elizabeth recognised as Queen.
1466Feb 11Birth of Edward IV's first daughter
 First daughter, Elizabeth, born to Edward IV and Elizabeth; a second daughter, Mary, was born 11.8.1467.
1468Canterbury Lady Chapel Vault
 Canterbury Lady Chapel Vault built.
SummerMargaret marries Duke of Burgundy
 Edward arranged for his sister Margaret to marry Charles the Duke of Burgundy. Burgundy had for some time been a supporter of the Yorkists and this marriage strengthened the bond. For Warwick, this was a disaster. Warwick had been attempting to make an alliance with France and that was not about to happen.
1469JulClarence marries Isabel Neville
 Warwick and the Duke of Clarence travelled to France where Clarence was married to Warwick's fifteen year old daughter Isabel. The ceremony was conducted by Warwick's brother George Neville the Archbishop of York.
Henry VI (1470 restored)
1470York Minster north-west tower
 Building work on the north-west tower of York Minster until 1474.
Qtr 4Edward (V) is born
 Edward IV's wife Elizabeth gave birth to her first son. Elizabeth had taken refuge at Westminster Abbey after the King had fled to Burgundy.
Dec 13Marriage of Edward of Lancaster and Anne Neville
 The marriage between Edward of Lancaster, the son of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, to Anne Neville, the daughter of Richard Neville the Kingmaker was a marriage to cement the agreement that Richard and Margaret would support each other and try to get Henry VI back on the English throne. The marriage took place in France at the Chateau d'Amboise where Margaret and Edward were exiled.
Edward IV (1471 restored - 1483)
1471Sixtus IV becomes King of Denmark
 
1477Work starts on St. George's Chapel
 The construction of the massive church at Windsor Castle was begun by Edward IV. The church was not completed until 1528 in the reign of Henry VIII some fifty years later.
1478Jan 15Marriage of Richard, duke of York
 Richard, duke of York, married Anne Mowbray, daughter of the Duke of Norfolk, at Westminster. The two were only children. Anne died in 1481 at the age of 8 or 9.
1481JulRheims Cathedral damaged by fire
 The roof and tower of Rheims Cathedral were badly damaged by fire after workmen left a lit brasier unattended overnight in the roof space.
Richard III (1483 - 1485)
1484Aug Innocent VIII becomes Pope
 
Henry VII (1485 - 1509)
1485Dec 15Birth of Catherine of Aragon
 Catherine of Aragon is born at Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain. Her father and mother were Ferdinand and Isabella of Aragon.
1486Jan 18Henry VII married Elizabeth
 Henry married Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward IV, at Westminster Abbey.
1490Winchester Cathedral Lady Chapel
 Work was carried out on the Lady Chapel of Winchester Cathedral.
1491Jun 28Henry (VIII) born
 The future king of England Henry VIII was born at Greenwich Palace. He was the third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.
1492Alexander VI becomes Pope
 
JunDeath of Elizabeth Woodville
 Elizabeth Woodville had retired to Bermondsey Abbey and it was here that she died at the age of round 55.
1493Canterbury central tower building work
 Canterbury central tower building work undertaken including strainer arches in the crossing.
1499Construction at Bath Abbey
 Building work of a new church in the Perpendicular style began at Bath Abbey.
1501Oct 2Catherine of Aragon arrives
 After several months of travelling Catherine of Aragon finally arrived at Plymouth in preparation for her marriage to Prince Arthur.
Nov 14Prince Arthur marries Catherine of Aragon
 After several days of celebration and reception Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were married at St. Paul's Cathedral.
1503Construction of Henry VII Lady chapel
 Henry VII ordered the construction of a new Lady chapel at the east end of Westminster Abbey. The building work was carried out in the Perpendicular style.
William Wareham becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 William Wareham is elected to the post of Archbishop of Canterbury by Julius II.
1504NovDeath of Isabella of Castile
 Isabella of Castile died.
1505Papal dispensation
 Pope Julius II gave permission for the marriage between Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. The legality of the marriage was in question because Catherine had been married to Henry's elder brother Arthur.
1507Thomas Wolsey becomes royal chaplain
 Thomas Wolsey was given the position of royal chaplain to Henry VII.
Henry VIII (1509 - 1547)
1509Norwich Cathedral fire
 Repairs at Norwich Cathedral, because of a fire, resulted in the transept roofs being replaced by stone vaulting.
Thomas Wolsey becomes royal almoner
 Thomas Wolsey was given the position of royal almoner to Henry VIII.
1512Fire at the Tower of London
 A fire at the Tower of London damages St. Peter's chapel within the castle grounds.
1513Thomas Wolsey organises expedition to France
 Thomas Wolsey organised Henry's invasion into France ensuring the army was feed, watered and had good accommodation.
1514Feb 6Wolsey become Bishop of Lincoln
 Thomas Wolsey was rewarded with the Bishopric of Lincoln.
SepThomas Wolsey becomes archbishop of York
 Thomas Wolsey is promoted to the position of Archbishop of York.
1515Jan 1Death of Louis XII
 Louis XII died at the age of 52 leaving Mary a widow. His nephew, Francis, became the next king of France.
FebPrincess Mary secretly marries
 Princess Mary ran away with Charles Brandon after the death of Louis XII. They were secretly married but caught and forced to pay a fine.
May 13Mary and Suffolk marry
 Princess Mary, the younger sister of Henry VIII, married Charles Brandon, the Duke of Suffolk at Greenwich. Henry VIII gave full consent to the marriage.
Sep 22Birth of Anne of Cleves
 Anne of Cleves was born in Dusseldorf, Germany.
1527Jun 22Henry VIII declares his marriage invalid
 Henry VIII told Catherine of Aragon that their marriage was invalid because she had earlier been married to his brother Arthur. Anne Boleyn, who Henry had become besotted with, wanted Henry to divorce Catherine and to marry her.
1530Nov 29Death of Wolsey
 Thomas Wolsey died at Leicester.
1536May 19Execution of Anne Boleyn
 Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, was executed for treason and adultery at the Tower of London.
1537Oct 24Jane Seymour dies
 Jane Seymour died after complications with the birth of Edward VI. She was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.
1538Destruction of Thomas Becket's Relics
 Henry VIII ordered the destruction of the shrine of Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral and the removal of all the offerings that had been made over the centuries. The bones were supposed to have been burned but may have been reburied sparking a mystery over the location of the remains today.
1540Waltham Abbey Dissolved
 Waltham Abbey has the distinction of being the last monastery to be dissolved by Henry VIII.
JanAbbey at Gloucester surrenders
 The monastery at Gloucester surrendered to Henry VIII as part of the dissolution of the monasteries.
1541Gloucester given Cathedral status
 The abbey at Gloucester became a Cathedral at the centre of its own diocese. Previously it had been part of the Worcester diocese. John Wakeman was assigned as the first bishop.
1543Jul 12Marriage of Henry and Catherine Parr
 Henry married Catherine Parr, his sixth and final wife at Hampton Court Palace.
Edward VI (1547 - 1553)
1547Jan 28Death of Henry VIII
 Henry died at Whitehall Palace at the age of 55. He was buried in St. George's Chapel Windsor next to Jane Seymour, his favourite wife.
AprCatherine Parr marries Thomas Seymour
 Jealous of his elder brother's power Thomas Seymour married Catherine Parr to enter the household of the young King Edward and the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth.
JulCapture of the castle at St. Andrews
 After a lengthy siege failed to take the well defended castle at St. Andrews, Mary of Guise asked the French for help. The castle at St. Andrews was captured and the Protestant leaders and John Knox were taken into custody.
Mary I (1553 - 1558)
1553Sep 8Elizabeth attends mass
 Mary and Elizabeth disagreed strongly over religion. Elizabeth refused to attend any Catholic ceremony including the one that Mary had arranged after the death of Edward. Eventually Elizabeth agreed to attend a mass but when the day came she pretended to be ill and only took part under protest.
1554Jul 25Marriage of Queen Mary and Philip II of Spain
 The marriage of Queen Mary and Philip of Spain took place. The marriage was conducted at Winchester Cathedral.
1557Jul 16Death of Anne of Cleves
 Since the divorce from Henry VIII Anne had been given a good annual income and use of several homes. She died on the 16th or 17th of July, 1557.
DecThe Lords of the Congregation
 A group of Scottish Lords signed a covenant promising to support the advancement 'the most blessed Word of God' and to push forward the Reformation in Scotland. This was a move against what they saw as the threat from France with that came from the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots to the French Dauphin. They called themselves the Lords of the Congregation.
Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
1558Nov 17Queen Mary dies
 Queen Mary died at the age of forty two. She was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Other
1625May 11Proxy marriage of Charles and Henrietta Maria
 Proxy wedding of Charles & Henrietta in Paris.
Jun 13Charles marries Henrietta Maria
 Charles marries Henrietta Maria de Bourbon in St Augustine's Church at Canterbury.
1626Feb 2Charles crowned
 Charles I was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1629May 13Birth of Charles's first child
 Henrietta gave birth to her first child, Charles James Stuart, but he died the same day.
1630May 29Charles (II) born
 Charles (II), the future King of England was born at St. James's Palace in London.
1633Oct 14Birth of James (II, King of England and Scotland)
 James was the fourth child of Charles I and Henrietta Maria.
1639Jun 18Treaty of Berwick
 The army Charles had put together was no match for the Scottish army under the command of Leslie and so the King signed the Treaty of Berwick. While the Scots returned home happy that they could deal with their own church affairs, Charles had no intensions of abiding by the terms of the treaty and used the treaty as a means of gaining time to plan his next move.
1640Jul 8Henry Stuart born
 The son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France was born on this day.
1642Canterbury Cathedral vandalised
 Parliamentarian troops broke into Canterbury Cathedral and damaged the interior including the organ and choir.
1646Jun 15Ireton marries Cromwell's daughter
 The marriage of General Henry Ireton to Bridget, the eldest daughter of Oliver Cromwell.