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Transport yourself back up to a thousand years and explore historical buildings as they may have appeared in the past.
1300 .. 1324
1300 .. 1324
Please note that the TimeRef website is currently being redesigned.
Edward starts another Scottish campaign
After staying briefly at the Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, Edward I travelled north to Carlisle. His son, Edward (II) of Caernarvon remained at the Abbey for a week longer, living as a monk, before following his father. The king ensured his standard had been blessed by every holy relic that the Abbey possessed.
Caerlaverock Castle siege
After a short siege lasting only 5 days Caerlaverock Castle fell, the Scots giving King Edward I little resistance. Prince Edward of Caernarvon took control of the rearguard of the English army and apart from a small skirmish, saw no action.
The Pope Intervenes
The Pope sent a letter to Edward demanding that he should withdraw from Scotland. Edward ignored the letter, but because the campaign was not a success, the English soon left for England anyway.
After his defeat at Courtrai Philippe IV called on Edward I for a peace treaty. Part to this involved Edward regained some French land and Philippe's daughter, Isabella, marrying Edward's son, the future Edward II, king of England.
Baltic Sea Freezes over
There appears to be a mini ice age during this period (1303 and 1306-7) where the temperatures dropped so far that the Baltic Sea actually froze.
Benedict XI becomes Pope
Battle of Roslin
A Scottish army of around 8,000 men, led by John Comyn and Simon Fraser, defeated an English army of 30,000 men. Roslin is just south and Edinburgh.
John Comyn is appointed regent
The Scots appointed John Comyn as regent and with Sir Simon Frazer he marched south from northern Scotland to repel the English. Segrave was captured by the Scottish forces.
Edward's last campaign in Scotland
William Wallace had returned to Scotland from France where he had been in exile and so Edward took an army into Scotland.
Edward takes Urquhart Castle
As part of Edward's campaign in Scotland he attacked and took control of Urquhart Castle on Loch Ness. Sir Alexander Comyn was left in change.
Edward I reaches Perth
Edward I had reached Perth by June and stayed there until July. In August Edward had besieged Brechin.
Death of Boniface VIII
Boniface, the Pope, died a few weeks after being held captive by supporters of the French King over taxation disputes.
Edward stays at Dunfermline Abbey
Edward spent the winter months at Dunfermline Abbey where he planned the attack on Stirling Castle.
By paying rent to the Bishop of Puy, Philippe added the county of Bigorre to his lands.
Battle of Loudoun Hill
The English were defeated by the Scots at the battle of Loudoun Hill led by Robert I of Scotland.
Death of Edward I
Edward I died at Burgh-upon-the-Sands on the Solway with Scotland in view across the Firth. Right up until his death Edward's priority was the realms that he ruled. After his death Edward's body was embalmed and transported to Waltham Abbey in Essex. Here it lay unburied for several weeks presumably so that people could come and see the body lying in state. After this the body was taken to Westminster Abbey for a proper burial.
Edward II becomes king
Edward the eldest son of Edward I became King of England.
Knights Templar are arrested
King Philippe of France ordered the arrest of all Knight Templars in France. The order to arrest the Templars was sent out several weeks before the date possibly giving the Templars time to hide their wealth.
Edward I buried at Westminster Abbey
After lying in state for several weeks at Waltham Abbey Edward's body was moved to Westminster Abbey for burial.
Robert Bruce captured Urquhart Castle and placed it in the care of Sir Thomas Ranpolph, the Earl of Moray.
Rebuilding work at Exeter Cathedral
At bExeter Cathedral the smaller choir transepts, rood screen and sedilia were all constructed between 1308 and 1326 under Bishop Stapledon.
Lady Chapel built at St. Albans
A Lady Chapel was constructed at St; Albans Abbey.
Edward II marries Isabella of France
Edward II married Isabella of France, the daughter of King Philippe IV of France. The marriage took place at Boulogne and Edward left Gaveston as Regent in his absence. Edward alienated the Lords by placing Gaveston in such a powerful position.
Edward II was crowned at Westminster Abbey. During the ceremony Gaveston was given the honour of carrying the crown. During the banquet that followed the King spent much more time with Gaveston than his wife. The Queen's uncles, who had travelled with her from France, left to report back to the King of France of the King's favouritism for Gaveston over Isabella. As part of the coronation ceremony Edward swore an oath that he should abide by the laws and customs that the community and realm determined.
Parliament angry with the King
The barons appeared at Parliament in April demanding the banishment of Gaveston.
Thomas Earl of Lancaster
King Edward granted his cousin Thomas Earl of Lancaster and his heirs the title of Stewardship of England. Many barons were opposing the King beacuse of his closness to Gaveston and Edward needed some support. This may have been a way of getting Lancaster on his side.
Parliament was unhappy with Gaveston's actions as Regent while Edward was away. Gaveston's closeness to Edward was also distressing for Edward's new wife as well. Parliament concluded that Edward should remove Gaveston and the knight was given the role of Lieutenant of Ireland in order to remove him from England. Gaveston was threatened with excommunication is he did not leave or if he was to return. Edward accompanied Gaveston to Bristol from where he set sail for Ireland.
Robert Bruce was formally recognised as King of Scotland by the Scottish parliament at St. Andrews.
Clement V moves Papacy to Avignon
Parliament agrees to Gaveston's return
In the parliament held in April earlier in the year several demands of reform were put to the King. But Edward said that he would only agree to them if Gaveston were to return from exile. In the April parliament this was rejected, but in a parliament held at Stamford in July agreement was given. Edward had managed to have the threat of excommunication overturned and he managed to get support from some of the barons. The barons hoped that the King and Gaveston had learnt from their mistakes in running the country.
Great Council at York
King Edward summonsed a council to meet at York, but several barons refused to attend due to Gaveston's attandance. Since he had returned from exile Gaveston had returned to his old ways trying to alienate the barons from the King.
Work commenced on the Lady Chapel of Wells Cathedral. This may have taken place been between 1320 and 1330.
Appointment of the Lords Ordainers
The weight of resentment towards Gaveston by the barons led to the creation of a group of twenty-one of their number known as the Lords Ordainers. They were elected to reform the way King Edward II ruled the country, They issued six ordinances almost immediately but the main changes were not put forward until 1311.
Edward campaigns in Scotland
Supported by Earls of Gloucester, Warwick and Cornwall, Edward took an army into Scotland. Edward directed the assaults from Berwick. The campaign was fruitless even though Gaveston managed to reach as far north as Perth.
The conflict within England gave Robert Bruce the opportunity to attack towns and forts in the north of England. He was commonly paid large sums of money by the towns' people to leave them alone. In this way he was able to raise enough money to buy better weapons for his army.
Lancaster's marriage provides more power
The marriage of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster to Alice de Lacy, the heiress of the of the powerful Henry de Lacy, gave the Earl even more titles and properties. One of these properties was Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
Katla Volcano Eruption
Eruption of the large Icelandic volcano.
The rise of Thomas Earl of Lancaster
While Edward II was in Scotland, his Regent, the Earl of Lincoln died. and was replaced by his son-in-law Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. Lancaster became the Earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, but already held the titles of Earl of Leicester and Derby. Holding so many titles, made Lancaster the most powerful Baron of the time. His hatred of Gaveston was to become a major problem for the king.
Lancaster pays homage
Lancaster had to pay homage to the king for the new lands he had received with his new earldoms. Edward was in Scotland but Lancaster refused to leave England and Edward met Lancaster at Haggerston Castle on the border. Gaveston was with the king but Lancaster refused to meet him.
Edward returns to England
Edward II left Scotland and returned to England to attend a session of Parliament. Gaveston was left behind at Bamburgh Castle where he was relatively safe from the Lords Ordainers.
The king was summonsed to a parliament at Westminster in August. The Ordinances were a series of government acts made at the parliament by the Lords Ordinaners to obtain control over King Edward II. This involved increasing their control over Edward's finances and renewing the banishment of Piers Gaveston. King Edward returned slowly from the north arriving several days after the parliament had begun using a pligrimage to Canterbury as an excuse. The King had to agree to the demands.
The Ordinances were publicly proclaimed at Paul's Cross. In addition, Gaveston was ordered to leave the country by the 1st of November and to be stripped of his titles.
Gaveston leaves the country
Gaveston left the country a few days later than he should have done, but even then he didn't go far. By Christmas he had returned to Edward's side and made public appearances with the King. Edward also gave Gaveston his title of Earl of Cornwall back to him.
Edward and Gaveston at Windsor
Gaveston appeared openly at Windsor where the King celebrated Christmas.
Gaveston's return to England forced the Archbishop of Canterbury to honour his threat of excommunication and the Earls to prepare for civil war against the king. Edward and Gaveston travelled to Scotland to seek help from Robert the Bruce but were not welcome.
Edward and Gaveston flee
Edward and Gaveston were at Newcastle when they were alerted to the news that the Earl of Lancaster was heading for them. They escaped down river toTynemouth where the King and Gaveston took a boat to Scarborough leaving behind them everything and everybody including Isabella, Edward's wife. Gaveston took refuge at Scarborough Castle and Edward went to York.
While the Earl of Lancaster set up camp midway between York and Scarborough to prevent Gaveston and the King rejoining, the Earls of Pembroke and Surrey besieged Scarborough castle. The castle was not prepared to withstand the stand-off and Gaveston surrendered after a couple of weeks. The terms of his surrender were generous and Pembroke gave his word that Gaveston would not be harmed until he was presented to Parliament.
The Earl of Pembroke with his captive Gaveston, stopped at Deddington for the night. Pembroke left Gaveston to attend to other matters. The Earl of Warwick took advantage of Pembroke's absence and took Gaveston from his bed. They went to Warwick Castle and Gaveston was thrown in the dungeon. The four Earls, Lancaster, Warwick, Arundel and Hereford took the decision that Gaveston should be punished and took him to Blacklow Hill where he was executed. As Gaveston was under excommunication, the body was not buried straight away.
Future Edward III is born
Edward the future king of England was born at Windsor Castle and was known as Edward Windsor.
Using stealth and surprise tactics Robert Bruce's army recaptured Perth, Dundee, Edinburgh and Roxburgh from English occupation.
Construction of Dunstanburgh Castle
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, started the construction of a castle at Dunstanburgh on the Northumbrian coast.
Stirling Castle Siege
Stirling castle was still under the control of English forces but was under siege from the Scots led by Edward Bruce. Bruce and the English commander, Sir Philippe de Mowbray, came to an agreement that if English forces had not reached the castle by midsummer 1314, Mowbray would surrender the castle to the Scots. Bruce even let Mowbray leave the castle to inform the English king of the agreement.
Edward prepares for invasion
King Edward II called upon the earls to provide men and arms and to meet at Berwick on the 10th of June 1314 to attack the Scots.
To prevent Scottish castles falling into English hands, Robert Bruce ordered that the castles at Roxburgh, Linlithgow and Edinburgh should be destroyed.
Old St. Paul's Cathedral completed
Work on the old St. Paul's Cathedral was finally completed in this year.
Lady Chapel built at Reading
A Lady Chapel was constructed at Reading Abbey.
Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney burnt at the stake.
Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney were burnt at the stake declaring their orthodoxy on an island on the River Seine.
Pope Clement V dies
When the Knight Templar leader Jacques de Molay was burnt at the stake on 12 March 1314 he vowed that the Pope would soon die. Pope Clement V was dead within 40 days.
Edward leaves Berwick
Edward II and his army left Berwick to march to Stirling Castle which they had to reach before midsummer's day if the castle were to be saved from falling back into the hands of the Scots.
Battle of Bannockburn
Forces led by Edward II were defeated by Robert I at Bannockburn. Edward was trying to reach Stirling Castle to relieve the English forces there. This was an important battle for the Scots to win and helped them to make some gains of land in northern England even if the success was short-lived.
Edward loses power to Lancaster
After the defeat at Bannockburn, the death of Gloucester and his army scattered, Edward had to hand power over to the Earl of Lancaster and the Lords Ordainers. Lancaster had kept back his own personal army in readiness for Edward's return and Edward had no option. Lancaster then replaced the Edward's supporters in key seats of power with his own Lancastrian supporters.
Philippe IV, the Fair dies, and is succeeded by Louis X
Philippe, King of France, died of a hunting accident within the same year as the deaths of the Knight Templar leaders at the stake. His was succeeded by his eldest son Louis X.
Edward had delayed having the body of Gaveston buried until he had taken revenge for the murder, but because the King was powerless to act against the Ordainers, he decided to hold a lavish ceremony to bury his dead friend.
Work commenced on the central tower of Wells Cathedral. This needed strengthening and in 1338, new internal arches were added to support the weight.
A year of flood, famine and disease
Natural disasters this year across Europe leading to economic problems.
Lancaster in power
For the whole of 1315 Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster was in control of England and he embarked on a campaign to create a network of supporters in all positions of power. It seems that every section of society had Lancastrians that he could depend on.
Edward Bruce invades Ireland
Edward Bruce landed in Ireland in an attempt to become King of Ireland.
Birth of John of Eltham
While staying at Eltham Palace, Queen Isabella gave birth to a son called John and known as John of Eltham.
Edward II made Hugh Despenser his new Chamberlain.
Treaty of Leake
The Earl of Pembroke and his 'Middle Party' held discussions with the Earl of Lancaster during which it was agreed that a council should be formed that would advise the King, and that the King should not be able to act without the council's advice. Lancaster was also assured that he and his followers would be pardoned for any illegal acts that they may have performed during the time of their power. Lancaster agreed to the Treaty and met Edward to reconcile their differences.
Battle of Faughart
Edward Bruce was defeated and killed at the Battle of Faughart by the English led by John de Birmingham.
The last Scottish town to be held in English hands had been captured by Robert the Bruce. The loss of Berwick brought Edward and Lancaster together. Their common goal was to recapture the town and together with the Earl of Pembroke and Surrey they marched north.
Battle of Myton
While the best of the English army were at Berwick, a Scottish army led by Sir James Douglas invaded Yorkshire. With an untrained army the Archbishop of York, William Melton, tried to fight off the Scots but was defeated at Myton-in-Swalesdale. With the Scots threatening their lands in the north the earls, with Edward at Berwick, abandoned the siege and returned to their homes. Queen Isabella who was in York at the time managed to escape to safety at Nottingham.
The construction of a Lady Chapel at Lichfield Cathedral took place.
Declaration of Arbroath
Robert the Bruce drew up the Declaration of Arbroath which defined Scotland's sovereignty and Robert's right to be King. This was sent to the Pope in the hope that he would lift the excommunication order under which Robert was being held for the death of John Comyn in 1306.
The construction of the Lady Chapel also known as the Trinity Chapel was begun in 1321 at Ely Cathedral. Shortly after work began the central tower fell down damaging the choir area.
Despenser and the Marcher Lords
Hugh Despenser began obtaining lands in South Wales. He did this by exchanging estates he held in England and by obtaining grants from the king. He even obtained the Isle of Lundy. When the last male heir of the Marcher Lord Braose family died, Despenser was able to obtain the land that the family owned in and around Swansea. This angered the other Marcher Lords as they had customs that allowed land to pass into the hands of one another. The Marcher Lords threatened to start a civil war and it was agreed that a Parliament should be called to settle the matter. It was also agreed that Despenser was to be held in custody by Lancaster until the meeting but Despenser refused.
Meeting at Pontefract
Thomas, Earl of Lancester held the first of two meetings to gather support of Barons and the clergy to remove the Despensers from power. The second meeting at Sherborn-in-Elmet near York was held on June 28th.
Parliament at Westminster
Lancaster put a large amount of pressure on Edward to remove the Despensers from power. The Marcher Lords brought a force to London and threats were made that Edward would be removed from the throne if he did not comply.
The Despensers are banished
Both Despensers were banished from England. Hugh, the elder left without any fuss, but his son, Hugh the younger had different ideas and at first was given refuge by sailors of a Cinque Port and then started a spell of piracy.
Siege of Leeds Castle
Edward was forced to lay siege to Leeds Castle after an incident involving his wife Queen Isabella. The Queen had wanted to stay at the castle while travelling to Canterbury but was refused entry by the owners wife. The owner of the castle, who was not there at the time, was Lord Badlesmere, a supporter of Lancaster. When Isabella's men tried to gain access to the castle, some of them were killed. On hearing of the problem, Edward took an army to the castle and after a week broke the siege. Several of the Marcher Lords began to march into England in support of Lord Badlesmere. They only got as far as Kingston-upon-Thames when the siege ended. Edward then had every excuse to engage the Marcher Lords in their act of rebellion.
The collapse of the central crossing tower of Ely Cathedral allowed the construction of the unique Octagon that took its place.
The Despensers return
The Archbishop of Canterbury had ruled that the banishment of the Despensers was illegal at the end of 1321 and as soon as they heard the news, the Despensers returned to England.
Charles IV becomes King of France
King Charles IV succeeds his brother Philippe as King of France.He would reign until 1328.
Edward attacks the Marcher Lords
Edward advanced up the Severn Valley and crossed the river at Shrewsbury. Several of the Marcher Lords surrendered to the King without a fight. Lancaster had moved to his base at Pontefract. The King took time to take control the castles belonging to the Marcher Lords.
Battle of Boroughbridge
Lancaster left his base at Pontract and headed north. At the bridge crossing the river Ure at Boroughbridge he was halted by an army led by Andrew Harcley, the Earl of Carlisle. Harcley held the bridge against Lancaster's attacks and Lancaster was forced to surrender. Lancaster was taken back to Pontefract Castle where Edward had taken control.
Edward finally had his revenge for the death of Gaveston when Thomas, the Earl of Lancaster, was executed outside the walls of Pontefract Castle.
Parliament at York
Edward was now back in control of the country and at the Parliament held at York the rebels who had fought against him were punished, many being executed for treason. The Ordinances against Edward were repealed and those who had supported Edward through the bad times were rewarded. The elder Hugh Despenser was made Earl of Winchester. The younger Despenser was given large amounts of land forfeited by the rebels.
The Scots invade
The two year truce that had been agreed after the failed siege by the English at Berwick expired and Robert the Bruce invaded the north of England.
Edward advances into Scotland
In response to Robert the Bruce's attacks in the north of England, Edward called for an army and took them into Scotland. The Scots were prepared for the English and had burnt land and supplies in front of Edward's army making it difficult for the English to survive.
Edward almost captured
After returning from Scotland, Edward and Queen Isabella rested at Rievaulx Abbey in Yorkshire. The Scots were still nearby and met the English army led by the Earl of Richmond near Old Byland. The Scots defeated the English army and Edward had to flee to escape capture. Isabella too escaped.
Parts of the ceiling of the church collapsed when several columns in the nave fell down.
Edward and Robert the Bruce began negotiations for a peaceful settlement of their differences. There were difficulties because Robert claimed the title of King of Scotland but Edward initially refused this because he had inherited the title from his father Edward I. The execution of the Earl of Carlisle had led to the start of negotiations. Carlisle had approached Robert with the intention of preparing the ground for peace talks but had not informed the king of his intentions. His actions were discovered and the king assumed his actions were treasonable. Carlisle was executed as a traitor.
A thirteen year peace was signed at York between Scotland and England.
Mortimer escapes from the Tower
Mortimer of Wigmore escaped from the Tower of London.