Richard (Duke of York)

 Born  21 Sep 1411   Born At  
 Died  30 Dec 1460   Buried At  
 Father  Richard (Earl of Cambridge)   Mother  Mortimer, Anne (daughter of Roger, Earl of March)
Background

ichard was the father of two Kings of England; Edward IV and Richard III. Richard was descended from Edward III via his son Edmund of Langley, but also from the daughter of Lionel Duke of Clarence, another son of Edward III. (See a family tree to understand this.) In 1415 Richard became an orphan after his father was executed for plotting against the king and the house of Lancaster. He was sent to Raby Castle to be brought up in the household of Ralph Neville, the first Earl of Westmorland. It was here that Richard grew up and met his future wife Cecily Neville, the Rose of Raby, to whom he was betrothed. Richard became the wealthiest land owner of his time having inherited estates from Edmund of Langley and the powerful estates of the Earl's of March from his mother Anne Mortimer. Ludlow Castle was used as his main residence. Richard married Cecily the daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and Joan Beaufort, the daughter of John of Gaunt and Catherine Swynford.

Claim to the English throne

In 1399 Henry Bolingbroke overthrew Richard II to become Henry IV, King of England.

Family Tree Details
Father: Richard (Earl of Cambridge) ( - d.1415)
Mother: Mortimer, Anne (daughter of Roger, Earl of March)
Richard (Duke of York) (b.1411 - d.1460)
+Neville, Cecily (Duchess of York) (b.1415 - d.1495) =Edward (IV, Earl of March and King of England 1461-1470, 1471-1483) (b.1442 - d.1483) | +Woodville, Elizabeth (b.1437 - d.1492) | =Elizabeth (of York) ( - d.1503) | | +Henry (VII, King of England 1485-1509) (b.1457 - d.1509) | | =Arthur (Prince of Wales) (b.1486 - d.1502) | | | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) | | =Margaret (Tudor, Daughter of Henry VII) (b.1489 - d.1541) | | | +James (IV King of Scotland 1488-1513) (b.1473 - d.1513) | | | | =James (V, King of Scotland 1513-1542) (b.1512 - d.1542) | | | +Douglas, Archibald (Earl of Angus) ( - d.1557) | | | =Douglas, Margaret ( - d.1578) | | =Henry (VIII, King of England 1509-1547) (b.1491 - d.1547) | | | +Catherine (of Aragon) (b.1485 - d.1536) | | | | =Mary (I, Queen of England 1553-1558, Bloody Mary, Mary Tudor) (b.1516 - d.1558) | | | +Boleyn, Anne ( - ex.1536) | | | | =Elizabeth (I, Queen of England 1558-1603) (b.1533 - d.1603) | | | +Seymour, Jane ( - d.1537) | | | | =Edward (VI, King of England 1547-1553) (b.1537 - d.1553) | | | +Anne (of Cleves) (b.1515 - d.1557) | | | +Howard, Catherine ( - ex.1542) | | | +Parr, Catherine | | =Mary (Tudor, Queen of France) (b.1495 - d.1533) | | +Louis (XII, King of France) ( - d.1515) | | +Brandon, Charles (Duke of Suffolk) (b.1485 - d.1545) | | =Frances (Lady) | | =Clifford, Eleanor (Lady) ( - d.1547) | =Edward (V, King of England 1483) (b.1470 - m.1483) | =Richard (Duke of York, Prince in the Tower) ( - m.1483) | =Cecily (Daughter of Edward IV) (b.1469 - d.1507) =George (Duke of Clarence) (b.1449 - d.1478) | +Neville, Isabel (Duchess of Clarence) (b.1451 - d.1476) | =Plantagenet, Edward (Earl of Warwick) ( - d.1499) | =Margaret (Countess of Salisbury) ( - d.1541) =Richard (III, King of England 1483-1485) (b.1452 - d.1485) | +Neville, Anne (Duchess of Gloucester, Queen of England) (b.1456 - d.1485) | =Edward (of Middleham, Prince of Wales) (b.1473 - d.1484) =Elizabeth (of York, Duchess of Suffolk) ( - d.1503) | +Pole, John de la (Duke of Suffolk) ( - d.1491) | =Pole, John de la (Earl of Lincoln) ( - d.1487) | =Pole, Edmund de la (Earl of Suffolk) ( - d.1513) | =Pole, Richard de la ( - d.1525) =Margaret (of York, sister of Edward IV) (b.1446 - )

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Partial Personal Timeline

YearMonthAgeEvent
1411 Sep 21  Birth of Richard of York
 Richard, Duke of York, was born on the 21st of September. His father was Richard, Earl of Cambridge, and his mother was Anne Mortimer. 
1429   18yrsMarriage of Richard and Cecily
 Richard Duke of York married Cecily Neville. 
1436 May 1  25yrsRichard, Duke of York is appointed Lieutenant-general
 Richard, Duke of York, is appointed lieutenant-general in France by the king, Henry VI. 
1440 Summer  29yrsRichard of York re-appointed Lieutentant-general
 Richard, Duke of York was re-appointed lieutenant-general of France and Normandy.[1] 
1441 Summer  30yrsDuke of York in Normandy
 Although Richard, Duke of York, had been appointed governor of France and Normandy he did not go until reports from Rouen in Normandy of French attacks persuaded him to do so.[1]

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
1447   36yrsEdmund Beaufort appointed lieutenant of France
 Edmund Beaufort was appointed lieutenant of France. Richard of York had wanted to be re-appointed to the position. Edmund and Richard became rivals in the battles of the Wars of the Roses.[1]

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Qtr 4  Richard, Duke of York, Lieutenant of Ireland
 Richard, Duke of York, had previously been the Lieutenant of France and Normandy but this had expired and the title had gone to his rival Edmund Beaufort (later Duke of Somerset). Instead, Richard was appointed the title of Lieutenant of Ireland.[1] 
1450 Sep  39yrsRichard returns from Ireland
 As a possible heir to throne of England, Richard, Duke of York returned from Ireland where he had been placed as lieutenant by the Duke of Somerset who had possible aspirations of taking the throne for himself. Edmund Beaufort, the Duke of Somerset and his associates were being shown favouritism and Richard along with the Welsh land owners were finding it hard to retain the earnings they were making from their own lands. Richard failed this time in removing the Duke of Somerset. 
1451   40yrsSupport for Richard in Parliament
 Thomas Young, the member of Parliament for Bristol stood up and declared that Richard, Duke of York's claim to the throne should be considered. Thomas Young was quickly arrested and locked up in the Tower of London.  

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