Events occurring at some time during this year 
Pinzon sails coast of Brazil 
Episode: The Great Explorers
The Spanish explorer Vicente Pinzon sailed along the coast of what is now the country of Brazil. He also sailed into the Amazon River estuary.

Apr 17  -  Louis XII enters Milan 
After his success at the battle of Novara Louis XII was able to take control of the city of Milan and it's surrounding area.

Aug  -  Francisco de Bobadilla 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Francisco de Bobadilla was chosen by the King and Queen of Spain to go to Hispaniola and investigate the conduct of Christopher Columbus and his brothers. When Bobadilla landed at Santo Domingo the first thing he saw were the bodies of several rebels who had been hung a couple of days before. Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus were not at the settlement but Diego Columbus was. Bobadilla ordered Diago to hand over the other rebels in custody who were scheduled to be executed shortly. Diago refused and so Bobadilla arrested him and took over the city. When Christopher Columbus returned he also was arrested. Bartholomew, who could have caused problems because he had many armed men with him, was persuaded to return to Santo Domingo peacefully.

Oct  -  Columbus returns in chains 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Francisco de Bobadilla accused the Columbus brothers of crimes against the native people, taking slaves and women and extracting large amounts of gold. Christopher and Diago were put in irons and shipped back to Spain. (Unsure about Bartholomew). Christopher Columbus was given the option of having his chains removed while on board the ship but he refused the offer.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Tournament at the Tower of London 
Henry VII held a tournament at the Tower of London.

Oct 2  -  Catherine of Aragon arrives 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
After several months of travelling Catherine of Aragon finally arrived at Plymouth in preparation for her marriage to Prince Arthur.

Nov 14  -  Prince Arthur marries Catherine of Aragon 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
After several days of celebration and reception Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon were married at St. Paul's Cathedral.



Jan  -  Prince Arthur moves to Ludlow 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Prince Arthur took up his position as governor of the Welsh Marches and moved to Ludlow Castle. He was accompanied by his wife Catherine of Aragon.

Apr  -  Prince Arthur dies 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Prince Arthur fell ill at Ludlow with consumption, an illness that he seems to have suffered from a lot during his life. The illness was severe and he died.

May 9  -  Columbus starts his fourth voyage 
Episode: The Great Explorers
With the support of the Spanish King and Queen Columbus set sail from Cadiz with four ships and 140 men under his command. After a delayed start due to bad weather the fleet headed towards the Canary Islands to take on supplies.

May 25  -  Columbus leaves the Canary Islands 
Episode: The Great Explorers
With favourable winds behind him Columbus left the Canary Islands and set sail towards the New World for the fourth time.

Jun 15  -  Columbus lands at Mantinino 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Columbus arrived at the island now called Martinique after an uneventful crossing of the Atlantic. The fleet stayed there for several days while supplies were taken on board and the sailors got chance to go ashore. From here the fleet turned north and headed towards Hispaniola.

Jun 29  -  Columbus predicts a hurricane  
Episode: The Great Explorers
The King and Queen of Spain had ordered Columbus not to visit Santo Domingo because they thought he might take revenge for being arrested and taken back to Spain in chains. Columbus ignored the order and headed there. He anchored outside the harbour and asked for permission to enter port. In Santo Domingo a new governor had been appointed. His name was Don Nicolas de Ovando and he had been there since April. Columbus was refused entry but was aware that a storm was approaching. Bobadilla, the man who had sent Columbus back in chains, with a large fleet of ships was preparing to leave for Spain and his sailors were unable to read the signs in the weather that Columbus could see. Columbus warned them not to leave until the storm had passed but they ignored the warning. Within days the storm broke and the fleet was caught in its fury. Nineteen ships were sunk with the deaths of several hundred men including Bobadilla and the loss of a lot of gold. Although Columbus was not able to get his fleet into the relative safety of the harbour he did get the ships as close to shore as possible in a sheltered spot to ride out the storm.

Jul 30  -  Columbus heads west 
Episode: The Great Explorers
After the storm had passed Columbus headed west into uncharted seas. At the end of July his fleet saw the island of Bonacca just off the coast of Honduras. Landing there Columbus noticed that the natives of the island were more advanced than those he had met so far. To the south of Bonacca was the mainland coast and Columbus was eager to explore it. Columbus heard stories that the mainland was just a narrow strip of land with another large sea on the other side (the Pacific) and there was a strait ( a way of sailing between the sea they were in and the other) nearby,

Aug (to Sep)  -  Columbus explores the mainland coast 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Columbus did not go any further west but turned east and sailed along the coast of Honduras in search of the strait that did not exist. On around the 14th of September the fleet stopped following an easterly course along the coast as the coastline began to head south.

Sep  -  Columbus at Costa Rico 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Columbus spent many days at a place called Cariay, now Puero Limon in Costa Rica. The native people were advanced and used combinations of metals to create their jewellery. Columbus was still looking for the strait that would take him into the second ocean and he believed straight to the Indian ocean.

Oct  -  Henry becomes Duke of Cornwall 
The title of Duke of Cornwall is given to the eldest son of the reigning monarch or their sons. When Arthur died without any male offspring the title was transferred to Henry (VIII)

Oct  -  Veragua 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Columbus sailed along the coast of what is now Panama. He called the area Veragua and here Columbus found the natives had more gold ornaments than anywhere else that he had explored. The months of October and November were extremely stormy and the fleet had to take shelter to avoid being sunk. He heard accounts that the land in this area was so narrow that he could have crossed it on foot to see the ocean on the other side but Columbus still wanted to find a way to get his ships across.

Nov (to Dec)  -  Columbus shelters from the storms 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Throughout November and December the storms and rain did not stop. Columbus and his men were forced to find refuge in sheltered harbours along the coast.

Nov 2  -  Columbus arrives at Portobelo  
Episode: The Great Explorers
Columbus sailed into what he considered to be a lovely port and so named it Puerto Bello. The fleet stayed there for several days.


Zig-zag doorway

Ludlow Castle
Ludlow Castle is situated in the Marches of Wales. Ludlow is one of the most important castles of the area and was the main stronghold of the Earls of March. Although most of the castle is now in ruin, there is much that can be explored.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
William Wareham becomes Archbishop of Canterbury 
William Wareham is elected to the post of Archbishop of Canterbury by Julius II.

Construction of Henry VII Lady chapel 
Henry VII ordered the construction of a new Lady chapel at the east end of Westminster Abbey. The building work was carried out in the Perpendicular style.

Jan (to Apr)  -  Columbus founds a colony 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Columbus arrived at a natural harbour at the mouth of a river which he named Belen, (after Bethlehem). A sand bar at the entrance to the harbour only allowed the ships to enter with great care. Once inside the natural harbour the Spaniards met the local people and things at first were friendly. The chief of the natives allowed the Spaniards to sail up river to explore. What they found was a source of gold. Columbus decided to build a fort in the harbour and leave some men behind while he went back to Santo Domingo to get supplies and more men, But the Spaniards treated the natives badly stealing their gold.. Eventually the native people had had enough and they attacked the fort. Several Spaniards were killed before Columbus and his ships were able to escape. But one ship was left behind as it could not cross the sand bar. Columbus was now down to three ships.

Feb  -  Elizabeth of York dies 
Elizabeth, Henry VII's wife died in childbirth.

Jun  -  Henry VII escorts Margaret to Scotland 
Henry VII and his eldest daughter started their journey to Scotland where the arranged marriage between Margaret and the Scottish King James IV would take place. Margaret was only fourteen years old.

Jun (to Jun, 1504)  -  Columbus is stranded for a year 
Episode: The Great Explorers
The three remaining ships were in a serious condition. Wood worms had eaten into the hulls of the ships and they were letting in water. The navigation was not accurate and instead of reaching Hispaniola Columbus and his remaining ships (possibly two at this point) landed on the north coast of Jamaica unable to go any further. The remaining ships were beached to provide somewhere to live. It would be a year before rescue would arrive. The Spaniards met the local native people and traded what ever they had for food. It was decided that the only hope of rescue was to send a message to Santo Domingo so that a ship could be sent to pick them up. Two canoes were filled with supplies for the 100 mile sea crossing. The two canoes were commanded by Diego Mendez and Bartolomeo Fiecshi. After several days of rowing the fresh water ran out and the native oarsmen they had taken collapsed from thirst. But the two canoes finally reached the coast of Haiti a long way from Santo Domingo. The survivors of the crossing were found by natives and restored to health. After several days rest Diego Mendez was able to continue his journey by canoe along the coast to Santo Domingo.

Jun 23  -  Henry and Catherine's marriage arranged 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Catherine of Aragon was now a widow and on the 23/24 of June the marriage was arranged between her and Henry (VIII). Catherine was the widow of Henry's brother and special dispensation was required from the Pope for the marriage to be lawful.

Aug 8  -  Marriage of James IV and Margaret 
The marriage of the 30 year old Scottish king to the 14 year old daughter of Henry VI, Margaret took place at Holyrood house in Edinburgh.



Jan  -  Mutiny in Jamaica 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Learning from earlier acts of misconduct and to keep the native people happy Columbus had given his men strict rules about their behaviour towards the women. After six months the strain of living under such strict rules came to a head and several sailors rebelled. Led by Francisco Porras the mutineers took several canoes from the natives and filled them with supplies. They also took several native people to row the canoes and set off. But bad weather forced them back to shore. After several attempts the rebels gave up and returned. But instead of moving back into the beached ships they set up their own camp and started to mistreat the native people. After this the Jamaicans started to reduce the amount of food that they were prepared to give to Columbus until eventually the Spaniards were at risk of starvation.

Feb 29  -  A Lunar Eclipse saves Columbus 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Columbus had a book written by a German astronomer that predicted eclipses and he was able to use this information to trick the native Jamaicans. Columbus informed the leaders of the natives that God was not happy because they had stopped supplying the Spaniards with food and to prove this God would turn the moon blood red. This happens when the moon goes behind the Earth. When this event took place the natives were so afraid that they began supplying all the food that the Spaniards needed.

Mar  -  No rescue for Columbus 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Even though Diego Mendez had managed to reach Santo Domingo and tell the governor Ovando that Columbus and the rest of his crew were stranded the Governor was in no rush to send them help. Ovando was no friend of Columbus and did not want him to return to Santo Domingo and possibly take his job. Ovando told Mendez he would have to wait for the next ships to arrive from Spain and then possibly they could help. Eventually Ovando did send a ship but not one that was big enough to rescue the men. It was sent just to check the situation Columbus was in.

Jun 29  -  Columbus is rescued 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Finally Diego Mendez was able to charter a ship that had arrived from Spain and he sent it to rescue Columbus and his men.

Nov  -  Death of Isabella of Castile 
Isabella of Castile died.

Nov 7  -  Columbus returns to Spain 
Episode: The Great Explorers
The fourth voyage ended when Columbus landed at Sanlucar de Barrameda in Spain. The death of Queen Isabella was a serious blow to Columbus as she had been his main supporter and he was not invited to the royal court. In his final couple of years his health suffered but because of the agreements that he had made regarding eighth of the profits he was not short of money.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Papal dispensation 
Pope Julius II gave permission for the marriage between Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. The legality of the marriage was in question because Catherine had been married to Henry's elder brother Arthur.



May 20  -  Death of Columbus 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Christopher Columbus died on Ascension Day (May 20th). He was living in Valladolid in Spain at the time. He was around 55 years old.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Thomas Wolsey becomes royal chaplain 
Thomas Wolsey was given the position of royal chaplain to Henry VII.

Carew Castle hosts a celebration 
Tournaments were held at Carew Castle to celebrate the appointment of the owner, Sir Rhys ap Thomas, to the Order of the Garter. Sir Rhys was reported to be the person who killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth.

First printing press in Scotland 
The first printing press in Scotland was set up by Walter Chepman and Andro Myllar in Edinburgh.


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Sep 19  -  Earthquake 
This earthquake was felt throughout Scotland and England.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Thomas Wolsey becomes royal almoner 
Thomas Wolsey was given the position of royal almoner to Henry VIII.

Norwich Cathedral fire 
Repairs at Norwich Cathedral, because of a fire, resulted in the transept roofs being replaced by stone vaulting.

Building work at Urquhart Castle  
Urquhart Castle was given as a gift to the Grant family by King James IV of Scotland with the understanding that extensive building work was to be carried out. This included the construction of a new tower and supporting buildings so that the surrounding lands could be better protected.

Apr 21  -  Death of Henry VII 
Henry fell in and within just over a day he died of the illness. His body was first moved to St. Paul's and then to Westminster Abbey where he was buried next to his wife.

Jun 11  -  Henry marries Catherine of Aragon 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Henry VIII married Catherine at Greenwich.

Jun 24  -  The coronation of Henry VIII 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Henry and Catherine of Aragaon were crowned at Westminster Abbey.



Jan 1  -  Birth of Henry's first son 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Catherine gave birth to a boy on the first of January but the child did not live long and died in February of the same year.

May 1  -  Joust at Greenwich 
Henry VIII held a jousting tournament at Greenwich Palace.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Holy League against France 
Pope Julius II declared Louis XII was no longer the rightful King of France. Venice and Spain joined the League to remove Louis from power.

Fire at the Tower of London 
Episode: Rebellion against Henry II
A fire at the Tower of London damages St. Peter's chapel within the castle grounds.

Fire damages Westminster Palace 
Westminster Palace was damaged by a fire in the year. The Palace had been used as a royal residence up until this point.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Thomas Wolsey organises expedition to France 
Thomas Wolsey organised Henry's invasion into France ensuring the army was feed, watered and had good accommodation.

Juan Ponce de Leon discovers Florida 
Episode: The Great Explorers
The Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sailed to Florida.

Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean 
The Spanish explorer or Conquistador, Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama to become the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean from the New World.

Jun  -  Henry sails to France 
Henry prepared an invasion fleet and set sail for Calais.

Aug 16  -  Battle of the Spurs and fall of Therouanne 
The French cavalry arrived to assist the town of Therouanne which was under siege from the English. The French horsemen were attacked and turned and fled with the English in hot pursuit across the area of Guingate. The battle was known as the Battle of the Spurs due to the speed of the French retreat from the battlefield. The town of Therouanne fell to the English a couple of weeks later. The English entered the town and raised it to the ground.

Sep  -  Fall of Tournai 
After the victory at Therouanne, Henry turned to Tournai. The town fell to the English who entered it but this time took control and stationed a garrison there. Thomas Wolsey was given the bishopric of the town.

Sep 9  -  Battle of Flodden 
James IV of Scotland's invasion of England came to an end at the Battle of Flodden where he was killed. The English were led by Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. Henry VIII was in France at the time.

Sep 21  -  James V crowned King of Scotland 
Shortly after the death of his father, James V was crowned King of Scotland at Stirling Castle.


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Events occurring at some time during this year 
Thomas Wolsey obtains the lease of Hampton 
Wolsey started the construction of his magnificent palace at Hampton Court.

Feb 6  -  Wolsey become Bishop of Lincoln 
Thomas Wolsey was rewarded with the Bishopric of Lincoln.

Aug  -  Louis XII marries Princess Mary 
A peace treaty was negotiated by Thomas Wolsey with France. One of the terms was that Louis XII of France would marry Princess Mary, the younger sister Henry VIII. Louis died only a few months later.

Aug  -  English - French peace treaty 
Wolsey negotiated a peace treaty between England and France whereby Louis XII married Henry's younger sister Mary and had to pay Henry pension money owed to him under the treaty of Etaples. Peace should be maintained not less than a year after the first of them should die.

Sep  -  Thomas Wolsey becomes archbishop of York 
Thomas Wolsey is promoted to the position of Archbishop of York.



Jan 1  -  Death of Louis XII 
Louis XII died at the age of 52 leaving Mary a widow. His nephew, Francis, became the next king of France.

Feb  -  Princess Mary secretly marries 
Princess Mary ran away with Charles Brandon after the death of Louis XII. They were secretly married but caught and forced to pay a fine.

May 13  -  Mary and Suffolk marry 
Princess Mary, the younger sister of Henry VIII, married Charles Brandon, the Duke of Suffolk at Greenwich. Henry VIII gave full consent to the marriage.

Sep 22  -  Birth of Anne of Cleves 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Anne of Cleves was born in Dusseldorf, Germany.




Events occurring at some time during this year 
Publication of 'Utopia' 
The book entitled 'Utopia' was written by Sir Thomas More and published in this year.

Feb 18  -  Birth of Mary 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
All of Catherine of Aragon's children died in infancy until Princess Mary was born in February of 1516. Mary was healthy and Henry was happy to have an heir. But Henry would have been happier to have a son.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Londoners were affected by a wide-spread illness forcing Henry VIII and his court to move to countryside where they felt safer.

A new crusade is proposed 
Pope Leo X made proposals for a new crusade and sent word to the leading European countries for support. Henry VIII and Thomas Wolsey were not convinced that it was a good idea.

Oct 31  -  Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses 
Upset by the abuses he saw in the Catholic Church, Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-five Theses to the door of the church of Wittenberg. The abuses included the practice of selling high positions in the Church for money and the sale of indulgences allowing those with enough wealth to be forgiven for their sins.



Oct  -  Treaty of London (Universal Peace) 
A treaty was signed in London between the major European countries, England, France, Burgundy and many more. For Cardinal Wolsey this treaty was a plan to produce a peaceful Europe. The treaty stated that the countries must not attack one another and if they did the other countries would come to the aid of those being attacked. Within the treaty was the agreement that Henry's 2 year old daughter Mary would marry the French dauphin.



Aug 10  -  Magellan leaves Seville 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Ferdinand Magellan set sail from Seville with five ships in search of a passageway to the south of South America in order to reach the Pacific Ocean and the Far East.

Sep 20  -  After taking on supplies Magellan's voyage begins 
Episode: The Great Explorers
During the five weeks after leaving Seville Magellan's fleet were anchored in the estuary of the Guadalquivir river south Seville. Here they had taken on the supplies they needed for the long voyage ahead.



Jun 7 (to Jun 24)  -  Field of the Cloth of Gold 
Meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I of France somewhere between Guines and Ardres near Calais. The meeting included a series of tournaments and jousts. The extravagant nature of the event giving the meeting its name.

Nov  -  Magellan finds a route to the Pacific Ocean 
Ferdinand Magellan found a route from the Altantic Ocean through to the Pacific via a passage that is now called the Strait of Magellan. Magellan named the sea Mar Pacifico, or Peaceful Sea because of its calmness.



Nov  -  Treaty of Bruges 
This treaty was conducted in secrecy at Bruges between Charles V and Thomas Wolsey. In the terms of the treaty Wolsey promised Charles that Henry VIII would join him in a joint campaign against France and Francis I. The meeting was held in secret because England was supposed to be a mediator in the dispute between Charles and Francis. The joint attacks of France would have to wait until March or May of 1523.



Sep  -  Survivors of Magellan's voyage return 
Episode: The Great Explorers
Only one ship, the Victoria, out of the five that originally set sail as part of Magellan's fleet managed to return to Spain. Less than twenty men returned. Magellan did not return as he was killed by natives on one of the islands of the Philippines.