his medieval castle is located on the border between England and Scotland and saw much military action. It is located on the southern shore of the River Tweed on a steep hill. It was constructed in 1121 by the Bishop of Durham, Ranulf Flambard. to protect the area from the Scots. In 1138 the castle was besieged, captured and destroyed by the Scots under the command of King David. The castle was retaken by King Henry II in 1157 and in the following year Bishop Hugh Pudsey (Hugh de Puiset?) of Durham took control of the castle and rebuilt its defences including the stone keep located at the north-east corner of the inner ward. The castle was besiged in 1215 by Alexander, King of Scotland and again by the Scots in 1318, but both times it was not captured. In August of 1513, shortly before his defeat at Flodden Field, King James IV invaded England and attacked Norham Castle. He employed large siege engines and cannons to reduce the castle to rubble. and captured what remained. In the reign of Elizabeth I, when relations bewteen England and Scotland became more friendly, requested for much needed money for repairs was refused and the castle started to fall into disrepair.
The castle was occupied once again during the period of the Wars of the Roses.
Norham Castle, located on the southern shore of the River Tweed on a steep hill on the border between England and Scotland, was constructed in 1121 to protect the area from the Scots by the Bishop of Durham, Ranulf Flambard.
Led by their king, David I, the Scots invade and destroy Northumberland. The Scots moved south into Lancashire and North Yorkshire. This prompted Steven to mobilize an army to counter the invasion. The Scots captured and destroyed the important castle at Norham.
King Edward I met the claimants for the Scottish crown at Norham. There were three main claimants to the throne all of whom were descended from David Earl of Huntingdon, the brother of William the Lion who died in 1214. There were many claimants but the three main contenders were John Balliol, Robert Bruce and John Hastings. The decision was delayed until the following year to allow all the facts to be taken into account. ¹
Warwick took an army north to deal with the new threat from Queen Margaret. The Lancastrians had laid siege to Norham Castle on the Scottish border. Under the control of the Earl of Warwick, the Yorkists again proved too powerful for the Lancastrians and with her invasion plans in ruin Margaret decided to return to France. She took Prince Edward with her. ¹
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Selection of references used:
1. J.D. Mackie, A History of Scotland, 1978, ISBN:0-7139-1206-5
2. Paul Murray Kendall, Richard The Third, ISBN:ISBN-0-04-942048-8