Edward I and Scotland

The Maid of Norway

In 1286 the King of Scotland, Alexander III, died. Alexander's granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway, was the heir to the Scottish throne. Margaret was living in Norway as Alexander's daughter, also called Margaret, had married Eric the King of Norway. Edward I arranged a marriage between Margaret, the Maid of Norway and his young son Prince Edward, the future King of England. This agreement known as the Treaty of Brigham was meant to bring peace between England and Scotland.

In 1290 Margaret sailed from Norway to Scotland but during the journey she became ill and on the Orkney islands she tragically died. There was now no obvious heir to the Scottish throne.

Claimants to the Scottish throne

There were more than 10 claimants who came forward to claim the Scottish throne. Of these the three most important claimants were all descended from David, the Earl of Huntingdon who was the brother of William the Lion, King of Scotland from 1165 until 1214. The three men were John Balliol, Robert Bruce and John Hastings.

Invasion planned

Henry adds Ireland to his domains


1286 Mar 19 Alexander III of Scotland dies
   Alexander III of Scotland died leaving no male heir. Margaret 'Maid of Norway' was next in line for the Scottish throne because her mother was the only child of Alexander that had children.
1290 Jul 18 Treaty of Brigham
   The agreement of the marriage between Margaret Maid of Norway to the first Prince of Wales Prince Edward (II). Margaret was the granddaughter of Alexander III the king of Scotland and was the successor to the Scottish crown. Margaret died on the journey. This led to disputed succession in Scotland.
Sep Margaret, 'Maid of Norway' dies on voyage
   Margaret, the 'Maid of Norway', granddaughter of Alexander III and next in line for the Scottish crown was travelling to Scotland when she died on Orkney during the voyage.
1291 May 10 Edward I meets Scottish Claimants
   Edward I met the claimants for the Scottish crown at Norham. There were three main claimants to the throne all of whom were descended from David Earl of Huntingdon, the brother of William the Lion who died in 1214. The three men were John Balliol, Robert Bruce and John Hastings. The decision was delayed until the following year to allow all the facts to be taken into account.
1292 Nov 17 John Balliol chosen by Edward I as Scottish King
   At Berwick Edward I declared John Balliol to be the new Scottish King.
1294 Edward Balliol asks for resources
   Edward Balliol arrived in London and asked for men and money for Edward's French war.
1295 Oct Treaty Auld Alliance
   John Balliol went to France and arranged the Treaty Auld Alliance (Content ?)
1296 Edward captures Urquhart Castle
   The castle on Loch Ness fell to the English. Sir William Fitz Warine was left in charge of the castle as its Constable.
Apr Balliol: Renounces homage to England
   In March of 1296 Edward I had attacked and sacked Berwick. Balliol renounced homage to England.
Apr 27 Battle of Dunbar
   John Balliol was defeated at the battle of Dunbar by Edward I.
Jul Balliol: Surrenders at Stracathro, Edward takes the Stone of Scone
   The English had taken many castles and in July 1296 Balliol surrendered to Edward I. Balliol was allowed to retire to France some years later. Edward advanced to Elgin and on his return to England took the Stone of Scone.
1297 Sep 11 Battle at Stirling Bridge
   William Wallace and Andrew De Moray leaders of the Scottish revolt in the South and North joined forces and defeated the English army led by Surrey at Stirling. The Scots caught the English forces as they crossed a bridge across the Forth.
1298 May Edward at York
   Edward I held a Parliament at York to discuss the situation in Scotland. It wasn't long before an English army was prepared to go into Scotland.
Jul 22 Battle of Falkirk
   Edward's army defeated Wallace. The battle is dominated by the English and Welsh longbows.
1300 May Edward starts another Scottish campaign
   After staying briefly at the Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, Edward I travelled north to Carlisle. His son, Edward (II) of Caernarvon remained at the Abbey for a week longer, living as a monk, before following his father. The king ensured his standard had been blessed by every holy relic that the Abbey possessed.
Jul Caerlaverock Castle siege
   The castle fell within 5 days and the Scots gave Edward I little resistance. Edward (II) of Caernarvon took control of the rearguard of the English army and apart from a small skirmish, saw no action.
Aug The Pope Intervenes
   The Pope sent a letter to Edward demanding that he should withdraw from Scotland. Edward ignored the letter, but because the campaign was not a success, the English soon left for England anyway.
Oct 30 Truce with the Scots
   Edward arranged a truce and returned to England.
1301 Summer Edward advances into Scotland
   Edward I finds the land laid waste as he advanced into Scotland. At Linlithgow he halted, built a castle where he spent Christmas.
1302 Spring Treaty is signed
   Edward and the Scots signed a peace treaty and John Segrave was left in charge in Scotland with a force of 20,000 men.
1303 Spring John Comyn is appointed regent
   The Scots appointed John Comyn as regent and with Sir Simon Frazer he marched south from northern Scotland to repel the English. Segrave was captured by the Scottish forces.
May Edward's last campaign in Scotland
   William Wallace had returned to Scotland from France where he had been in exile and so Edward took an army into Scotland.
Edward takes Urquhart Castle
   As part of Edward's campaign in Scotland he attacked and took control of Urquhart Castle on Loch Ness. Sir Alexander Comyn was left in change.
Dec Edward stays at Dunfermline Abbey
   Edward spent the winter months at Dunfermline Abbey where he planned the attack on Stirling Castle.
1304 Spring Edward besieges Stirling Castle
   Edward began a siege of Stirling Castle.
Jul Stirling Castle surrenders
   The Scots surrendered Stirling Castle to Edward.
1305 William Wallace captured
   William Wallace was betrayed and captured by the English.
Aug Wallace executed
   William Wallace was tried and executed.
1306 Feb 10 John Comyn murdered by Robert Bruce
   Robert Bruce murdered John Comyn.
Mar 25 Robert Bruce is crowned Robert I of Scotland
   Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland At Scone Abbey.

Medieval Castles


Medieval towns


Medieval villages