Gama, Vasco da

Born: 1460 Died: 1524

xplorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in 1497 to reach Calicut in India in 1498.
 
YearMonthEvent
1497 Dec  Vasco de Gama rounds Cape of Good Hope
 Vasco de Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope to reach East Asia.
[1]

Episode: The Great Explorers  

Gaveston, Piers

Executed: Jun 1312

on of a prominent Gascon knight, Gaveston had a close friendship with Edward II, king of England. Edward's affection towards Gaveston alienated the people who were Edward's real counsellors, the barons. Gaveston was captured by the Earl of Warwick, the leader of the king's opposition in June 1312 and executed.
 
YearMonthEvent
1308 Jan 25  Edward marries
 Edward II married Isabella of France, the daughter of King Philippe IV of France. The marriage took place at Boulogne and Edward left Gaveston as Regent in his absence. Edward alienated the Lords by placing Gaveston in such a powerful position.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Apr  Parliament angry with the King
 The barons appeared at Parliament in April demanding the banishment of Gaveston.[3]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 May 9  Thomas Earl of Lancaster
 King Edward granted his cousin Thomas Earl of Lancaster and his heirs the title of Stewardship of England. Many barons were opposing the King beacuse of his closness to Gaveston and Edward needed some support. This may have been a way of getting Lancaster on his side.

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Jun 25  Gaveston banished
 Parliament was unhappy with Gaveston's actions as Regent while Edward was away. Gaveston's closeness to Edward was also distressing for Edward's new wife as well. Parliament concluded that Edward should remove Gaveston and the knight was given the role of Lieutenant of Ireland in order to remove him from England. Gaveston was threatened with excommunication is he did not leave or if he was to return. Edward accompanied Gaveston to Bristol from where he set sail for Ireland.

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1309 Jul  Parliament agrees to Gaveston's return
 In the parliament held in April earlier in the year several demands of reform were put to the King. But Edward said that he would only agree to them if Gaveston were to return from exile. In the April parliament this was rejected, but in a parliament held at Stamford in July agreement was given. Edward had managed to have the threat of excommunication overturned and he managed to get support from some of the barons. The barons hoped that the King and Gaveston had learnt from their mistakes in running the country.[3]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Oct  Great Council at York
 King Edward summonsed a council to meet at York, but several barons refused to attend due to Gaveston's attandance. Since he had returned from exile Gaveston had returned to his old ways trying to alienate the barons from the King.

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1310 Sep  Edward campaigns in Scotland
 Supported by Earls of Gloucester, Warwick and Cornwall, Edward took an army into Scotland. Edward directed the assaults from Berwick. The campaign was fruitless even though Gaveston managed to reach as far north as Perth.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1311 Qtr 1  The rise of Thomas Earl of Lancaster
 While Edward II was in Scotland, his Regent, the Earl of Lincoln died. and was replaced by his son-in-law Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. Lancaster became the Earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, but already held the titles of Earl of Leicester and Derby. Holding so many titles, made Lancaster the most powerful Baron of the time. His hatred of Gaveston was to become a major problem for the king.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Qtr 1  Lancaster pays homage
 Lancaster had to pay homage to the king for the new lands he had received with his new earldoms. Edward was in Scotland but Lancaster refused to leave England and Edward met Lancaster at Haggerston Castle on the border. Gaveston was with the king but Lancaster refused to meet him.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Jul  Edward returns to England
 Edward II left Scotland and returned to England to attend a session of Parliament. Gaveston was left behind at Bamburgh Castle where he was relatively safe from the Lords Ordainers.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Sep 27  Ordinances Proclaimed
 The Ordinances were publicly proclaimed at Paul's Cross. In addition, Gaveston was ordered to leave the country by the 1st of November and to be stripped of his titles.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Nov 3  Gaveston leaves the country
 Gaveston left the country a few days later than he should have done, but even then he didn't go far. By Christmas he had returned to Edward's side and made public appearances with the King. Edward also gave Gaveston his title of Earl of Cornwall back to him.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Christmas  Edward and Gaveston at Windsor
 Gaveston appeared openly at Windsor where the King celebrated Christmas.[3]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1312 Qtr 1  Edward looks to Scotland for help
 Gaveston's return to England forced the Archbishop of Canterbury to honour his threat of excommunication and the Earls to prepare for civil war against the king. Edward and Gaveston travelled to Scotland to seek help from Robert the Bruce but were not welcome.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 May 4  Edward and Gaveston flee
 Edward and Gaveston were at Newcastle when they were alerted to the news that the Earl of Lancaster was heading for them. They escaped down river toTynemouth where the King and Gaveston took a boat to Scarborough leaving behind them everything and everybody including Isabella, Edward's wife. Gaveston took refuge at Scarborough Castle and Edward went to York.[3]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 May 19  Gaveston surrenders
 While the Earl of Lancaster set up camp midway between York and Scarborough to prevent Gaveston and the King rejoining, the Earls of Pembroke and Surrey besieged Scarborough castle. The castle was not prepared to withstand the stand-off and Gaveston surrendered after a couple of weeks. The terms of his surrender were generous and Pembroke gave his word that Gaveston would not be harmed until he was presented to Parliament.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
 Jun 19  Gaveston executed
 The Earl of Pembroke with his captive Gaveston, stopped at Deddington for the night. Pembroke left Gaveston to attend to other matters. The Earl of Warwick took advantage of Pembroke's absence and took Gaveston from his bed. They went to Warwick Castle and Gaveston was thrown in the dungeon. The four Earls, Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel and Hereford took the decision that Gaveston should be punished and took him to Blacklow Hill where he was executed. As Gaveston was under excommunication, the body was not buried straight away.[4]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  
1314 Dec  Gaveston buried
 Edward had delayed having the body of Gaveston buried until he had taken revenge for the murder, but because the King was powerless to act against the Ordainers, he decided to hold a lavish ceremony to bury his dead friend.[2]

Episode: Edward II and Piers Gaveston  

Geoffrey (Duke of Brittany)

Born: Sep 1158 Died: Aug 1186

eoffrey was the fourth son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was given lands of Brittany. He died in 1186 possibly from an accident in a tournament of from a virus.
YearMonthEvent
1158 Sep 23  Birth of Geoffrey Plantagenet
 Birth of Geoffrey Plantagenet.[1] 
1186 Jul  Geoffrey, son of Henry II dies in a tournament
 Geoffrey, the son of Henry II dies in a tournament.[5] 

Geoffrey (I, Greymantle, count of Anjou)

Died: 987

eoffrey was the son of Fulk II, count of Anjou. A legend surrounds Geoffrey depicting him as a great knight and warrior. The legend concerns an invasion by the Danes who had been attacking lands of France for some time. Amongst them was a fierce warrior called Ethelulf. No one could kill the huge Dane and he challenged all to try. When Geoffrey heard of this he secretly travelled to Paris where the Danes were approaching. Geoffrey confronted Ethelulf and killed the giant. He cut off the head of Ethelulf and gave it to a servant to take to Paris. No one knew who had killed the Dane and it was only later at a reception at Paris that Geoffrey was recognised by the servant who had been given the head. Because he was wearing a grey cloak, Geoffrey was given the nickname Graygown or Greymantle. Geoffrey was succeeded by his son Fulk, the Black.
 
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Geoffrey (Martel, I, count of Anjou)

Died: 1060

eoffrey Martel was the son of Fulk Nerra, count of Anjou. Geoffrey became count of Anjou in 1040 when his father died. Martel was a fierce warrior brushing aside all that stood before him. In 1044 the county of Touraine was overrun by Geoffrey when his army captured Tours, its capital town. When he died in 1060 Geoffrey had no children so he divided his lands of Anjou and Touraines between his nephews Geoffrey the Bearded and Fulk Rechin. Fulk received Touraine and Geoffrey received Anjou. Geoffrey Martel died in great pain from an illness.
 
YearMonthEvent
1044   Geoffrey Martel takes Tours and Touraine
 Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou, captured the town Tours and took control of the county of Touraine.[6] 
1063   William invades and captures Maine
 Some years earlier William had supported the exiled Count Herbert of Maine when Geoffrey Martel invaded the province and captured its main town Le Mans. As part of the pact William and Herbert agreed that if Herbert died without an heir the province could be claimed by William. William's eldest son Robert Curthose was betrothed to Herbert's daughter (Margaret?) but she died before they could be married. When Herbert died William claimed Maine in the name of his son and invaded. Robert was made Count of Maine when the province was captured.[7] 

Geoffrey (The Bearded)

Died: circa 1109

eoffrey the Bearded was the nephew of Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou. The count had no children so arranged for his lands to be divided between his nephews Geoffrey and Fulk Rechin. Geoffrey received the areas of Anjou and Saintonge, an area on the west coast of France. Fulk received the area of Touraine. The brothers Geoffrey and Fulk began to fight amongst themselves and in 1066 Fulk captured Geoffrey and imprisoned him.

 
YearMonthEvent
1066   Fulk Rechin defeats Geoffrey the Bearded
 Fulk Rechin was at war with his brother Geoffrey. They were fighting over the lands of Anjou and Touraine which had been left to them by their uncle Geoffrey Martel, the count of Anjou. Fulk captured Geoffrey the Bearded and captured Anjou later taking the title of count.[6] 

Giffard, Walter

Died: 1279

ishop of Bath and Wells from 1264, and chancellor after Simon de Montfort's defeat and death at Evesham in 1265. Giffard became archbishop of York in 1266 and acted as regent for Edward I.
 
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Giric (King of Scotland 878 - 889)

Died: 889

iric became Scotland's king in 878 and jointly ruled with Eochaid. Both men must have had a claim to the early Scottish throne. Giric was a warrior and invaded Northumbria several times. He died at Dundurn in 889. After the death of Giric, Donald, a son of Constantine I succeeded to the throne.
 
YearMonthEvent
878   Giric becomes the Scottish monarch
 After the death of Aed, Giric (his cousin?) became the Scottish ruler. 

Glanvill, Ranulf de

anulf was a lawyer and Henry II's Chief Justiciar. Henry entrusted the education of his son John to Ranulf. Hubert Walter also studied under Ranulf.
 
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Glyndwr, Katherine

atherine was the daughter of Owain Glyndwr and she married Edmund Mortimer. Edmund had been fighting on the side of Henry IV against Owain Glyndwr's Welsh revolt but had been captured by Owain at the battle of Pilleth. Owain demanded a ransom from Henry IV to free Edmund but Henry refused to pay. Edmund decided to join Owain Glyndwr's cause. He even married Owen's daughter Katherine.

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Glyndwr, Katherine
+Mortimer, Edmund ( - d.1409)

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Godwineson, Sweyn

Died: 1052

weyn was the first son of Godwine, Earl of Wessex.

Family Tree Details
Father: Godwin (Earl of Wessex) ( - d.1053)
Mother: Gytha
Godwineson, Sweyn ( - d.1052)

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Father: Godwin (Earl of Wessex) ( - d.1053)
Mother: Gytha

YearMonthEvent
1049   Sweyn exiled for murder
 Sweyn Godwineson was exiled from England by Edward the Confessor to Flanders for murdering his own cousin, Earl Beorn.

Episode: Edward the Confessor and Earl Godwine  
1050   Sweyn pardoned
 Sweyn Godwineson was pardoned and allowed to return to England.

Episode: Edward the Confessor and Earl Godwine  

Gough, Matthew

Born: circa 1386 Died: Jul 1450

Welsh soldier who fought as a captain in France for Henry VI. See timeline for more information
 
YearMonthEvent
1450 Mar 15  Siege of Valognes
 An English army landed at Cherbourg under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriel. Joined by forces led by Matthew Gough the combined army laid siege to Valognes. The town fell to the English in April.

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
 Apr 15  Battle of Formigny
 An English army under the command of Sir Thomas Kyriel and Matthew Gough were attacked at Formigny in Normandy. The English were defeated and many of them were captured including Kyriel. Matthew Gough managed to escape.[8]

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
 May 16  Bayeux surrendered to the French
 English forces led by Matthew Gough held out at Bayeux against a French siege. The French used powerful cannons and finally Gough agreed to surrender the town to the French.[8]

Episode: Henry VI and Joan of Arc  
 Summer  Matthew Gough made Captain of the Tower
 On his return from Normandy Matthew Gough was made Captain of the Tower of London. Gough was killed in the fighting with Jack Cade and the rebels on London Bridge soon afterwards.[8] 

Grey, Catherine (Lady)

ady Catherine Grey was the granddaughter of Mary, the younger sister of Henry VIII. Catherine's elder sister, Lady Jane, was involved in an attempt to take the English throne by force and was executed. Catherine had a good claim to the English throne and at one point could have become Queen of England if Queen Elizabeth had died.

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Father: Grey, Henry (Duke of Suffolk) ( - ex.1554)
Mother: Frances (Lady)
Grey, Catherine (Lady)

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Father: Grey, Henry (Duke of Suffolk) ( - ex.1554)
Mother: Frances (Lady)

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Grey, Henry (Duke of Suffolk)

Executed: 1554

enry married Frances the granddaughter of Mary a daughter of Henry VII. Henry and Frances had several daughters one of which was Lady Jane Grey. At the end of the reign of Edward VI Henry and Jane's father-in-law John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, plotted against Mary Tudor, Edward's sister, to place Jane on the throne of England. The plot failed and after another failed rebellion Henry was captured and executed.

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Grey, Henry (Duke of Suffolk) ( - ex.1554)
+Frances (Lady) =Grey, Jane (Lady) (b.1537 - ex.1554) =Grey, Catherine (Lady)

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Grey, John (Sir)

Died: Feb 1461

ir John was the owner of the Bradgate estate and had considerable wealth. He was Lancastrian by inclination. Elizabeth Woodville married Sir John in 1457. The couple had two sons and life seemed to be good, but Sir John was killed in the second battle of St Albans in 1461 and Elizabeth returned to Grafton, to the family home, with her sons.

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Grey, John (Sir) ( - d.1461)
+Woodville, Elizabeth (b.1437 - d.1492)

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Gruffydd, Dafydd ap (Welsh Prince)

Died: 1283

 
YearMonthEvent
1277   Dafydd granted Ruthin Castle
 King Edward I of England granted Ruthin to Dafydd, the brother of Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffudd in return for his help against his brother who have been attacking English interests in the north of Wales. Construction of Ruthin Castle may have begun under the direction of Edward or Dafydd himself. 
1282   Lordship Marcher of Dyffryn Clwyd
 When Dafydd ap Gruffyd rebelled against King Edward the Welsh area Dyffryn Clwyd became was granted to Reginald de Grey as a Marcher Lordship. Reginald was granted the castle at Ruthin. 
 Mar  Hawarden Castle captured by the Welsh
 David ap Gruffydd attacked and took control the castle at Hawarden. The constable, Roger de Clifford, was captured during the attack.

Episode: Edward I and Wales  
 Easter  Another Welsh Uprising
 David, Llywelyn's brother, rose up in revolt. Llywelyn, even though he had sworn fealty to Edward, joined his brother in the fight against the English.

Episode: Edward I and Wales  
1283 Jun  David of Wales captured
 David the brother of Llywelyn was handed over to the king by his own supporters who had already surrendered. He was taken to Shrewsbury Castle where a Parliament met and sentenced him to death by execution.[9]

Episode: Edward I and Wales  
 Oct 3  Dafydd ap Gruffydd is executed
 Dafydd was found guilty of high treason and sentenced to death. His punishment for betraying the King was to be drawn, hanged and quartered.

Episode: Edward I and Wales  

Gruffydd, Llywelyn ap

Died: Aug 1063

ruffydd ap Llywelyn became ruler of most of Wales between 1055 to 1063. He combined forces with the exiled Aelfgar of Mercia and invaded England, burning the city of Hereford and its cathedral.
 
YearMonthEvent
1055 Oct  Hereford cathedral attacked
 A force of Welsh and Irish men led by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, a Welsh prince attacked and burnt the building.  
 Oct 24  Rebellion of Aelfgar of Mercia
 Aelfgar, earl of Mercia was outlawed by the witan. In revenge he built a force and allied himself with Welsh Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. After defeating the King's nephew, Radulf, they attacked Hereford and raided the church killing several canons and taking everything of value leaving the building on fire. The rebels also attacked Leominster.[1] 
1056   Bishop of Hereford
 Death of Athelstan, bishop of Hereford; succeeded by Leofgar, who tried to take reprisals against Gruffydd, the Welsh Prince.[1] 
 Jun  Death of Leofgar, bishop of Hereford
 In reponse to the attack on Hereford Catherdal, Leofgar the bishop of Hereford took an army into Wales to deal with the Welsh prince. In battle Gruffydd ap Llywelyn killed the bishop and others near Glasbury on Wye. Earl Godwin raised an army in response but the two side eventually came to peaceful terms and Aelfgar was later restored to his position.[1] 

Gruffydd, Rhys ap (Lord Rhys)

Died: 1197

hys ap Gruffydd, also known as Lord Rhys, was a ruling prince of Deheubarth, an area of south Wales and lived during the reign of Henry II. He came to power in 1155 after the death of his elder brothers, Anarwd, Cadell and Maredydd. In 1158, under pressure from the English King, Rhys was forced to submit and accept Norman control in his lands. Henry invaded Deheubarth in 1163 and Rhys was taken prisioner only to be released a few weeks later after his lands had been taken from him. By 1165 Rhys had regained his lands after making an alliance with Owain Gwynedd, the Prince of Gwynedd, their combined forces being able to stand up to the Anglo-Norman invaders. In 1171 Rhys and Henry II came to an agreement whereby Rhys was able to keep the lands he had captured and was given the title of justiciar for south Wales, an important royal appointment. The agreement between the two rulers lasted until the death of Henry II. In the last few years of his rule, Lord Rhys had to contend with rebellious sons who at one point captured him. After his death rivalries between his sons led to meny years of conflict.
 
YearMonthEvent
1163   Henry invades south Wales
 Henry IIinvaded Deheubarth taking Lord Rhys prisoner and confiscating his lands. Rhys was released a few weeks later. This prompted Lord Rhys to make an alliance with Owain Gwynedd, the Prince of Gwynedd to create an army to stand up to the Anglo-Normans. 
1171   Cardiganshire granted to Lord Rhys
 Henry II granted territories of south Wales including Cardiganshire to Rhys, the Prince of Wales.[10] 
 Aug 6  Henry II returns to England
 Henry II returned to England and visited Henry of Blois, the bishop of Winchester who was dying. He also met with Lord Rhys, the important south Wales prince. A series of meetings took place during 1171 and 1172 where an agreement was reached whereby Lord Rhys could keep his land and was given the title justiciar of south Wales.[6] 
1172   Henry II and Lord Rhys meet
 Laugharne Castle was the location of one of a series of meetings between Henry II and Lord Rhys that confirmed Rhys' lands and where he was given the title of justiciar. 
1190   Kidwelly Castle rebuilt
 In this year Rhys ap Gruffydd, The Lord Rhys captured the castle at Kidwelly from the Normans. It is possible that he repaired its structure at this time.[11] 

Gundulf

Died: 1108

nown as the 'weeping monk of Bec'. Gundulf came across from Normandy after the Conquest with Lanfranc. Gundulf was well known and admired for his building skills and Lanfranc used Gundulf to rebuild his Cathedral. In 1077 Gundulf was made Bishop of Rochester and a year later William the Conqueror used Gundulf's skill in the construction of the White Tower, the keep of the Tower of London.
 
YearMonthEvent
1077   Gundulf consecrated as Bishop of Rochester
 Gundulf became Bishop of Rochester, remaining there for thirty years and where he is buried. 
1078   Work starts on the White Tower
 Gundulf began work on the White Tower, the Tower of London.[12]

Episode: Norman Conquest  
1108   Death of Gundulf
 Gundulf's thirty year career of magnificent castle and cathedral design and construction came to an end with his death. His plans for the reconstruction of Rochester Cathedral were left incomplete. It was not until 1115 that construction work was to resume under the direction of Ernulf.[13]