Events occurring at some time during this year 
Wolsey founds Cardinal College Oxford 
Thomas Wolsey founded a new college at Oxford called Cardinal College. After his death the college was refounded by Henry VIII as Christ Church.


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Events occurring at some time during this year 
Henry VIII meets Anne Boleyn 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Anne Boleyn came to the attention of Henry VIII. Anne was a lady-in-waiting for Queen Catherine and the sister of Mary Boleyn who was at the time the mistress of Henry VIII. Henry became besotted by Anne.

May  -  Wolsey sets up secret court 
To end the marriage between Henry and Catherine Wolsey set up a secret tribunal where Henry VIII had to answer charges of having a illegal marriage. The court was held in secret so Catherine did not know. The plan was to present the facts to the Pope who would annul the marriage. Problems occurred when Rome was attacked by Catherine's nephew Charles and the Pope was captured. Any chance of the Pope annulling the marriage was now gone.

May 21  -  Birth of Philip II of Spain 
Philip of Spain was the son of Emperor Charles V and Isabella, the daughter of Emanuel of Portugal.

Jun 22  -  Henry VIII declares his marriage invalid 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Henry VIII told Catherine of Aragon that their marriage was invalid because she had earlier been married to his brother Arthur. Anne Boleyn, who Henry had become besotted with, wanted Henry to divorce Catherine and to marry her.



Nov 29  -  Death of Wolsey 
Thomas Wolsey died at Leicester.



Aug  -  Halley's Comet 
Return of the comet now named after Edmond Halley (died 1742) that returns approximately every 75 years.



Jan 25  -  Marriage to Anne Boleyn 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn at Whitehall Palace on or around the 25th of January. Anne was expecting a child which Henry and Anne hoped would be a boy.

Spring  -  Act of Succession 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
A statute passed by Parliament called the 'Act of Succession' declared that Mary Tudor was illegitimate and not Henry's heir because the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon was void. This meant that children of Henry and Anne Boleyn would be the true heirs to the English throne.

May 23  -  Marriage to Catherine of Aragon declared illegal 
Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon was illegal and was annulled. The marriage between Henry and Anne Boleyn could then be formalised.

May 28  -  Marriage to Anne Boleyn declared legal 
Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage between Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn was legal.

Jun 1  -  Coronation of Anne Boleyn 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen of England at Westminster Abbey by the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer.

Sep 7  -  Birth of Elizabeth to Anne Boleyn 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Anne gave birth to Elizabeth a healthy girl at Greenwich Palace. Henry had hoped they would have a boy to ensure the continuation of the Tudor line.

Dec  -  Princess Elizabeth moved to Hatfield 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Princess Elizabeth was moved from Greenwich, London to Hatfield were she was looked in the household of Lady Bryan.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
The Act of Supremacy 
Albeit the king's majesty justly and rightfully is and ought to be the supreme head of the Church of England, and so is recognised by the clergy of this realm in their convocations, yet nevertheless, for corroboration and confirmation thereof, and for increase of virtue in Christ's religion within the realm of England, and to repress and extirpate all errors, heresies and other abuses heretofore used in the same, be it enacted by authority of this present Parliament, that the king of our sovereign lord, his heirs and successors , kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted and reputed the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England, called Anglicana Eccesia ; and shall have and enjoy, annexed and united to the imperial crownof this realm, as well the title and crown thereof, as all honours , pre-eminences, jurisdictions, privilages, authorities, immunities, profits and commodities to the said dignity of the supreme head of the same church belonging and appertaining ; and that our said sovereign lord, his heirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall have full power and authority from time to time to visit, repress, redress, record, order, correct, retrain and amend all such errors, heresies, abuses, offences,contempts and enormities, wahtsoever they be, which by any manner of spiritual authority or jurisdiction ought or may lawfully be reformed, repressed, ordred, redressed, corrected, restrained, or amended, most of the pleasure of Almighty God, the increase of virtue in Christ's religion and for the conservation of the peace , unity and tranquillity of this realm ; any usage, foreign law, foreign authority, prescription or any other thing of things to the contrary notwithstanding.

Jan  -  Mary moved to Hatfield 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
By the order of Henry VIII Mary's title of Princess had been removed and she was taken to Hatfield to be a servant in the household of Princess Elizabeth, her younger step-sister. Mary was around eighteen years old at this time. Mary was not happy with this arrangement and could not accept that Elizabeth had a better claim to the English throne than she did.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Dissolution of the Monasteries 
Henry VIII obtained much needed money by suppressing hundreds of religious houses across the country and selling off their lands and assets. The monasteries, abbeys and nunneries had in the past played an important role in the fabric of medieval life. Not only had they acted as a place of worship, but they were also a centre for education, refuge for travellers and provided food for the poor. But times were changing and education was being provided by newly created universities and inns were providing a place for travellers. Less people were interested in a monastic life. Henry and Thomas Cromwell sent out surveyors to report on the state of each religious community, starting with the smaller houses first. Those houses that were badly run or where disipline for the religious order they followed had become slack were closed down immediately and their lands and assets taken. The abbots were offered pensions or money to surrender their houses but also threatened with violence if they did not. Several abbots were executed for not surrendering their abbeys. The inhabitants of the houses were sent to larger abbeys or just abandoned. A second round of suppression followed that concentrated on the larger religious houses. But the suppression did not come without a cost. Several revolts were sparked by the Dissolution of the Monasteries.

Jan  -  Death of Catherine of Aragon 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Catherine of Aragon died. It was believed that she had been poisoned but it is possible that she died of cancer. Catherine died at Kimbolton Castle.

Jan 29  -  Anne Boleyn loses a son 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Anne had a premature birth resulting in a stillborn child and the child was a boy. The failure to give Henry a son meant the end of her marriage to the king. Henry needed a new wife who could give him a male heir and he had his eye on Jane Seymour.

May 2  -  Anne Boleyn arrested 
Anne Boleyn was arrested at Greenwich after the May-Day jousting tournament on the order of Henry VIII.

May 19  -  Execution of Anne Boleyn 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII, was executed for treason and adultery at the Tower of London.

May 30  -  Henry marries Jane Seymour 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Henry married his third wife Jane Seymour the former lady-in-waiting to both Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn. They were married at York Palace (now the Palace of Whitehall)

Summer  -  Netley Abbey surrenders to the King 
Under the Act of the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries it was determined that Netley Abbey was to be dissolved. The Abbot at the time and his monks moved to their mother house at Beaulieu.

Jul  -  Elizabeth declare illegitimate 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Parliament declared that Elizabeth, like her elder step-sister Mary, was illegitimate. This allowed the next son of Henry VIII to be born to become the heir to the English throne.

Oct 2 (to Oct 18)  -  Lincolnshire Rebellion 
The short rebellion that took place for a couple of weeks in October was the prelude for a much larger rebellion known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. The Lincolnshire rebellion began in response to Henry VIII's unpopular policies, including the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The Rebels also had grievances against Henry's unpopular advisers like Thomas Cranmer. The rebels consisted of both common people and land owners alike, but some land owners were forced to take part. The rebels reached Lincoln where they were assured Henry VIII would listen to their demands if they disbanded. Meanwhile Henry ordered that a army should be sent to Lincoln as kill the rebels. By the time that army, led by the Duke of Suffolk, reached Lincoln the rebels had dispersed.

Oct 21  -  Pilgrimage of Grace 
Following the earlier Lincoln rebellion, a larger rebellion began further north in Yorkshire. This rebellion again protested against Henry VIII's unpopular policies and advisers. They wanted Henry to put a stop to the dissolution of the monasteries and they wanted the removal of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer and Henry's adviser Thomas Cromwell. The leader of the rebellion was Robert Aske, a lawyer and excellent organiser. Somewhere between 30,000 and 35,000 rebels were involved and they took control of Pontefract Castle which fell to them without any resistance.

Oct 27  -  Meeting with rebels 
The Duke of Norfolk met with leaders of the rebels on Doncaster Bridge where their demands were heard. The Duke asked the rebels to disband promising that their demands would be considered. The rebels complied with the request to disband and returned home. Henry VIII made no attempt to consider their demands.

Dec  -  Rebels list demands 
At Pontefract the rebel leaders presented a list of demands. The rebels were assured of free pardons.



Qtr 1  -  More uprisings 
Although the main leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace were remaining peaceful and waiting for Henry VIII to look into their complaints others were not so trusting. Several uprisings occurred in the north east of England where Carlisle was besieged. The Duke of Norfolk was able to deal with the rebels and many of those suspected of taking part were hung in their villages as an example to the rest.

Summer  -  Rebel leaders executed 
Henry VIII summonsed the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace to him in London where the rebels believed they would discuss terms with the King as they had been promised free pardons. Instead, Henry had the rebels arrested. They were sent back to their home lands where they were tried and executed.

Oct 12  -  Edward VI born at Hampton Court 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Jane Seymour gave birth to Edward at Hampton Court. The birth had complications and Jane became ill.

Oct 24  -  Jane Seymour dies 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Jane Seymour died after complications with the birth of Edward VI. She was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Destruction of Thomas Becket's Relics 
Henry VIII ordered the destruction of the shrine of Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral and the removal of all the offerings that had been made over the centuries. The bones were supposed to have been burned but may have been reburied sparking a mystery over the location of the remains today.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of Pendennis and St. Mawes Castles 
Henry VIII had a pair of castles built at the mouth of the River Fal near Falmouth in Cornwall. The River mouth is a natural deep water harbour and needed protecting from invasion.

Waltham Abbey Dissolved 
Waltham Abbey has the distinction of being the last monastery to be dissolved by Henry VIII.

Jan  -  Abbey at Gloucester surrenders 
The monastery at Gloucester surrendered to Henry VIII as part of the dissolution of the monasteries.

Jan 6  -  Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Although Henry was disappointed that Anne did not resemble her portrait the marriage went ahead as planned.

Jul 9  -  Marriage to Anne of Cleves annulled 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
The marriage of Henry VIII to Anne of Cleves was annulled just a few months after the marriage. Anne agreed to an annual income and the use of several lavish homes in England.

Jul 28  -  Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Just weeks after the marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled Henry married Catherine Howard.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Gloucester given Cathedral status 
The abbey at Gloucester became a Cathedral at the centre of its own diocese. Previously it had been part of the Worcester diocese. John Wakeman was assigned as the first bishop.



Feb 13  -  Catherine Howard executed 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Found guilty of adultery and therefore treason, Catherine Howard was sentenced to death and was executed on Tower Green within the Tower of London.

Aug  -  Battle of Haddon Rig 
Henry VIII renewed his claim on the Scottish throne and sent his army in the north of England into Scotland. The army was met by a Scottish army led by George Gordon the 4th Earl of Huntley at Haddon Rig in Teviotdale. The Scots defeated the English led by Robert Bowes.

Nov 24  -  Battle of Solway Moss 
The battle at Solway Moss ended in a terrible defeat for the Scottish when they were overrun by a much smaller force of English troops led by Sir Thomas Wharton. Several high-worth Scottish prisoners were taken and transported to the Tower of London for future ransom. The shock of the defeat is supposed to have been so great for the Scottish king, James V, that he died just a few weeks later.

Dec 8  -  Birth of Mary, Queen of Scots 
Mary Stuart was born at Linlithgow Palace in West Lothian, Scotland. She was the daughter of James V, king of Scotland and Mary of Guise, from France. James V died a week after Mary was born and she became Queen of Scotland.

Dec 14  -  Death of James V of Scotland 
The defeat of the Scottish army at Solway Moss a few weeks earlier is supposed to have shocked James V so much that he died. His daughter Mary was only a week or so old when he died and she became queen, known as Mary Queen of Scots. James Hamilton, Earl of Arran became regent of Scotland as Mary was too young to rule.



Events occurring at some time during this year 
Succession to the Crown Act  
An act passed by Parliament specifiying the order of succession to the English throne after the death of Henry VIII. Although Edward was the youngest the order would be Edward, Mary and the Elizabeth.

Jul  -  Treaties of Greenwich 
A treaty was signed by the Scots and Henry VIII swearing firstly peace between the two nations and secondly the agreement that Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, should marry Henry's son Edward. Although these two treaties were initially agreed they had been rejected by the Scots by the end of the year.

Jul 12  -  Marriage of Henry and Catherine Parr 
Episode: Henry VIII and his Six Wives
Henry married Catherine Parr, his sixth and final wife at Hampton Court Palace.

Sep 9  -  Queen Mary's Coronation 
The coronation of Mary, Queen of Scots, took place at Stirling.


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Introduction to Heraldry

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Events occurring at some time during this year 
Construction of Southsea Castle 
Henry VIII built the castle at the entrance to Portsmouth harbour to protect against French invasions.

Construction of Hurst Castle 
Henry VIII built another of his chain of gun-fort castles on the south coast of England on a spit of land stretching out into the Solent.

May  -  Burning of Edinburgh 
After the collapse of the Treaties of Greenwich, which were supposed to bring peace between England and Scotland and the marriage of Prince Edward to Mary, Henry VIII tried to get agreement through force. The King sent the Earl of Hertford (Lord Hertford) with an army to Scotland and in May they attacked and destroyed Edinburgh. This was the first military action in a series of engagements between England and Scotland now known as the Rough Wooing.



Jul 19  -  Sinking of the Mary Rose 
Henry VIII watched from Portsmouth as the flag ship of his navy mysteriously sank with the loss of hundreds of lives.


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Events occurring at some time during this year 
Yarmouth Castle Construction 
The building work at Yarmouth Castle on the Isle of Wight was completed in this year. The castle was one of the gun-forts that Henry VIII had built to defend the south coast of England against invasion from the French.

Jan 28  -  Death of Henry VIII 
Henry died at Whitehall Palace at the age of 55. He was buried in St. George's Chapel Windsor next to Jane Seymour, his favourite wife.

Feb 20  -  Edward VI crowned 
The coronation of Henry VIII's son Edward took place at Westminster Abbey.

Mar 31  -  Death of Francis I 
Francis I, the King of France, died at Rambouillet Castle. He was succeeded by his son Henry.

Apr  -  Catherine Parr marries Thomas Seymour 
Jealous of his elder brother's power Thomas Seymour married Catherine Parr to enter the household of the young King Edward and the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth.

Jul  -  Capture of the castle at St. Andrews  
After a lengthy siege failed to take the well defended castle at St. Andrews, Mary of Guise asked the French for help. The castle at St. Andrews was captured and the Protestant leaders and John Knox were taken into custody.

Sep 10  -  Battle of Pinkie Cleugh 
Thousands of Scots gathered near the town of Musselburgh, just to the east of Edinburgh. They faced an English army led by the Duke of Somerset. The Scots had a good position on the battle field but wasted it when they attacked. The Scots were heavily defeated. The defeat at Pinkie Cleugh was a threat to Queen Mary and so she was secretly moved from Stirling Castle to the Augustinian Inchmahome Priory located on an island on lake Menteith.



Qtr 1  -  Queen Mary moved to Dumbarton Castle 
To comply with the agreement to marry Mary to the French Dauphin, the young queen was moved from Inchmahome Priory to Dumbarton Castle on the banks of the River Clyde on the west of Scotland. It was here that she waited before sailing to France.

Jul  -  The French arrive in Scotland 
The request of the Scottish Regent, Mary of Guise, for help to fight the English was answered by the arrival of a army of several thousand French. The assistance came on condition that her daughter Mary should marry the French Dauphin, Francis.

Aug 7  -  Mary Stuart leaves for France 
Queen Mary was places aboard the French ship at Dumbarton with a large number of her attendants. Along with her went the four Marys. Although the English fleet were directed to stop her they did not manage to find the French ship. A stormy crossing to France left many of the travellers sick.

Aug 13  -  Queen Mary arrives in France 
Queen Mary arrived in France. Four girls all also called Mary and coming from noble families were chosen to accompany the Queen. Known as the 'Four Maries' the girls were Mary Beaton, Mary Fleming, Mary Livingston and Mary Seton. They landed, possibly, at Roscoff on the north-west coast of France.

Aug 20  -  Mary stays at Morlaix 
After the tiring sea journey Mary Stuart remained at a Dominican convent for a few days at Morlaix in northern France to recover.



Summer  -  Kett's Rebelion 
As a result of the Dissolution of the Monasteries land ownership changed and where previously villagers had access to the land it was now fenced off just to allow sheep to graze. This made village life difficult and in East Anglia resulted in a rebellion. Lead by Robert Kett, a landowner himself who had sympathy for the rights of the poor, the rebels set-up camp at Mousehold Heath near Norwich and then took possession of the city itself. An army was sent by the government to put down the rebelion. The rebels were no match for the trained army led by the Earl of Warwick and the leaders were captured. Robert Kett was hanged as a traitor.