Please note that the TimeRef website is currently being redesigned. This page shows what the rest of site will eventually look like.
Gama, Vasco da
Born: 1460 Died: 1524
Vasco de Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope to reach East Asia.
Executed: June 1312
Edward II married Isabella of France, the daughter of King Philippe IV of France. The marriage took place at Boulogne and Edward left Gaveston as Regent in his absence. Edward alienated the Lords by placing Gaveston in such a powerful position.
The barons appeared at Parliament in April demanding the banishment of Gaveston.
King Edward granted his cousin Thomas Earl of Lancaster and his heirs the title of Stewardship of England. Many barons were opposing the King beacuse of his closness to Gaveston and Edward needed some support. This may have been a way of getting Lancaster on his side.
Parliament was unhappy with Gaveston's actions as Regent while Edward was away. Gaveston's closeness to Edward was also distressing for Edward's new wife as well. Parliament concluded that Edward should remove Gaveston and the knight was given the role of Lieutenant of Ireland in order to remove him from England. Gaveston was threatened with excommunication is he did not leave or if he was to return. Edward accompanied Gaveston to Bristol from where he set sail for Ireland.
In the parliament held in April earlier in the year several demands of reform were put to the King. But Edward said that he would only agree to them if Gaveston were to return from exile. In the April parliament this was rejected, but in a parliament held at Stamford in July agreement was given. Edward had managed to have the threat of excommunication overturned and he managed to get support from some of the barons. The barons hoped that the King and Gaveston had learnt from their mistakes in running the country.
King Edward summonsed a council to meet at York, but several barons refused to attend due to Gaveston's attandance. Since he had returned from exile Gaveston had returned to his old ways trying to alienate the barons from the King.
Supported by Earls of Gloucester, Warwick and Cornwall, Edward took an army into Scotland. Edward directed the assaults from Berwick. The campaign was fruitless even though Gaveston managed to reach as far north as Perth.
While Edward II was in Scotland, his Regent, the Earl of Lincoln died. and was replaced by his son-in-law Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. Lancaster became the Earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, but already held the titles of Earl of Leicester and Derby. Holding so many titles, made Lancaster the most powerful Baron of the time. His hatred of Gaveston was to become a major problem for the king.
Lancaster had to pay homage to the king for the new lands he had received with his new earldoms. Edward was in Scotland but Lancaster refused to leave England and Edward met Lancaster at Haggerston Castle on the border. Gaveston was with the king but Lancaster refused to meet him.
Edward II left Scotland and returned to England to attend a session of Parliament. Gaveston was left behind at Bamburgh Castle where he was relatively safe from the Lords Ordainers.
The Ordinances were publicly proclaimed at Paul's Cross. In addition, Gaveston was ordered to leave the country by the 1st of November and to be stripped of his titles.
Gaveston left the country a few days later than he should have done, but even then he didn't go far. By Christmas he had returned to Edward's side and made public appearances with the King. Edward also gave Gaveston his title of Earl of Cornwall back to him.
Gaveston appeared openly at Windsor where the King celebrated Christmas.
Gaveston's return to England forced the Archbishop of Canterbury to honour his threat of excommunication and the Earls to prepare for civil war against the king. Edward and Gaveston travelled to Scotland to seek help from Robert the Bruce but were not welcome.
Edward and Gaveston were at Newcastle when they were alerted to the news that the Earl of Lancaster was heading for them. They escaped down river toTynemouth where the King and Gaveston took a boat to Scarborough leaving behind them everything and everybody including Isabella, Edward's wife. Gaveston took refuge at Scarborough Castle and Edward went to York.
While the Earl of Lancaster set up camp midway between York and Scarborough to prevent Gaveston and the King rejoining, the Earls of Pembroke and Surrey besieged Scarborough castle. The castle was not prepared to withstand the stand-off and Gaveston surrendered after a couple of weeks. The terms of his surrender were generous and Pembroke gave his word that Gaveston would not be harmed until he was presented to Parliament.
The Earl of Pembroke with his captive Gaveston, stopped at Deddington for the night. Pembroke left Gaveston to attend to other matters. The Earl of Warwick took advantage of Pembroke's absence and took Gaveston from his bed. They went to Warwick Castle and Gaveston was thrown in the dungeon. The four Earls, Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel and Hereford took the decision that Gaveston should be punished and took him to Blacklow Hill where he was executed. As Gaveston was under excommunication, the body was not buried straight away.
Edward had delayed having the body of Gaveston buried until he had taken revenge for the murder, but because the King was powerless to act against the Ordainers, he decided to hold a lavish ceremony to bury his dead friend.
Geoffrey (Duke of Brittany)
Born: September 1158 Died: August 1186
Birth of Geoffrey Plantagenet.
Geoffrey, the son of Henry II died in a tournament.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Henry (II, King of England 1154-1189) (b.1133 - d.1189)|
|Mother:||Eleanor (of Aquitaine) (b.1122 - d.1204)|
Geoffrey (I, Greymantle, count of Anjou)
Geoffrey (Martel, I, count of Anjou)
Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou, captured the town Tours and took control of the county of Touraine.
Some years earlier William had supported the exiled Count Herbert of Maine when Geoffrey Martel invaded the province and captured its main town Le Mans. As part of the pact William and Herbert agreed that if Herbert died without an heir the province could be claimed by William. William's eldest son Robert Curthose was betrothed to Herbert's daughter (Margaret?) but she died before they could be married. When Herbert died William claimed Maine in the name of his son and invaded. Robert was made Count of Maine when the province was captured.
Geoffrey (The Bearded)
Died: circa 1109
Fulk Rechin was at war with his brother Geoffrey. They were fighting over the lands of Anjou and Touraine which had been left to them by their uncle Geoffrey Martel, the count of Anjou. Fulk captured Geoffrey the Bearded and captured Anjou later taking the title of count.
Giric (King of Scotland 878 - 889)
After the death of Aed, Giric (his cousin?) became the Scottish ruler.
Sweyn Godwineson was exiled from England by Edward the Confessor to Flanders for murdering his own cousin, Earl Beorn.
Sweyn Godwineson was pardoned and allowed to return to England.
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Godwin (Earl of Wessex) ( - d.1053)|
Godwineson, Sweyn ( - d.1052)
Born: circa 1386 Died: July 1450
An English army landed at Cherbourg under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriel. Joined by forces led by Matthew Gough the combined army laid siege to Valognes. The town fell to the English in April.
An English army under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriel and Matthew Gough were attacked at Formigny in Normandy. The English were defeated and many of them were captured including Kyriel. Matthew Gough managed to escape.
English forces led by Matthew Gough held out at Bayeux against a French siege. The French used powerful cannons and finally Gough agreed to surrender the town to the French.
On his return from Normandy Matthew Gough was made Captain of the Tower of London. Gough was killed in the fighting with Jack Cade and the rebels on London Bridge soon afterwards.
Grey, Catherine (Lady)
Family Tree Details
|Father:||Grey, Henry (Duke of Suffolk) ( - ex.1554)|
Grey, Catherine (Lady)
Grey, Henry (Duke of Suffolk)
Grey, John (Sir)
Died: February 1461
Gruffydd, Dafydd ap (Welsh Prince)
King Edward I of England granted Ruthin to Dafydd, the brother of Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffudd in return for his help against his brother who have been attacking English interests in the north of Wales. Construction of Ruthin Castle may have begun under the direction of Edward or Dafydd himself.
When Dafydd ap Gruffyd rebelled against King Edward the Welsh area Dyffryn Clwyd became was granted to Reginald de Grey as a Marcher Lordship. Reginald was granted the castle at Ruthin.
David ap Gruffydd attacked and took control the castle at Hawarden. The constable, Roger de Clifford, was captured during the attack.
David, Llywelyn's brother, rose up in revolt. Llywelyn, even though he had sworn fealty to Edward, joined his brother in the fight against the English.
David the brother of Llywelyn was handed over to the king by his own supporters who had already surrendered. He was taken to Shrewsbury Castle where a Parliament met and sentenced him to death by execution.
Dafydd was found guilty of high treason and sentenced to death. His punishment for betraying the King was to be drawn, hanged and quartered.
Gruffydd, Llywelyn ap
Died: August 1063
A force of Welsh and Irish men led by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, a Welsh prince attacked and burnt the building.
Aelfgar, earl of Mercia was outlawed by the witan. In revenge he built a force and allied himself with Welsh Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. After defeating the King's nephew, Radulf, they attacked Hereford and raided the church killing several canons and taking everything of value leaving the building on fire. The rebels also attacked Leominster.
Death of Athelstan, bishop of Hereford; succeeded by Leofgar, who tried to take reprisals against Gruffydd, the Welsh Prince.
In reponse to the attack on Hereford Catherdal, Leofgar the bishop of Hereford took an army into Wales to deal with the Welsh prince. In battle Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed the bishop and others near Glasbury on Wye. Earl Godwin raised an army in response but the two side eventually came to peaceful terms and Aelfgar was later restored to his position.
Gruffydd, Rhys ap (Lord Rhys)
Henry IIinvaded Deheubarth taking Lord Rhys prisoner and confiscating his lands. Rhys was released a few weeks later. This prompted Lord Rhys to make an alliance with Owain Gwynedd, the Prince of Gwynedd to create an army to stand up to the Anglo-Normans.
Henry II granted territories of south Wales including Cardiganshire to Rhys, the Prince of Wales.
King Henry II returned to England and visited Henry of Blois, the bishop of Winchester who was dying. He also met with Lord Rhys, the important south Wales prince. A series of meetings took place during 1171 and 1172 where an agreement was reached whereby Lord Rhys could keep his land and was given the title justiciar of south Wales.
Laugharne Castle was the location of one of a series of meetings between King Henry II and Lord Rhys, that confirmed the lands held by the Lord, and where he was given the title of justiciar.
In this year Rhys ap Gruffydd, The Lord Rhys captured the castle at Kidwelly from the Normans. It is possible that he repaired its structure at this time.
Gundulf became Bishop of Rochester, remaining there for thirty years and where he is buried.
Gundulf began work on the White Tower, the Tower of London.
Gundulf's thirty year career of magnificent castle and cathedral design and construction came to an end with his death. His plans for the reconstruction of Rochester Cathedral were left incomplete. It was not until 1115 that construction work was to resume under the direction of Ernulf.
Selection of references used:
TimeRef UK Castles Mobile App for Android Phone
This Android app allows you to find castles thar are near you. Currently the app includes only English and Welsh castles.
Download the app from the Google Play Store
A Medieval Mystery
There appear to be some strange connections between the fourteenth century Old Wardour Castle and ancient stone circle Stonehenge.
Old Wardour Castle appears to be aligned to ancient sites in the Stonehenge landscape.
Stonehenge is aligned to the Summer Solstice. Old Wardour has a very similar alignment.
Could the builders of Old Wardour used mesaurements from Stonehenge to layout the geometrical keep?