Ranulf (Earl of Chester 1129-53)

Died: 1153

nformation to follow.
 
YearMonthEvent
1131   Basingwerk Abbey founded
 The North Welsh Cistercian Abbey was colonised by monks from the Norman house called Savigny and was possibly founded by the Earl of Chester at the time, Ranulf de Gernon.[1] 
1133   Combermere Abbey founded
 Ranulf, the Earl of Chester witnessed the foundation of the new Savigny abbey in the Midlands.[1] 
1152   Death of Ranulf, Earl of Chester
 He died.[2] 

Ranulf (the Crusader)

Died: 1232

he sixth Earl of Cheshire, and the only son of Hugh, the fifth. Ranulf married Constance of Brittany in 1188, the widow of King Henry II's son Geoffrey who died in 1186. Ranulf not only had ownership of a very rich area of the country, but he also became related to the king of England. In 1218 he joined the Fifth Crusade, but returned in 1220. Once back in England, Ranulf's experiences of castle building abroad helped him design and begin construction of the castle at Beeston. He did not live to see it completed.

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Ranulf (the Crusader) ( - d.1232)
+Constance (of Brittany)

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Raphael

Born: 1483 Died: 1529

aphael was one of the great Italian painters. He was the son of a painter and was born in Urbino, in the Marche region of Italy. In 1504 he went to Florence and in 1508 he was invited to go to Rome by Pope Julius II.
 
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Raymond (IV, Count of Toulouse)

rich Crusader from southern France who left on crusade in October 1096 swearing an oath never to return. He kept to his oath.
 
YearMonthEvent
1096 Oct  Raymond starts his crusade
 While the People's Crusade led by Peter the Hermit was being crushed in the Holy Land, preparations for the First Crusade carried on in Europe. Those leaders involved were Raymond of Toulouse, Hughes Count of Vermandois, Robert Count of Flanders, Robert Duke of Normandy and Etienne Count of Blois. The leaders arranged to meet at Constantinople and set off taking different routes. Some followed the path across Europe taken by Peter the Hermit, while others took a more southerly routes via the Alps and the Adriatic.

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  
1097 Apr  Crusaders reach Constantinople
 When the crusaders arrived at Constantinople they were greeted by Emperor Alexius. The Emperor was happy for the crusaders to capture areas of the Holy Land but he wanted the land to be under his control. Alexius persuaded the Leaders of the crusaders to swear an oath of allegiance to him and to hand over the land they captured. They could however be allowed to live on and rule that land but not own it.

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  
1098 Jun 28  The Crusaders fight back
 Spurred on by the find of the Spear of Longinus, the spear that was supposed to have pierced Jesus on the cross, the Crusaders emerged from the city of Antioch to face the Moslems. The Moslems were defeated, many being killed and many fleeing. After the batlle the ownership of the city was disputed. Bohemund and Raymond of Toulouse argued over its possession and after several months of debate Raymond accepted Bohemund's right to it. In truth, the city should have been handed over to Emporer Alexius.[3]

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  
1099 Jan  The march to Jerusalem continues
 After a delay of many months the crusaders under the leadership of Raymond of Toulouse left Antioch and headed south towards Jerusalem.[4]

Episode: The People's Crusade and First Crusade  
1102 - 1109 Siege of Tripoli
 The crusaders began the siege of the city of Tripoli in the County of Tripoli, now Lebanon. The siege was led by Raymond of Toulouse.

Episode: The Crusaders in the Holy Land  
1103   Construction of a castle at Mount Pilgrim
 The crusader Raymond of Toulouse had a castle built overlooking the city of Tripoli in order to lay siege to it. [5]

Episode: The Crusaders in the Holy Land  
1109 Jul 12  Fall of Tripoli
 After a siege lasting many years Tripoli fell to the Crusaders. The Banu Ammar Emirs had an important library in the city but it was attacked and all the books were destroyed. The Crusader state of Tripoli was then founded, the last of the Crusader states. Bertrand of Toulouse, the son of Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, became the ruler of the state alongside William-Jordan.[6]

Episode: The Crusaders in the Holy Land  

Raymond (VI, Count of Toulouse)

layed an important part in the Albigensian Crusade along with his son, Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse.
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Raymond (VII, Count of Toulouse)

layed an important part in the Albigensian Crusade along with his father, Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse.

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Father: Raymond (VI, Count of Toulouse)
Mother: Joan (of England, Queen of Sicily) (b.1165 - d.1199)
Raymond (VII, Count of Toulouse)

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Reginald (Duke of Guelderland)

arried Eleanor, daughter of Edward II

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Reginald (Duke of Guelderland)
+Eleanor (Daughter of Edward II)

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Reyns, Henry de (Master)

enry de Reyns was the King's Master Mason during the reign of King Henry III. In 1245 he assisted in the redesign of Westminster Abbey in the Early English Gothic style. This included the Chapter House. He was succeeded by John of Gloucester in 1253. It is not known whether Henry was French or English.
 
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Richard (Duke of York, Prince in the Tower)

Died: 1483

ichard was the son of Edward IV, King of England. Richard's elder brother was called Edward who became king of England as Edward V in April of 1483 after the death of their father. Edward V was only thirteen years old when he became king and too young to rule unaided. Richard and Edward's uncle was Richard, Duke of Gloucester (the future king of England, Richard III). Gloucester stepped in to assist the two young boys and transferred them to the Tower of London for safe keeping. Unfortunately for the two boys Gloucester had his own plans of becoming king of England and mysteriously the boys disappeared supposedly murdered in the Tower. Although it has never been proven it is suspected that Gloucester had the two boys killed so he could become the king as Richard III.
YearMonthEvent
1472 - 1483 Ludlow home for the two princes
 The young Prince of Wales and his brother lived at Ludlow Castle. 
1478 Jan 15  Marriage of Richard, duke of York
 Richard, duke of York, married Anne Mowbray, daughter of the Duke of Norfolk, at Westminster. The two were only children. Anne died in 1481 at the age of 8 or 9.
 
1483 Jul  Murder of Princes in the Tower
 At some point the young king Edward V and his brother Richard disappeared. Whether they were murdered in the Tower of London and by whom is not known, but they were not seen of again. Later, in 1491, a man called Perkin Warbeck appeared in Ireland and claims were made that he was really Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, one of the princes. 

Richard (Earl of Cambridge)

Died: 1415

Family Tree Details
Father: Edmund (of Langley, Duke of York) ( - d.1402)
Mother: Isabella (of Castile)

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YearMonthEvent
1415 Aug 1  Plot to overthrow the King
 Led by Richard Earl of Cambridge, Henry's cousin, a plot to assassinate the King and replace him with the Earl of March who was the true heir to the throne was hatched. The revolt brought together all the old enemies of Henry including Lord Scrope (Archbishop Scrope's nephew) and the Lollards. The Earl of March whose loyalties were with the king informed Henry of the plot the night before and the rebels were arrested. Several were executed.

Episode: Henry V - The Hundred Years War  

Richard (Earl of Cornwall)

Born: 1209 Died: 1272

on of King John. Becomes Earl of Cornwall.

Family Tree Details
Father: John (King of England 1199-1216) (b.1167 - d.1216)
Mother: Isabella (of Angouleme)
Richard (Earl of Cornwall) (b.1209 - d.1272)

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YearMonthEvent
1242 Oct  Earl Richard's vow
 During a violent storm at sea, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, vowed to build a Religious house if he survived. He did survive and as a result Hailes Abbey was built. 
1251 Nov 5  Dedication of Hailes Abbey
 The King and Queen, with Richard, Earl of Cornwall (the King's brother) were at Hailes Abbey for its dedication ceremony. 
1270 Sep 14  Relic given to Hailes Abbey
 A phial containing the blood of Jesus was presented to abbey of Hailes by the son of Richard, Earl of Cornwall. The phial had been guaranteed by the Patriarch of Jerusalem and had been bought from the Count of Flanders in 1267. A section of the abbey was rebuilt to hold the relic, and it was held in a purpose built shrine. A similar relic had been presented to the King, Henry III several years before in 1247. 

Richard (I, Count of Normandy)

ichard I, Count of Normandy from 942 to 996.
YearMonthEvent
1002 Nov  Aethelred marries Emma
 Aethelred paid the Vikings a sum of £24,000 to try and stop further invasions. In an attempt to strengthen his position against the Vikings he married Emma, the daughter of Richard Duke of Normandy. Aethelred also ordered the murder of all Danes in England but some escaped to report back. Not surprisingly the Viking attacks started again.[7] 

Richard (II, Duke of Normandy)

ichard II was the Duke of Normandy from 996 to 1026 and also grandfather of William the Conqueror. (More details when I can find some)
YearMonthEvent
997   Peasant's Revolt in Normandy
 The peasants in Normandy rose up against their masters including the Count of Evreux, the uncle of Richard II, the Duke of Normandy. The revolt failed when the leaders were captured and executed. [2] 

Richard (III, Duke of Normandy)

Died: 1027

on of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. He was Duke for just one year, and was followed by his brother, Robert I.

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Father: Richard (II, Duke of Normandy)
Mother: Judith
Richard (III, Duke of Normandy) ( - d.1027)

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Father: Richard (II, Duke of Normandy)
Mother: Judith

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Robert (Count of Mortain)

Born: 1031 Died: 1095

obert, Count of Mortain, was the son of Herleva and Herluin de Conteville and the half-brother of William the Conqueror. He was also the brother of Odo of Bayeaux. Robert provided William with a large number of ships and men and accompanied William in 1066 during the invasion of England for which he was rewarded with land in England. Robert was also given the Roman fort at Pevensey in which he built a castle and repaired the old Roman walls. In 1088 Robert, along with Odo rebelled against William Rufus in an attempt to place Robert, Duke of Normandy on the English throne. The rebellion failed but Robert of Mortain was pardoned and allowed to keep his land. Robert's son William became the Count of Mortain after his death.

Family Tree Details
Father: Herluin (de Conteville)
Mother: Herleva
Robert (Count of Mortain) (b.1031 - d.1095)

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Father: Herluin (de Conteville)
Mother: Herleva

YearMonthEvent
1066   Montacute Castle construction
 A motte and bailey castle was built by Robert Count of Mortain in Somerset. 
1088 Feb  Revolt against William Rufus
 Many Norman barons held land both in England and Normandy. With two opposing lords, William in England and Robert in Normandy, the barons were finding it difficult to know who to support. A revolt led by Odo sprung up in England with the aim of removing William from the throne. Odo's revolt in Kent and Sussex was supported by barons across the country. Roger Bigod from Norwich and Geoffrey of Coutances and Robert Mowbray from Bristol supported Odo. In Worcestershire Roger de Lacy captured Hereford and attacked Worcester. In the south-east Roger Montgomery at Arundel Robert of Mortain at Pevensey and Gilbert de Clare at Tonbridge also prepared to fight the King. Robert of Belleme, a Norman baron, who was able to bring support from Normandy. Robert also controlled castles in the Welsh Marches where the revolt also took place. 

Robert (Earl of Gloucester)

Died: 1147

he Illegitimate son of Henry I, King of England. Robert was the chief supporter of his step-sister Matilda's claim to the English throne during the civil war with King Stephen.
 
YearMonthEvent
1138 May  Robert sides with Matilda
 Robert, the Earl of Gloucester announces that he will assist Matilda, his step-sister in her claim for the English throne.[8]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
1141 Sep 14  Rout of Winchester
 Matilda's forces were besieging a royalist held castle at Wolvesey near Winchester and were attacked and defeated by a royalist relief army. King Stephen who was being held captive at the time was exchanged for Robert, earl of Gloucester one of Matilda's supporters who was captured in the defeat.

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
 Nov  Exchange of King Stephen and Gloucester
 Robert, Earl of Gloucester was held captive at Rochester Castle before being exchanged for King Stephen who had been captured earlier in the year at Lincoln. 
1142 Sep  Henry (II) land in England
 Henry of Anjou, the future King of England landed on the south coast of England with his uncle Earl Robert of Gloucester and several knights, Henry spent a year in England at Bristol being taught by Master Matthew. Soon after landing in England Earl Robert captured Lulworth Castle, Rufus Castle on Portland and Wareham Castle. [9]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
1144   Construction of Faringdon Castle
 Built by Robert, Earl of Gloucester. The castle soon came under siege by King Stephen who after four days took the castle and destroyed it.[10]

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  
1147 Oct 31  Robert, Earl of Gloucester dies
 The death of Robert was a blow to Matilda's attempts to fight for the English throne. Matilda was to leave England shortly afterwards.

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  

Robert (II, Duke of Normandy 1087-1106)

Died: 1134

YearMonthEvent
1063   William invades and captures Maine
 Some years earlier William had supported the exiled Count Herbert of Maine when Geoffrey Martel invaded the province and captured its main town Le Mans. As part of the pact William and Herbert agreed that if Herbert died without an heir the province could be claimed by William. William's eldest son Robert Curthose was betrothed to Herbert's daughter (Margaret?) but she died before they could be married. When Herbert died William claimed Maine in the name of his son and invaded. Robert was made Count of Maine when the province was captured.[11] 
1088 Feb  Revolt against William Rufus
 Many Norman barons held land both in England and Normandy. With two opposing lords, William in England and Robert in Normandy, the barons were finding it difficult to know who to support. A revolt led by Odo sprung up in England with the aim of removing William from the throne. Odo's revolt in Kent and Sussex was supported by barons across the country. Roger Bigod from Norwich and Geoffrey of Coutances and Robert Mowbray from Bristol supported Odo. In Worcestershire Roger de Lacy captured Hereford and attacked Worcester. In the south-east Roger Montgomery at Arundel Robert of Mortain at Pevensey and Gilbert de Clare at Tonbridge also prepared to fight the King. Robert of Belleme, a Norman baron, who was able to bring support from Normandy. Robert also controlled castles in the Welsh Marches where the revolt also took place. 
 Apr  Pevensey Castle siege
 William Rufus lay siege to Pevensey Castle where Odo had taken shelter with Robert of Mortain. The siege lasted for six weeks. Robert, the Duke of Normandy, sent a force to support the rebels at Pevensey but they were unable to land because the King had made sure the ports were well guarded. Robert admitted defeat and withdrew his support for the rebels. Odo had little choice, other than that to starve, and surrendered to the King. Odo agreed to go to Rochester where he would convince the rebels to accept William Rufus as the rightful King of England. 
 May  William puts down the revolt
 Odo was accompanied to Rochester Castle by an escort but When they reached the castle the rebels captured the escort and refused to accept William Rufus as their King. Again William called for the people of England to support him against the rebels and together they lay siege to the castle. Odo surrendered when it was agreed that those in the castle would have their lives spared if the they came out. Odo and the rebels were allowed to leave but their lands in England were taken from them. Odo went into exiled in Normandy. 
1096   William buys Normandy
 Robert of Normandy became under pressure from William who laid claim to Normandy. William was gaining support from some Norman barons and Robert took the opportunity to leave Normandy to answer Pope Urban II's call for a Crusade. Robert agreed that William could lease Normandy for three years for a sum of 10,000 marks. This money would help him fund the expedition. 
1101 Feb  Robert attempts to take the Crown
 Ranulf Flambard escaped from the Tower of London and fled to Normandy. There he joined Robert II of Normandy who had just returned from the Crusades. Flambard and Robert planned to take the English throne away from his younger brother Henry I. 
 Jul  The Treaty of Alton
 Robert Duke of Normandy landed at Portsmouth with an army and marched up to Alton on the way to London. Here he and Henry signed a treaty where Robert gave up his claim to the throne of England in return for 3,000 marks a year. The treaty also ensured that Robert's supporters would not be punished. 
1103   Henry let off paying Robert of Normandy
 Robert of Normandy visits Henry and tells him that he does not need to pay Normandy the three thousand marks which he should have, bound by treaty to be paid each year.[12] 
   Crops do badly
 Cattle as well as corn and fruit crops did badly this year.[12] 
1105   Henry attacks his brother
 Henry entered Normandy to take power from this brother Robert whose incapacity to manage the affairs of the region could have had grave consequences. Robert fought back forcing Henry to return to England but not before Henry had gained Caen and Bayeux. 
1106 Sep 28  Henry attacks his brother again
 Henry attacked his brother at the battle of Tinchebrai. This time with a much larger force Henry defeated and captured Robert along with William, the Count of Mortain. Henry locked Robert in Cardiff castle where he remained until he died in 1135. 
1134   Death of Robert Curthose
 Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son, died in captivity in Cardiff Castle where he had been locked up since being defeated by his brother in 1106. Robert was buried in Gloucester Cathedral where there is an effigy of him still. 

Robert (of Belleme, Earl of Shrewsbury)

obert was a powerful and evil Norman baron. He already owned several castles in Normandy when in 1098 his brother died in Wales and Robert was given the title of Earl of Shrewsbury. Along with the title came the castles of Shrewsbury and Bridgnorth. Another important castle that came into Robert's possession was Arundel. Robert was an excellent castle architect and his work included Shrewsbury Castle, Bridgnorth Castle and the fortress at Gisor. Robert was involved in several revolts against William Rufus and Henry I. In 1102 Henry started to bring the powerful barons under control. Robert reinforced his castles but they fell to Henry. Robert finally surrendered at Shrewsbury Castle and he was banished to Normandy. Back in Normandy Robert treated his subjects badly. He fell into Henry I's hands again in 1111 and was imprisoned for the rest of his life.
 
YearMonthEvent
1088 Feb  Revolt against William Rufus
 Many Norman barons held land both in England and Normandy. With two opposing lords, William in England and Robert in Normandy, the barons were finding it difficult to know who to support. A revolt led by Odo sprung up in England with the aim of removing William from the throne. Odo's revolt in Kent and Sussex was supported by barons across the country. Roger Bigod from Norwich and Geoffrey of Coutances and Robert Mowbray from Bristol supported Odo. In Worcestershire Roger de Lacy captured Hereford and attacked Worcester. In the south-east Roger Montgomery at Arundel Robert of Mortain at Pevensey and Gilbert de Clare at Tonbridge also prepared to fight the King. Robert of Belleme, a Norman baron, who was able to bring support from Normandy. Robert also controlled castles in the Welsh Marches where the revolt also took place. 
1102   Earl Robert of Belleme
 Henry I brings several charges against Robert of Belleme. Robert resists Henry but finally surrenders at Shrewsbury Castle. Robert is exiled.[12] 

Robert (of Jumieges, Archbishop of Canterbury)

obert of Jumieges
 
YearMonthEvent
1050   Robert of Jumieges becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Edward appointed the French abbot Robert of Jumieges to the post of Archbishop of Canterbury. 
1052 Summer  Stigand becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 Stigand, Bishop of Winchester, mediated between the Godwines and Edward the Confessor. The Norman Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert of Jumieges, fled the country with other bishops who had been appointed by Edward. Stigand assumed the title of Archbishop of Canterbury. Robert appealed to Leo IX and Stigand was excommunicated (repeated by Victor II & Stephen IX, repealed by Benedict X, reintroduced by Nicholas II and Alexander II). 

Robin (of Redesdale)

ysterious leader of a group of rebels who rose up against Edward IV because of his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. The rebels were supported by Richard Neville Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker.
 
YearMonthEvent
1469 Qtr 1  Rebellion of Robin of Redesdale
 A rebellion began early in the year started by a mysterious person calling himself Robin of Redesdale. The motivation for the uprising against the king was his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville and the influence the Woodvilles were having. The rebels were supported by the Earl of Warwick.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jul 18  Warwick returns from France
 Richard Neville, the Earl of Warwick returned from France to England with an army, passing through Canterbury and London. His plan was to take the army north and join up with the Rebels led by Robin of Redesdale.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  
 Jul 26  Battle of Edgecote
 Edward's army was insufficient to deal with the rebels alone and he had moved them to Nottingham to wait for a larger army to join them led by Sir William Herbert, the Earl of Pembroke. Pembroke's army was attacked and defeated by a combined rebel army led by Robin of Redesdale and the Earl of Warwick who had returned from France. The battle took place at Edgecote near Banbury. Sir William Herbert and his brother Richard were captured and executed.

Episode: Wars of the Roses  

Roches, Peter Des

 
YearMonthEvent
1214 Feb 1  Peter Des Roches becomes Justiciar
 John elects Peter Des Roches, the Bishop of Winchester as his Justiciar. Des Roches had supported John through the years of Interdict and was repaid for his loyalty, but he was not popular with the other Barons.[13] 
1216 Oct 28  King Henry III Crowned
 King John's eldest son Henry was crowned King Henry III at the abbey church of Gloucester by Peter des Roches the Bishop of Winchester. The Earl of Pembroke, Earl Marshal of England (William Marshal), was declared Regent.

Episode: The First Barons' War  
1219   William Marshal dies
 William Marshal is succeeded by Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester and Hubert de Burgh who was Justiciary. 
1232   Peter des Rievaulx becomes treasurer
 Peter des Rievaulx, the nephew of the Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester, is made treasurer of the Henry III's household and keeper of the king's wardrobe. This moved him into an extremely important position for controlling the king's affairs.[14] 
1233 Qtr 1  Baronian rebellion
 With the introduction of Peter de Roches as justiciar and the removal of Hubert de Burgh, the control of the Exchequer was under Poitevin control and possibly reversed the gains created by the Magna Carta in 1215. Henry was given control of central administration. This angered the Barons and a group led by Richard Marshall, Earl of Pembroke opposed the changes. Henry was able to deal with the Barons.[15] 

Roger (of Caen)

hile in Caen Henry I and his elder brother William (Rufus) had entered a church and requested the priest say mass. The priest impressed the two so much with his efficiency that they made him their chaplain. Roger's abilities were such that he also became chancellor, Abbot of Sherborne and Bishop of Salisbury. At Sherborne Roger built an abbey and at Old Sarum he built a new Cathedral. Roger's power and wealth was so great that he also built a castle at Sherborne.
 
YearMonthEvent
1106   Construction of Kidwelly Castle
 Roger, bishop of Salisbury, is granted land in south Wales and started construction of a wooden castle on the banks of the river Gwendraeth. 
1139 Jun  Roger, Bishop of Salisbury is arrested
 King Stephen arrested Roger, the Bishop of Salisbury. Bishop Roger was a powerful landowner and had several castles. Stephen also arrested Alexander, the bishop of Lincoln and had him imprisoned. Stephen wanted to take control to bishop Roger's castles and the bishop was taken to his castle at Devizes where he was held captive outside the walls and starved until the castle surrendered. Roger's son was also captured and tortured until the castle finally fell to the King. Roger's castle at Sherborne was also captured by Stephen. The castles at Newark and Sleaford in Lincolnshire belonging to bishop Alexander were forced to surrender to the King using the same underhand tactics.

Episode: Civil War Stephen and Matilda  

Rollo (Rolf or HRolf)

Viking and the founder of the Duchy of Normandy. During the reign of Alfred the Great Rollo could have been a member of the 'Great Heathen Host' who attacked England around 892. His first known whereabouts are in France in 911 where he laid siege to Chartres. The Vikings were beaten on this occasion and the king of France Charles III used his advantage of the situation to persuade the Vikings to stay by offering them land and so help protect France from further Viking raids. Rollo renounced his pagan past and became a Christian. Rollo laid the foundation for the Norman dynasty that ultimately resulted in William the Conqueror invading England in 1066.
 
YearMonthEvent
911   Rollo founds the Norman Dynasty
 Rollo, in return for land in Northern France, swore allegiance to the French king Charles III. Charles' motives were to use a settled band of Vikings in his country to help prevent more Viking attacks in the future. The hope that Charles may have had of removing the Vikings at a later date proved impossible to implement.[7]

Episode: Viking Invasions